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West Indian Terms of Igbo origin

Some common words still used in Caribbean English[es] that come directly from the Igbo language or are influenced by it.

Unu/Wunna

‘You [plural]’, the same in Igbo, únù, wunna may be used, in Nigerian pidgin English una is used.

Soso

‘Only’, ‘single’, in Igbo orthography it’s sọsọ [saw-saw] meaning the same. [Not to be confused with English so-so, meaning average or mediocre]

De

‘Is’, ‘presently’ / ‘positioned in’, in Igbo orthography dị [dih], also in Nigerian pidgin as de.

Se

‘say’, ‘said’, also from English, Igbo sị.

Atoo

‘chewing stick’, Igbo atụ [atuh]

Béké

‘White person’, in Igbo orthography bèké, meaning white person but also generally western or European, used in the French Antilles including Dominica [Roseau]. 

Big Eye

‘greedy’, ‘envious’, a calque of Igbo ányá úkwú [lit. ‘eye big’] meaning the same.

Poto poto

‘mud’, ‘muddy’, Igbo mkpọtọ mkpọtọ, meaning the same.

Okro

Igbo ọkrọ [aw-kraw] or ọkwụru, plant known to some as ‘lady fingers’.

Obeah

‘shamanism’, ‘witchcraft’, in Igbo orthography ọbia [aw-bia] meaning ‘oracle’ or ‘doctoring’, practitioners in Igbo are known as dibia [di ọbia].


Possibilities:

Awoh

An exclamation, in Igbo it’s ewo and usually used in the same context. Ex: Ihe ị dere ebe a hikwara nne, ewo! [This list is quite long, ewo!]

Ah

[particle] ‘is’, ‘will’, in Igbo orthography á [alternating tone], gá in Igbo is ‘go’ in the example: ‘to go’, CE: ah go; Igbo: a ga. / ‘is he going?’, Caribbean English (CE): him ah go? Igbo: ọ na à ga?.

Nah

‘will not’, in Igbo nà is ‘is’, à at the end makes it negative, together it’s na with a long ‘a’, same meaning. Example: ‘I’m not going’ CE: Me nah go; Igbo: A na’m a ga.

Go

‘going to’, ‘will’, Igbo ‘ga’, Example: ‘he will come’ CE: him ah go come; Igbo: ọ ga a bia [which is word for word if you switch around the ‘ah’ and ‘go’].

Source: Holloway, Joseph E. (2005). Africanisms in American culture; Cassidy, Frederic Gomes; Page, Robert Brock Le (2002). A Dictionary of Jamaican English; McWhorter, John H. (2000). The Missing Spanish Creoles: Recovering the Birth of Plantation Contact Languages; Menz, Jessica (2008). London Jamaican-Jamaican Creole in London.

Bad stuff in the Caribbean

Why is it so difficult to get news from Puerto Rico, Dominica, the Virgin Islands and other Caribbean nations and territories. Is it because the communication network isn’t so good, or is it because the media doesn’t care as much about those spots as the media cares about the mainland US, or both? Or something else?

Facing the damage on Wednesday in Roseau, on Dominica. A government spokesman said Hurricane Maria had killed 14 people on the island nation. CreditAgence France-Presse — Getty Images

Humacao, Puerto Rico

San Juan, Puerto Rico

Le Carbet, Martinique

Luquillo, Puerto Rico

Fajardo, Puerto Rico

Guayama, Puerto Rico

Hurricane Maria barrels into the Caribbean

Rescuers fanned out to reach stunned victims Thursday after Hurricane Maria ravaged Puerto Rico, knocking out electricity to the entire island and triggering landslides and floods.

The extent of the damage is unknown given that dozens of municipalities remained isolated and without communication after Maria hit the island Wednesday morning as a Category 4 storm with 155 mph winds, the strongest hurricane to hit Puerto Rico in over 80 years.

Uprooted trees and widespread flooding blocked many highways and streets across the island, creating a maze that forced drivers to go against traffic and past police cars that used loudspeakers to warn people they must respect a 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. curfew imposed by the governor to ensure everyone’s safety.

“This is going to be a historic event for Puerto Rico,” said Abner Gomez, the island’s emergency management director.

President Donald Trump approved a federal disaster declaration for Puerto Rico.

Previously a Category 5 with 175 mph (281 kph) winds, Maria hit Puerto Rico as the third-strongest storm to make landfall in the U.S., based on its central pressure. It was even stronger than Hurricane Irma that storm roared into the Florida Keys earlier this month.

Maria has caused at least 10 deaths across the Caribbean, including seven in the hard-hit island of Dominica and two in the French Caribbean territory of Guadeloupe. Puerto Rico’s governor told CNN one man died after being hit by flying debris. No further details were available, and officials could not be immediately reached for comment.

Maria weakened to a Category 2 storm later in the day but re-strengthened to Category 3 status early Thursday with winds of 115 mph (185 kph). It was centered about 70 miles (110 kilometers) north of Punta Cana, Dominican Republic, and moving northwest near 9 mph (15 kph). (AP)

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San Juan, Puerto Rico

A mattress, that fell from the third floor lays at ground level surrounded with debris from neighboring apartments at Ciudadela complex in Santurce, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Sept. 20, 2017. (Photo: Dennis M. Rivera Pichardo for The Washington Post via Getty Images)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Guayama, Puerto Rico

Agapito Lopez looks at the damage in his house after the area was hit by Hurricane Maria in Guayama, Puerto Rico, Sept. 20, 2017. (Photo: Carlos Garcia Rawlins/Reuters)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

San Juan is seen during a blackout after Hurricane Maria made landfall on Sept. 20, 2017 in Puerto Rico. (Photo: Alex Wroblewski/Getty Images)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Punta Cana, Dominican Republic

Locals rest inside a shelter before the arrival of the Hurricane Maria in Punta Cana, Dominican Republic, Sept. 20, 2017. (Photo: Ricardo Rojas/Reuters)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Roseau, Dominica

View of damage caused the day before by Hurricane Maria in Roseau, Dominica, on Sept. 20, 2017. (STR/AFP/Getty Images)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Humacao, Puerto Rico

Rescue team members Candida Lozada, left, and Stephanie Rivera, second from left, Mary Rodriguez, second from right, and Zuly Ruiz, right, embrace as they wait to assist in the aftermath of Hurricane Maria in Humacao, Puerto Rico, Wednesday, Sept. 20, 2017. (Photo: Carlos Giusti/AP)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Luquillo, Puerto Rico

Concrete power line poles lies on a highway after the area was hit by Hurricane Maria in Luquillo, Puerto Rico on Sept. 20, 2017. (Photo: Ricardo Arduengo/AFP/Getty Images)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Bavaro, Dominican Republic

A woman covers herself with a plastic bag as she makes her way to work as Hurricane Maria approaches the coast of Bavaro, Dominican Republic, Wednesday, Sept. 20, 2017. (Photo: Tatiana Fernandez/AP)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Damages are seen in a supermarket after the area was hit by Hurricane Maria in Guayama, Puerto Rico, Sept. 20, 2017. (Photo: Carlos Garcia Rawlins/Reuters)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

A woman reacts while she looks at the damages in the house of her mother after the area was hit by Hurricane Maria in Guayama, Puerto Rico, Sept. 20, 2017. (Photo: Carlos Garcia Rawlins/Reuters)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Fajardo, Puerto Rico

Flooded roads are seen as Hurricane Maria hits Puerto Rico in Fajardo, on Sept. 20, 2017. (Photo: Ricardo Arduengo/AFP/Getty Images)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Men walk damaged trees after the passage of Hurricane Maria, in San Juan, Puerto Rico, on Sept. 20, 2017. (Photo: Hector RetamalAFP/Getty Images)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

People walk next to a gas station flooded and damaged by the impact of Hurricane Maria, which hit the eastern region of the island, in Humacao, Puerto Rico, Wednesday, September 20, 2017. (Photo: Carlos Giusti/AP)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

North Sound, Antigua and Barbuda

Barbuda resident Diamn Beazer (third in line) waits for food at a shelter in the Sir Vivian Richards Cricket Stadium on Sept. 20, 2017 in North Sound, Antigua and Barbuda. Refugees from the island of Barbuda are been housed after the government ordered a mandatory evacuation in response to Hurricane Irma’s devastation of the Caribbean Island. (Photo: Jose Jimenez/Getty Images)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

A man tries to salvage a table belonging to his restaurant before the arrival of Hurricane Maria in Punta Cana, Dominican Republic, Sept. 20, 2017. (Photo: Ricardo Rojas/Reuters)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

Workers of the Social State Plan prepare food rations in preparation for Hurricane Maria in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, Sept. 19, 2017. (Photo: Ricardo Rojas/Reuters)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Damage and flooded streets are seen after the area was hit by Hurricane Maria in Guayama, Puerto Rico on Sept. 20, 2017. (Photo: Carlos Garcia Rawlins/Reuters)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Rain and wind hit a parking lot at Roberto Clemente Coliseum in San Juan, Puerto Rico, on September 20, 2017, during the passage of the Hurricane Maria. (Photo: Hector Retamal/AFP/Getty Images)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Hurricane Maria hits Puerto Rico in Fajardo on September 20, 2017. Maria made landfall on Puerto Rico on Wednesday, pummeling the US territory after already killing at least two people on its passage through the Caribbean. The US National Hurricane Center warned of “large and destructive waves” as Maria came ashore near Yabucoa on the southeast coast. (Photo: Ricardo Arduengo/AFP/Getty Images)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

A man passes through a door at Roberto Clemente Coliseum in San Juan, Puerto Rico, which suffered damages from wind on September 20, 2017, during the passage of the Hurricane Maria. (Photo: Hector Retamal/AFP/Getty Images)

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A parking lot is flooded near Roberto Clemente Coliseum in San Juan, Puerto Rico, on Sept. 20, 2017, during Hurricane Maria. (Photo: Hector Retamal/AFP/Getty Images)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Damage in the Miramar neighborhood is seen from inside the Ciqala hotel as Hurricane Maria bears down September 20, 2017 in San Juan, Puerto Rico. (Photo: Alex Wroblewski/Getty Images)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Trees are toppled in a parking lot at Roberto Clemente Coliseum in San Juan, Puerto Rico, on Sept. 20, 2017, during the passage of the Hurricane Maria. (Photo: Hector Retamal/AFP/Getty Images)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Hurricane Maria and Hurricane Jose in the Atlantic Ocean

Hurricane Maria which bore down menacingly on the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico on Tuesday after devastating the tiny island nation of Dominica and Hurricane Jose (top) are both seen in the Atlantic Ocean in this NOAA’s GOES East satellite image taken at 21:45 p.m. EDT on September 19, 2017 (0145 UTC, September 20, 2017). (Photo: NASA/NOAA GOES via Reuters)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

A photographer and police officers look as trees are toppled in a parking lot at Roberto Clemente Coliseum in San Juan, Puerto Rico, on Sept. 20, 2017, during the passage of the Hurricane Maria. (Photo: Hector Retamal/AFP/Getty Images)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

A woman sits in a couch at Roberto Clemente Coliseum, the biggest shelter in the island. Hurricane Irma is been expected over this night and tomorrows early morning. San Juan Sept. 19, 2017. (Photo: Dennis M. Rivera Pichardo for The Washington Post via Getty Images)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Le Carbet, Martinique

People stand next to debris at a restaurant in Le Carbet, on the French Caribbean island of Martinique, after it was hit by Hurricane Maria, on Sept. 19, 2017. (Photo: Lionel Chamoiseau/AFP/Getty Images)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Pointe-a-Pitre, Guadeloupe

A flooded road and a bus stop are pictured on Boulevard Chanzy in downtown Pointe-a-Pitre on Sept. 19, 2017 in the French territory of Guadeloupe after the passage of Hurricane Maria. (Photo: Cedrick Isham Calvados/AFP/Getty Images)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Viard – Petit Bourg, Guadeloupe

An uprooted tree covers a small wooden and iron house in the village of Viard – Petit Bourg, near Pointe-a-Pitre, on Sept. 19, 2017 in the French territory of Guadeloupe after the passage of Hurricane Maria. (Photo: Cedrick Isham Calvados/AFP/Getty Images)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Rocks lay swept by strong waves onto a road in Le Carbet, on the French Caribbean island of Martinique, after it was hit by Hurricane Maria, on Sept. 19, 2017. (Photo: Lionel Chamoiseau/AFP/Getty Images)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Saint-Pierre, Martinique

A man clears debris from a street in Saint-Pierre, on the French Caribbean island of Martinique, after it was hit by Hurricane Maria, on Sept. 19, 2017. (Photo: Lionel Chamoiseau/AFP/Getty Images)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Sainte-Anne, Guadeloupe

A boat lays on its side off the shore of Sainte-Anne on the French Caribbean island of Guadeloupe, early Tuesday, Sept. 19, 2017, after the passing of Hurricane Maria. (Photo: Dominique Chomereau-Lamotte/AP)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Saint Jean Bay, St. Barthelemy

Rain brought by approaching Hurricane Maria falls in Saint Jean Bay, St. Barthelemy, part of the French Antilles, Tuesday, Sept. 19, 2017.(Photo: Enrico Dagnino via AP)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Fort-de-France, Martinique

A motorist drives on the flooded waterfront in Fort-de-France, on the French Caribbean island of Martinique, after it was hit by Hurricane Maria, on Sept. 19, 2017. (Photo: Lionel Chamoiseau/AFP/Getty Images)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe

Powerful winds and rains of hurricane Maria battering the city of Petit-Bourg on the French overseas Caribbean island of Guadeloupe on Sept. 19, 2017. (Photo: Cedrik-Isham Calvados/AFP/Getty Images)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

A resident stands at her doorstep as she looks at strong waves in Saint-Pierre, on the French Caribbean island of Martinique, after it was hit by Hurricane Maria, on Sept. 19, 2017. (Photo: Lionel Chamoiseau/AFP/Getty Images)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Guadeloupe

Boats remain anchored in a wharf as Hurricane Maria approaches in Guadeloupe island, France, Sept. 18, 2017. (Photo: Andres Martinez Casares/Reuters)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

A car passes next to a banner warning of a “Red Alert” for rains as Hurricane Maria approaches in Pointe-a-Pitre, Guadeloupe island, France, Sept. 18, 2017. (Photo: Andres Martinez Casares/Reuters)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

A woman takes a selfie as Hurricane Maria approaches in Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe island, France, Sept. 18, 2017. (Photo: Andres Martinez Casares/Reuters)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Road Town, British Virgin Islands

British troops from 40 Commando prepare aid for distribution, on the British Virgin Islands, Road Town, Virgin Islands , Sept. 18, 2017. Royal Marines from 40 Commando have been ensuring aid reaches people across the island before Storm Maria arrives. (Photo: Photo by LPhot Joel Rouse/Handout/EPA-EFE/REX/Shutterstock)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

A man pulls in a boat ahead of Hurricane Maria in the Galbas area of Sainte-Anne on the French Caribbean island of Guadeloupe, early Monday, Sept. 18, 2017. (Photo: Dominique Chomereau-Lamotte/AP)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Men board up buildings ahead of Hurricane Maria in Sainte-Anne on the French Caribbean island of Guadeloupe, Monday, Sept. 18, 2017. (Photo: Dominique Chomereau-Lamotte/AP)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

U.S. Virgin Islands

The Army’s 602nd Area Support Medical Company boards the U.S.S. Kearsarge aircraft carrier from a Navy landing craft during their evacuation from the U.S. Virgin Islands in advance of Hurricane Maria, Sept.17, 2017. (Photo: Jonathan Drake/Reuters)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

Hurricane Maria nears Dominica

This Monday, Sept. 18, 2017, GOES East satellite image provided by NASA taken at 20:30 UTC, shows the eye of Hurricane Maria as it nears Dominica. The National Hurricane Center in Miami said Monday evening that Air Force Reserve hurricane hunter planes found that Maria had strengthened into a storm with 160 mph (260 kph) winds. (Photo: NASA via AP)

Source: Yahoo News Photo Staff

anonymous asked:

What are some accounts you really love? I’m new to one direction so I’m looking to follow some people 😄

ayyyy alright time to crack my knuckles here! hopefully i don’t forget anyone i really love people i follow mutual or not 

some people that i love and love to see on my dash (this may be long):

@chillylou @lovelylarrie @larryisntgaylol @warmlou @heartofmusicandgold  @teentomlinson @osnaptomlinson @satanlarents @harriegucci  @parisian-cigarette @panacottalarry @angelicdevil001 @maryfefs666 @greeneyedlarrie @hohohoelouis @horsegirlharry @lattelouis @gimmieshelter @roseau @lthslarry @queenbeeharry @stylinsonbravery17 @onlllyangel @breathedream1d @zapboobear @shadyshit91 @wrappeditmyslf @stronghl @buscandoelparaiso @iftheresnolove @harryandlouisarehappilystrong @hazlouquitefinished @lrrystyles @larryalbum @hrrytomlinson @louispeanut @politeharry @louisbravado @undercutzayn @rainbowboaharry @lgbtqiastyles @lgbtqialouis @kiwipose @esnyvevo @hellaplantsjpg @heterophobiclouis @stylinsinz @rbbxmas @stylinsin @ot5stan @daintyandsmol @harryfeatlouis @lesbianhoran @lesbianlouis @lesbianharrie @thelarryhug @rainbowsandgucci @rosesau @rosesdagger @harryandlouisofficial @roseszain @harriechristmas @customgucci @peachbootylouis @proudhl @proudoflou @christmaslouis @rosealouis @wellingtontat @wellingtonvevo @harrylovesthepackers @underdoglou @goldbootsandvans @bananastagram @blushlouie @voulezlou @youfuckingloosah @supportivebfs @pubsundays @dimpled-halo @sunset–louis

(there’s probably more im sorry i love y’all)

Roseau, Dominica - The best open water diving!

I am not a big fan of the water, so I definitely feel out of my element when I am in the ocean. But I am so proud to say that I am a certified open water scuba diver. I will probably never go dive again, because I get anxieties, however, if it is in Roseau, Dominica, count me in! It is the most stunning sight I have ever seen. I felt like I was in a huge aquarium which was decorated to the nines. The colors, the creatures under water were so magical, made me feel like I was in Little Mermaid, and also, proud to not to chicken out of my certification. It was definitely worth the anxiety, tears, panic attack and all of my fears.  

MY PLAYLIST

• Jorja Smith - Blue Lights
• Local Natives - Past Lives
• Fenne Lily - Top To Toe
• Lil Silva - Caught Up ft. Cosima
• Jorja Smith - A Prince ft Maverick Sabre
• The Chordettes - Mr. Sandman
• Chantelle Milanese (Baby Doll) - Blank Canvas
• AURORA - Runaway
• Roseau - Alright
• Why? - Simeon’s Dilemma
• Ferraby Lionheart - The Ballad of Gus and Sam
• The Internet - Girl
• Local Natives - Airplanes
• Local Natives - Wide Eyes

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Contemporary Native First Nations woodcarving of an otter… (whittling technically) by Aaron Pierre of Roseau River First Nation.