Timeline of Chechen History

1585: Ottoman Empire lays claim to the region that is now Chechnya

1722–1723: Russo-Persian War pits the Safavid dynasty in Iran against Peter the Great’s Russian Empire

1783: Treaty of Georgievsk cedes the North Caucasus to the Russian Empire

1784: Sheikh Mansur leads the first Chechen rebellion against the Russians

1785: Russians suffer disastrous defeat at the hands of Chechen rebels at the Battle of the Sunja

1817–1864: Caucasus War occurs; Russians exterminate Circassian population, defeat Islamic insurgents, seize all of the Caucasus region

1818: Russians found strategic military base called Groznaya in Chechnya. It later becomes the site for the city of Grozny

1834–1859: Imam Shamil of the North Caucasus leads rebellion (called the Murid War) against the Russians; Russians crush rebel opposition and yet again lay claim to the Caucasus region

1859: Chechnya formally annexed into the Russian Empire

1862: Chechnya is occupied in its entirety by Russian forces

1877–1878: Chechen revolt against occupying Russian forces begins and is quickly stamped out

1917: Chechnya joins the “Union of the Peoples of the North Caucasus”, also known as the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus (MRNC), the Mountain Republic, or the Republic of the Mountaineers

1918: Tsarist Russia collapses; the MRNC declares independence

1918–1922: Russian Civil War occurs

1920: Bolshevik forces occupy the North Caucasus, including Chechnya

1921: The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus becomes the Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Mountain ASSR)

1924: Mountain ASSR is liquidated and divided into several small constituent republics; Chechnya becomes the Chechen Autonomous Oblast, thereby reducing the self-governance of Chechnya

1934: The Chechen Autonomous Oblast is merged with the neighboring Ingush Autonomous Oblast to form the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Oblast (real creative)

1936: The Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Oblast is reformed into the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Chechen-Ingush ASSR), restoring some self-governance

1944: Chechen-Ingush ASSR is dissolved; by Stalin’s order, the entirety of the Chechen population is deported under accusation of collaboration with German forces

1956: Chechens are permitted to begin the return home

1957: Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev restores the Chechen-Ingush ASSR

1991: Presidential elections are held for the first time in Chechnya; Dzhokhar Dudayev wins and declares independence, but Russian President Boris Yeltsin refuses to acknowledge the claim

1992: Constituent elements of the Russian Federation sign a new federation treaty, except for Chechnya and Tatarstan; Ingushetia and Chechnya split from the Russian Federation, the latter declares itself an independent state, which Russia refuses to accept

1994: The Russian-backed Provisional Chechen Council launches coup and promptly fails; Russia then mobilizes troops and invades Chechnya “to invade constitutional order”

1995: Chechen fighters seize hundreds of hostages at Budennovsk Hospital, resulting in 140 deaths and 415 injuries; cease-fire is established in July, but falls apart in December

1996: Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudayev is killed by a Russian missile and succeeded by Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev; in August, Chechen rebels seize Grozny from Russian forces; in November, a peace settlement is agreed upon by both sides, effectively ending the First Chechen war

1997: Aslan Maskhadov wins the Chechen presidential election, which Russia recognizes; Boris Yeltsin and Maskhadov sign peace accords

1998: Three Britons and a New Zealander working for a telecom company hired by the Chechen government to install telephone lines are kidnapped, spend two months in captivity, and then brutally beheaded

1999: Chechen extremists launch a cross-border attack into Dagestan and commit a series of apartment bombings in Russia; Vladimir Putin, appointed Russian Prime Minister, replaces Boris Yeltsin as acting Russian President; Russian troops move into Chechnya; the Second Chechen War begins

2000: Russian forces seize Grozny; after winning the presidential election, Putin announces a plan for direct rule of Chechnya; a Russian-backed government, headed by Akhmad Kadyrov, is established in Grozny

2002: Chechen terrorists seize the Dubrovka theater in Moscow, holding 800 people hostage, of which 133 are killed

2003: A new Chechen constitution is ratified by the Russian-backed government

2004: A suicide bomber kills Chechen President Akhmad Kadyrov; terrorists later seize a school in Beslan, resulting in 385+ deaths and 783 injuries

2005: Chechen rebel leader Aslan Maskhadov is killed

2006: Ramzan Kadyrov, son of Akhmad Kadyrov and a former rebel himself, becomes Chechen Prime Minister

2007: Kadyrov becomes appointed President of Chechnya

2009: Russia declares the “counter-terrorism operation” in Chechnya is finally over; the Second Chechen War ends

— THE RUSSIAN HERO OF PALMYRA —

“This is the Good Guy who called an airstrike on himself in order to take out dozens of ISIS thugs who had him trapped. Alexander Prokhorenko, 25, ended his own life in a bid to wipe out ISIS thugs by calling in Russian warplanes to bomb his location. Pictured wearing his uniform, the hero smiles beside his pregnant wife Ekaterina who is carrying their first child. His wife reportedly had ‘no idea’ her husband was serving in Syria. Alexander is the brave Russian special forces soldier who was on a Good Guys-style one man mission to hunt for ISIS militants died a "hero” after calling in an airstrike on HIMSELF died in the blast.“

3

AS Val & VSS ‘Vintorez’

Developed during the early 1980s by the 1980s by the state-owned TsNIITochMash (Central Institute for Precision Machine Building) the AS Val and VSS were specially designed to fill the Russian special forces and intelligence agencies need for a suppressed assault rifle and marksman’s rifle. The Val has an integral suppressor and spurred development of a family of suppressed weapons. With the increasing use of body armour by NATO forces Russian special forces teams requested a silent weapon which had the capability of also penetrating armour, while offering the firepower needed for covert infiltration operations against NATO command and control centres. The Soviets developed two new 9x39 mm armour piercing rounds: SP-6 for suppressed assault rifles and the more accurate SP-5 for suppressed sniper rifles.

Russian troops with an AS Val (source)

The VSS and AS Val began development in the mid 1980s with the Val adapted into the assault rifle role and officially adopted in 1987. The VSS shares approximately 70-75% parts commonality with the Val with some differences in stock furniture and optics mounts to allow it to fill a designated marksman role. Both are select fire and have integral suppressors which use a conventional ported barrel, expansion chamber and baffle system layout. The AS Val and VSS proved to be very effective and remain in service with elements of the Russian military, special forces, intelligence and security forces. The suppressed rifles were first fielded during the last years of the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan and were later extensively used during the Chechen Wars and during the conflict in Georgia. Most recently they have seen action during Russia’s interventions in the Crimea and Syria. 

During the early 1990s the VSS and AS Val were also supplemented with the lower cost VSK-94 (see image #3). The VSK-94 is based on the 9A-91 carbine and its suppressor is not integral.

Sources:

Top: AS Val (source)
Middle: VSS (
source) 
Bottom: VSK-94 (source)

Guns of the Spetsnaz: Specially Designed Silenced Long Guns, Small Arms Defense Journal, M. Popenker (source)

Spetsnaz “Vintorez” is able to “remove” the enemy without the noise and dust, tvzvezda.ru, D.Yurov (source)


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