The second one! Kostroma (rus. Кострома) — is an East-Slavic deity, a personification of sping and fertility, who was traditionally portrayed as a beautiful young woman in white clothes with an oaken branch in her hands. She was always followed by a women’s khorovod (rus. хоровод — a slavic folk dance, during which dancers form a big circle). In Kostroma’s presence everything in the nature was given a new life: herbs begun to bloom, birds flew back to their nests.
With the beginning of a summer season, however, people arranged a magnificent ritual funeral, during which they burned/drowned/buried Kostroma, depicted by a giant straw doll, as it was giving a fertility and wealth to the earth.
Anyways, slavs deeply believed that Kostroma shall resurrect by the next spring.
P.S. God damn, the word “ khorovod” looks monstrous when written in English)
The primeval Slavic goddess. Believed to be the first strictly personified goddess in Russian history, Mokosh was a goddess of the waters of life, the earth (especially fertility in the earth) fate and spinning. Later, she evolved into more “feminine” dominions, and the people dismissed some of her vastness, setting her up to be more as an example for women than as a sacred and awe-inspiring deity. Worship and recognition of her has increased rapidly in the past 20 years over many parts of Russia.
This object is from the collection of Natalia de Shabelsky (1841-1905), a
Russian noblewoman compelled to preserve what she perceived as the
vanishing folk art traditions of her native country. Traveling
extensively throughout Great Russia, she collected many fine examples of
textile art of the wealthy peasant class. From the 1870s until moving
to France in 1902, Shabelsky amassed a large collection of intricately
embroidered hand-woven household textiles and opulent festival garments
with rich decoration and elaborate motifs. The Brooklyn Museum holdings
include many fine examples including the majority of the garments.
Portions of Shabelsky’s collection are also housed at the Museum of Fine
Arts, Boston, the Cleveland Art Museum, and the Russian Museum of
Ethnography in St. Petersburg.
Depictions of the goddess are
common in Russian embroidery, traditionally associated with fertility.
Birds are associated with goddess worship for their proximity to divine
beings through their home in the sky. A smaller daughter or minor
goddess often accompanies the great goddess in embroideries intended to
represent reproductive fertility. This language of visual motifs
originated in Pagan times and continued to be used in embroidery after
the Christianization of Russia. Later depictions of the goddess are very
stylized, resembling a plant or tree of life, as in this example.