saccule

Breathe like a pug.

Pugs and their brachycephalic brethren have a long list of problems, but lets just talk about their airway for a second.

Pugs and other flat-faced dogs have, to varying extents, brachycephalic syndrome. The short version is that these dogs breathe REALLY badly. The long version is that they have up to half a dozen things wrong with their airway that narrows it.

Try this experiment: find yourself a straw, any will do, and breathe through it.
Only breathe through the straw. Try breathing quicker or slower and see how that feels.

How long does it take to become uncomfortable? Do you feel that instant relief when you finally breathe normally?

This is what it feels like for brachycephalic dogs to breathe. This is their reality. Their airway is narrowed, like yours was with the straw. They live like this. We breed them like this.

The sensation you were feeling is called air hunger. It’s beginning to be discussed more often as a welfare issue.

Brachycephalic syndrome consists of a number of abnormalities. Stenotic nares (closed nostrils) can be improved surgically, and affected dogs can still breathe through the mouth. A long soft palate reduces the diameter of the airway, and again can be improved surgically. The everted saccules, which may reduce the diameter of the airway by 50%, can also be removed surgically.

But you cannot fix the hypoplastic trachea. The dog’s windpipe may only be a fifth of the diameter it should be, perpetually restricting the dog’s breathing. They are forever forced to breathe through that straw. There’s nothing you can do about it.

A dog should have a nose. The disturbing trend of breeding flatter faced dogs has reduced the size if the skull, but hasn’t reduced the size of the tongue and soft tissues of the head. This flesh has nowhere to go, except to crowd the airway. Some pugs have so little nasal space that their nasal turbinates, the fine bones inside the nose responsible for the dog’s sense of smell, actually protrude backwards into the pharynx. Up to 30% of pugs were affected in one study.

Look at these skulls, one pug and one airedale terrier. 

The pug’s bones are smaller, and there’s less space within the skull, but both dogs will have the same amount of flesh on the head. On the terrier it will be fairly normal. On the pug it’s packed in like a sleeping bag.

Consider how far their tongue protrudes. That’s how long their skull should really be to be ‘normal’. That’s how much nose is missing.

A dog needs a nose. These free spirits deserve to be able to breathe freely. We should not be breeding dogs to have flat faces because we like the look of it.

If you think we should, then go breathe through a straw.

For twelve years.

Flatposting about 8″ to the Mile

There is a lot of argument about the 8″ to the mile squared formula.

Flat earth memes and convention say that Dr. Samuel Rowbotham’s 8″ to the mile squared is valid. Globers contend that the correct formula instead describes the arc bulge, and the arc bulge formula is the one that should be used when calculating whether long distance proofs of the flat model are valid.

Another Flat adage is that “Horizons rise to eye level”.

This is a double proof of the flat model, firstly that there is such a thing as a Horizontal Horizon, rather than the curve of the ball earth. Secondly that it rises to eye level, as an extended plane does due to perspective.

Thirdly, “eye level” is a reference to the vestibular system, something not much talked about in discussing long distance proofs. The argument about whether 8″ to the mile is valid, and the “eye level” argument are interrelated.

Let’s examine what the 8″ to the mile describes.

Taking a distance of 500 miles squared (250,000 miles), and then multiplying it by 8″ gives us 2,000,000 inches or 31.56 miles. So within a mile or our calculation sheet. Taking a distance of 3000 miles squared (9,000,000 miles) multiplied by 8″ is 72 million inches, gives us 1136 miles - actually less than the correct Pythagorean drop of 1375 miles, so a benefit to the globers.

Overall, we can say that this maxim is correct for a roughly approximate Pythagorean drop. For specific proofs in both the globe and flat camps, it is good practise to use multiple calculators, both Pythagorean and arc bulge.

The arc calculator is more complex and specific. Here is the image that describe’s Mike West’s Metabunk calculator.

The problem with this calculator is that it does not take into account our sense of balance. NASA’s page on the vestibular system describes it usefully as:

 “[being] comprised of three semicircular canals connected to two membranous sacs called the saccule and utricle. The saccule and utricle are often referred to as the otolith organs.

The otolith organs allow us to sense the direction and speed of linear acceleration and the position (tilt) of the head.The semicircular canals allow us to sense the direction and speed of angular acceleration. The semicircular canals are oriented along three planes of movement with each plane at right angles to the other two. Pilots and astronauts call these three planes of rotation pitch (up and down; nod your head “yes”), roll (tumbling left or right; move your head from your left to your right shoulder or vice versa), and yaw (lateral movement left and right; shake your head “no”).”

You know even if you are stood on top of a tall building with no visible horizon due to clouds or atmosphere / atmoslayer in the way where the horizon is, because the fluid in your ear canals acts like a spirit level. You can sense your eye level and declination of your head as you tilt your head forwards.

On the globe, this means that the horizon is projected as a tangent away from the ball earth, like a lighthouse, and the ball earth would decline away from you.


At no point on a sphere can the horizon ever rise to meet your eye level, regardless of how big it is. When you look out of a plane window, you are able to turn your head fully 180 degrees and see the horizon at your eye level without lowering your gaze. The curvature of the plane window glass gives the illusion of the ball earth, but simply turning your head left and right from an aisle seat in the middle of a large aircraft will show you that the earth is a flat, extended plane. Otherwise, you would be able to sense that you are lowering your gaze from the horizontal.


When we apply this to the bulge calculator we see that the 8″ to the mile squared is the better formula, as we already have a spirit level and artificial horizon inside our heads. We can confirm that the Pythagorean theorem is better and accurate simply by using a good theodolite - These surveying tools are often equipped with three spirit level bubbles, and so can measure pitch to within a thousandth of a degree.

The flat camp is proven right as the 8″ to the mile squared correlates with our own inherent biology, but the bulge calculation ignores our innate sense of balance. Here we can illustrate this simply by adding a horizon to the arc bulge calculator. This is not what we experience on our flat plane earth.

WE ARE HERBIVORES

Comparative anatomy, regarding digestion.

Facial Muscles
CARNIVORE: Reduced to allow wide mouth gape
OMNIVORE: Reduced
HERBIVORE: Well-developed
HUMAN: Well-developed

Jaw Type
CARNIVORE: Angle not expanded
OMNIVORE: Angle not expanded
HERBIVORE: Expanded angle
HUMAN: Expanded angle

Jaw Joint Location
CARNIVORE: On same plane as molar teeth
OMNIVORE: On same plane as molar teeth
HERBIVORE: Above the plane of the molars
HUMAN: Above the plane of the molars

Jaw Motion
CARNIVORE: Shearing; minimal side-to-side motion
OMNIVORE: Shearing; minimal side-to-side
HERBIVORE: No shear; good side-to-side, front-to-back
HUMAN: No shear; good side-to-side, front-to-back

Major Jaw Muscles
CARNIVORE: Temporalis
OMNIVORE: Temporalis
HERBIVORE: Masseter and pterygoids
HUMAN: Masseter and pterygoids

Mouth Opening vs. Head Size
CARNIVORE: Large
OMNIVORE: Large
HERBIVORE: Small
HUMAN: Small

Teeth: Incisors
CARNIVORE: Short and pointed
OMNIVORE: Short and pointed
HERBIVORE: Broad, flattened and spade shaped
HUMAN: Broad, flattened and spade shaped

Teeth: Canines
CARNIVORE: Long, sharp and curved
OMNIVORE: Long, sharp and curved
HERBIVORE: Dull and short or long (for defense), or none
HUMAN: Short and blunted

Teeth: Molars
CARNIVORE: Sharp, jagged and blade shaped
OMNIVORE: Sharp blades and/or flattened
HERBIVORE: Flattened with cusps vs complex surface
HUMAN: Flattened with nodular cusps

Chewing
CARNIVORE: None; swallows food whole
OMNIVORE: Swallows food whole and/or simple crushing
HERBIVORE: Extensive chewing necessary
HUMAN: Extensive chewing necessary

Saliva
CARNIVORE: No digestive enzymes
OMNIVORE: No digestive enzymes
HERBIVORE: Carbohydrate digesting enzymes
HUMAN: Carbohydrate digesting enzymes

Stomach Type
CARNIVORE: Simple
OMNIVORE: Simple
HERBIVORE: Simple or multiple chambers
HUMAN: Simple

Stomach Acidity
CARNIVORE: Less than or equal to pH 1 with food in stomach
OMNIVORE: Less than or equal to pH 1 with food in stomach
HERBIVORE: pH 4 to 5 with food in stomach
HUMAN: pH 4 to 5 with food in stomach

Stomach Capacity
CARNIVORE: 60% to 70% of total volume of digestive tract
OMNIVORE: 60% to 70% of total volume of digestive tract
HERBIVORE: Less than 30% of total volume of digestive tract
HUMAN: 21% to 27% of total volume of digestive tract

Length of Small Intestine
CARNIVORE: 3 to 6 times body length
OMNIVORE: 4 to 6 times body length
HERBIVORE: 10 to more than 12 times body length
HUMAN: 10 to 11 times body length

Colon
CARNIVORE: Simple, short and smooth
OMNIVORE: Simple, short and smooth
HERBIVORE: Long, complex; may be sacculated
HUMAN: Long, sacculated

Liver
CARNIVORE: Can detoxify vitamin A
OMNIVORE: Can detoxify vitamin A
HERBIVORE: Cannot detoxify vitamin A
HUMAN: Cannot detoxify vitamin A

Kidney
CARNIVORE: Extremely concentrated urine
OMNIVORE: Extremely concentrated urine
HERBIVORE: Moderately concentrated urine
HUMAN: Moderately concentrated urine

Nails
CARNIVORE: Sharp claws
OMNIVORE: Sharp claws
HERBIVORE: Flattened nails or blunt hooves
HUMAN: Flattened nails

Thankyou Evette Carter for this awesome info.

hallstein  asked:

My family is one of those "get a breed and stick to it forever" kinds. And our breed of choice is the Boston Terrier. Would you kindly do a write up on them? Based on my own observations I'm guessing cancer is more common. No rush or anything though. (came for vet knowledge... stayed for vet knowledge)

Bostons are not as common here as French Bulldogs are becoming, but I still see a few. Small, brachycephalic breeds are steadily growing in popularity

Please note the disclaimer. These posts are about the breed from a veterinary viewpoint as seen in clinical practice, i.e. the problems we are faced with. It’s not the be-all and end-all of the breed and is not to make a judgement about whether the breed is right for you. If you are asking for an opinion about these animals in a veterinary setting, that is what you will get. It’s not going to be all sunshine and cupcakes, and is not intended as a personal insult against your favorite breed. This is general advice for what is common, often with a scientific consensus but sometimes based on personal experiences, and is not a guarantee of what your animal is going to encounter in their life. 

Originally posted by pime

Brachycephalic Airway Syndrome (BAS) is a major ethical and welfare issue for this breed, as it is for many extremely brachycephalic dogs. While individuals may vary in terms of how extreme their anatomy is, the general public wants dogs with flat faces. This often results in dogs with stenotic nares (pinched nostrils), elongated soft palates, hypoplastic tracheas (a wind pipe that is too small). Secondary changes may include everted laryngeal saccules and they are prone to regurgitation.

Affected dogs will often struggle in hot weather and with increased exercise, and it’s not uncommon to see them affected by heat stroke. While surgery can be performed to reduce some features of this condition, it can’t improve all of them, and there is an increasing push from veterinary and welfare groups to breed these dogs with longer noses and better airways.

Boston Terriers commonly present to the vet clinic with atopy or allergies. For most of them this is a seasonal allergy to grass, pollen, or other substances they are coming into contact with. Relatively few by comparison have a dietary allergy.

Skin fold pyoderma is also very common where excessive skin folds of the face trap moisture and become infected. Cleaning these skin folds helps, but require ongoing maintenance.

Deafness is reported to be more common in the breed, though I’ve not encountered it yet.

Demodex mange is also reported to be in the breed, but again I haven’t encountered it yet. This may be because more over-the-counter flea products coincidentally treat demodex, so some dogs are probably being accidentally treated before they become clinical.

From a skeletal point of view, medial patella luxation is the most common issue. This condition involved the kneecap being out of its usual position. Some dogs with mild cases are not majorly affected, but others require surgery.

Intervertebral disc disease (and prolapse) is less common, but common enough for this breed to regularly present to specialists for spinal surgery. In some cases this is related to congenital deformities like hemi-vertebrae, which may be related to the short tails, but in some cases it is not. Miniature breeds in general seem predisposed to IVDD.

On the inside they are somewhat prone to mitral valve disease, a cardiac condition that develops with old age.

Their eyes often present varied and chronic problems as well. Individuals with more bulging eyes are prone to exposure keratopathy. This occurs when the eyes dry out because they are too exposed. Occasionally you will find an individual dog with eyes so bulgy that their eyelids can’t close completely. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is also relatively common, where the dog’s stop producing adequate tear production, for whatever reason (usually auto-immune). They are also prone to cherry eye, glaucoma, corneal dystrophy and progressive retinal atrophy, but to be honest if refer a lot of these dogs if they have more than one ocular condition.

hey guys, just an update on Cali, she will be going into surgery on Tuesday the 22nd, she will be having a number of procedures done while shes in. 

she will be having the  brachycephalic airway procedure done which includes:- 


  • Elongated soft palate  is a condition where the soft palate is too long so that the tip of it protrudes into the airway and interferes with movement of air into the lungs.
  • Stenotic Nares  are malformed nostrils that are narrow or collapse inward during inhalation, making it difficult for the dog to breathe through its nose.
  • Everted Laryngeal Saccules is a condition in which tissue within the airway, just in front of the vocal cords, is pulled into the trachea (windpipe) and partially obstructs airflow. 

after all of this is done, Cali’s quality of life will be much better, she will be able to be active without over heating and struggling to breathe, she wont have sleep apnea (cali occasionally stops breathing when shes sleeping for 20 second intervals or until i wake her) 

I would just like to thank you for donating to her surgery, without your help Cali wouldnt be able to get the surgery done as fast as it has been. I truly appreciate you all, and thank you for keeping Cali in your thoughts xxxxxx 

The saccule is a bed of sensory cells situated in the inner ear. The saccule translates head movements into neural impulses which the brain can interpret. The saccule is sensitive to linear translations of the head, specifically movements up and down (for example, moving on an elevator). When the head moves vertically, the sensory cells of the saccule are disturbed and the neurons connected to them begin transmitting impulses to the brain. These impulses travel along the vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve to the vestibular nuclei in the brainstem.
The vestibular system is important in maintaining balance, or equilibrium. The vestibular system includes the saccule, utricle, and the three semicircular canals. The vestibule is the name of the fluid-filled, membranous duct than contains these organs of balance. The vestibule is encased in the temporal bone of the skull.