1. Austrian Empire: Crown of Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor
2. German Empire: German State Crown
3. Russian Empire: Great Imperial Crown
4. Kingdom of Hungary: Holy Crown of Saint Stephen
5. German Empire: Crown of the German Empress
6. Kingdom of Bohemia: Crown of St. Wenceslas
7. Kingdom of Prussia: Crown of Wilhelm II
8. German Empire: Crown of the Crown Prince
9. Kingdom of Bavaria: Royal crown of Bavaria
10. United Kingdom: Crown of St. Edward
11. United Kingdom: Crown of Queen Victoria
12. Kingdom of Italy: Royal crown of Italy
13. Archduchy of Austria: Archducal coronet
14. Kingdom of Sweden: Crown of the Swedish Crown Prince
15. Kingdom of Romania: Steel Crown of Romania

From Hugo Gerhard Ströhl’s Heraldic Atlas, 1899


The last Emperor of Russia, Nicholas II, exchanging kisses with soldiers. Although cheek kissing is not as widely practiced in some parts of Europe, it is still commonplace. It is mostly used as a greeting and/or a farewell, but can also be offered as a congratulation or as a general declaration of friendship. Cheek kissing is associated with the middle and upper classes, as they are more influenced by French culture. It’s a tradition in Russia to kiss on alternate cheeks three times, instead of one or two.

Emperador Nicolás II de Rusia, Rey de Polonia y Gran Príncipe de Finlandia
Импера́тор Николай II России, Царь Польский и Великий Князь Финляндский
Imperator Nicolaus II Russiae, Rex Poloniae et Magnus Princeps Finlandiae
Kaiser Nikolaus II. von Russland, König von Polen und Großfürst von Finnland
Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, King of Poland and Grand Prince of Finland
Empereur Nicolas II de Russie, Roi de Pologne et Grand Prince de Finlande

Andrey Alekseyevich Shishkin (1960- ), 2013.


Vasily Vereshchagin’s “Turkestan Series” - Part One

Vasily Vereshchagin was a famous Russian Orientalist painter who in 1867 was invited by the military governor of Turkestan, Konstantine Kaufmann. The work inspired by his visit that followed became known as the “Turkestan series” which includes scenes of daily life and the Russian Empire’s war of conquest in Central Asia. Vereshchagin himself took part in the defense of Samarkand against the Bukharan Emir’s army in 1868, was wounded in the course of the battle, for which he was awarded the Order of St. George. Vereshchagin returned to St. Petersburg at the end of 1868 and began to work on the paintings. After holding an exhibition of his work in 1869, he returned once more to Turkestan.


During her reign, Empress Elizabeth transformed a small summer palace into a splendid residence which eclipsed the fame of many European royal residences. The reign of Elizabeth I was a golden age of Russian Barocco. This elegant, exuberant style with elaborate ornamentation and dramatic lighting effects matched perfectly well the character of the empress. She was walking through the golden enfilade admiring her reflection in multiple mirrors. Today, this luxurious palace has become known as the Catherine Palace, named after Elizabeth’s mother, Empress Catherine I.

Source: baltic-vacation.com