Ruby Payne-Scott (1912-1981) was the first female radio astronomer. She was a pioneer of the field, one of the first scientists to consider the possibility of studying celestial objects through radio frequencies.

She studied at the University of Sydney, and later started working at the Cancer Research Laboratory of the institute. She made significant contributions to solar radio astronomy, and discovered Type I and Type II bursts. During World War II she performed top secret work, and was involved in the detection of aircraft through radar displays.