rose buckingham

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♔  T H E  W A R S  O F  T H E  R O S E S  ♔

1478 - 1487: THE END

England hath long been mad, and scarr’d herself;
The brother blindly shed the brother’s blood,
The father rashly slaughter’d his own son,
The son, compell’d, been butcher to the sire:
All this divided York and Lancaster,
Divided in their dire division

Richard III (5.8.3)

KEY LANCASTRIAN MALE FIGURES DURING THIS PERIOD:

❁ Henry VII of England - Fled to Brittany in 1471 due to Edward IV’s restoration to the throne; was then actively promoted as the Lancastrian alternative to Richard III in 1483; defeated the Yorkists and Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth in August 1485; then married Elizabeth of York, Edward IV’s daughter to add weight to his claim to the throne; defeated some of the last Yorkist resistance to Tudor rule in 1487 at the Battle of Stoke Field
❁ Jasper Tudor, 1st Duke of Bedford - Uncle to Henry VII of England; fled to Brittany with other Lancastrians following the restoration of Edward IV in 1471; attainder lifted after victory at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485 and restored to his title as Earl of Pembroke as well as being created Duke of Bedford; married Catherine Woodville, sister to dowager queen Elizabeth Woodville and widow of Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham in 1485
❁ Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset - son of Queen Elizabeth Woodville from her first marriage to John Grey of Groby; joined Buckingham’s rebellion following the usurpation of Richard III in 1483; subsequently fled to Brittany to join Henry Tudor and the Lancastrians; was then persuaded to attempt to return to England by his mother prior to Bosworth; did not take part in the overthrow of the Yorkist regime as he remained surety to the French for their loan to the Lancastrians; was then kept on a tight leash by Henry VII and imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1487 during the Lambert Simnel rebellion and the Battle of Stoke Field to ensure he did not commit treason against the Tudors
❁ Edward Woodville, Lord Scales - joined Richard of Gloucester in his invasion of Scotland and was subsequently made a knight banneret by him on the 24th of July 1482; appointed admiral to a fleet of ships under the guise of repelling the French during the power struggle between Richard III and the Woodvilles; he then escaped with some of his fleet and money allegedly belonging to Richard III in 1483 and joined Henry Tudor in exile in Brittany; fought at the Battle of Bosworth in August 1485; then went to Spain and fought for Ferdinand and Isabella at the siege of Loja in their crusade against the Moors; commanded light cavalry against the Lambert Simnel rebellion and played a key role at the Battle of Stoke Field 
❁ Rhys ap Thomas - refused to support Buckingham’s rebellion in 1483 and was made principal lieutenant in south west Wales by Richard III; did not surrender his son, Gruffydd ap Rhys ap Thomas, as a hostage to Richard III at Nottingham as ordered; he joined the Tudors at the Battle of Bosworth; is rumoured to have killed Richard III himself with his pollaxe; subsequently proved loyal to the Tudors by quashing several Yorkist rebellions including one at Brecon in 1486 as well as the Lambert Simnel rebellion and the Battle of Stoke Field in 1487
❁ Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby - married to Margaret Beaufort, Henry VII of England’s mother; was wounded and imprisoned following the council meeting after which William Hastings was summarily executed in 1483; flourished under Richard’s rule and was given all of his wife’s titles and possessions following her suspicion of treason and compliance in Buckingham’s rebellion; conspired with the Lancastrians prior to the Battle of Bosworth and manoeuvred himself so as to be successful and valuable for either side regardless of the outcome; decided the battle by choosing Tudor over York and subsequently crowned Henry VII on the field of battle
❁ John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford - escaped to the continent after the Battle of Barnet in an attempt to join the Lancastrians in exile in Brittany; was imprisoned before this could be so and scaled the walls of Hammes and leapt into the moat in an attempt to escape or suicide; was ordered transferred to England on 28 October 1484, but escaped before the transfer could be effected, having persuaded the captain of Hammes, Sir James Blount, to go with him to join the Lancastrians; was principal commander at the Battle of Bosworth where he commanded the archers and held the vanguard; following the beginning of the Tudor dynasty his attainder was removed and he gained several important offices in the new government; he also commanded the vanguard at the Battle of Stoke Field in 1487
❁ Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham - was married to Queen Elizabeth Woodville’s sister, Catherine; he was instrumental in Richard III’s rise to power and took possession of Edward V at Stony Stratford in April 1483; through his loyalty to Richard he gained the Bohun estates and much more power than had he chosen the Woodvilles; rebelled against Richard III in 1483 with John Morton, Bishop of Ely and proposed that Henry Tudor return from exile and take the throne; the rebellion was thwarted by poor weather and he attempted to escape in disguise following his failure; publicly beheaded at Salisbury on the 2nd of November 1483 on the orders of Richard III

BATTLES:

♔ Buckingham’s rebellion - 24th of September 1483
♔ Battle of Bosworth Field - 22nd of August 1485
♔ Battle of Stoke Field - 16th of June 1487

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♔  T H E  W A R S  O F  T H E  R O S E S  ♔

1478 - 1487: THE END

And all the clouds that lour’d upon our house
In the deep bosom of the ocean buried.
Now are our brows bound with victorious wreaths;
Our bruised arms hung up for monuments;
Our stern alarums changed to merry meetings,
Our dreadful marches to delightful measures.
Grim-visaged war hath smooth’d his wrinkled front;
And now, instead of mounting barded steeds
To fright the souls of fearful adversaries,
He capers nimbly in a lady’s chamber
To the lascivious pleasing of a lute.

Richard III (1.1.1)

KEY YORKIST MALE FIGURES DURING THIS PERIOD:

❀ Edward IV of England - Edward IV’s later reign was relatively uneventful compared with its beginning as the only Lancastrian threat left was Henry Tudor who was in exile in Brittany; this uninterrupted peace meant that Edward was increasingly driven by his hedonistic tendencies and overindulged in wine, women and food; Edward fell fatally ill with a mystery illness during Easter 1483 and he used his remaining days to add important codicils to his will which would have a significant impact on events to come; Edward finally died on the 9th of April 1483 and was initially succeeded on the throne by his son, Edward; it is not known what exactly caused Edward’s death but his unhealthy lifestyle could have been a significant contributing factor in conjunction with an illness which may have been survivable; claims of poison bringing his downfall are generally dismissed as laughable but pneumonia or typhoid remain genuine possible causes.
❀ Edward V of England - In 1480 whilst still Prince of Wales a marriage alliance was arranged with Brittany that would’ve meant that Edward married Anne, Duchess of Brittany upon reaching his majority; Edward heard the news of his father’s demise on the 14th of April 1483 whilst at his home in Ludlow, Wales; Edward set out with a party of knights including his uncle and guardian, Anthony Woodville, older half-brother, Richard Grey and his chamberlain, Thomas Vaughan to London shortly after; Edward’s party converged with his uncle and Lord Protector, Richard, Duke of Gloucester’s at Stony Stratford where Richard met and dined with Edward’s party; on the 29th of April, Anthony Woodville, Richard Grey and Thomas Vaughan were arrested by Richard and sent north as he accused them of plotting against him as Lord Protector; Edward was then escorted to London by Richard and on the 19th of May took up residence in the Tower of London where he was later joined by his younger brother, Richard of Shrewsbury; the royal council had hoped for a speedy coronation Richard, however, postponed the coronation; on the 22nd of June it was preached by Robert Stillington, the Bishop of Bath & Wells that Edward IV’s marriage to Elizabeth Woodville had been illegitimate due to a previous marriage contract, thus making Edward and all his siblings from this marriage, bastards; as a result of this, the Titulus Regius later passed through parliament declaring Edward a bastard and his uncle Richard as the rightful King of England; Edward and his brother Richard then went missing after being seen infrequently within the Tower in 1483, eventually leading them to be known as the Princes in the Tower; word eventually spread that they had died, it is still not known how they died or whether they were murdered and if they were murdered, who did it; the main suspects in the possible murder of the Princes are: Richard III, Henry Stafford or Margaret Beaufort and Henry Tudor.
❀ Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham - In 1483 with Edward IV’s death Henry sided with Richard of Gloucester over the Woodvilles in the struggle for control over Edward V, despite his marriage to Catherine Woodville; he was with Richard when they took possession of the young king at Stony Stratford in April 1483; after these events, Buckingham supported Richard’s claim to the throne possibly due to his antipathy towards the Woodvilles, whom he saw as beneath him and due to his wanting to claim the Bohun estates which Edward IV had rendered Crown property; Buckingham was then granted these lands pending parliamentary approval from Richard III; sometime in late 1483, he became disillusioned with Richard’s reign and began working with John Morton, Bishop of Ely to depose him and place Edward V back upon the throne; when rumours emerged that the Princes were dead, Buckingham suggested Henry Tudor be the natural rallying point for the rebellion and conspired with his mother, Margaret Beaufort, to execute the rebellion; ultimately Buckingham’s plans failed due to the poor weather which prevented Tudor from sailing from Brittany to join him, whilst most of his forces deserted him when faced with Richard’s army; following his failure Buckingham attempted to escape in disguise and sought sanctuary at Beaulieu Abbey; Richard III then put a bounty on his head and Buckingham was betrayed, arrested and convicted of treason; Buckingham was then publicly executed in Salisbury on the 2nd of November 1483
❀ Richard III of England - Before becoming king, Richard was Duke of Gloucester and controlled the north of England for his brother, Edward IV as Lieutenant-General of the North; from 1480 onwards with the ever present threat of war with Scotland, Richard worked with the Earl of Northumberland to repel Scottish raiders and when war was officially declared, led the English army against the Scots; on the 24th of August 1482, Richard along with several others retook Berwick-upon-Tweed for the English throne; upon Edward IV’s death in April 1483, Richard was named Lord Protector for his nephew Edward V’s minority and engaged in a power struggle with the Woodville faction over this; Richard shortly journeyed south where he met up with Edward V’s party at Stony Stratford, the next day he accused Edward V’s party of plotting against him as Lord Protector and had them arrested and sent north; Richard then escorted the young Edward south to London; throughout May and June of 1483 Richard remained convinced of plots against him and postponed Edward V’s coronation; at a council meeting on the 13th of June, Richard accused William Hastings amongst others of plotting against him and had Hastings summarily executed; following this, sermons were preached declaring Edward IV’s children with Elizabeth Woodville as bastards due to an alleged pre-contract between Edward and Lady Eleanor Butler and petitions were drawn up asking Richard to take the throne; Richard officially ascended the throne on the 25th of June 1483, which was later ratified by the passing of the Titulus Regius through parliament; in late 1483 Richard had to contend with his former ally, the Duke of Buckingham’s rebellion against his reign in favour of Henry Tudor; the rebellion was ill-fated from the start due to bad weather and Richard defeated it easily, he then had Buckingham publicly executed after he was found guilty of treason; at this time Richard also had to contend with rumours of the disappearance of the Princes in the Tower, in which he was the primary but not the only suspect; Richard’s reign was made further insecure by the death of his only legitimate son, Edward of Middleham, in April 1484 leaving him without a direct heir; his wife Anne Neville, then died in March 1485 and Richard was left without a direct heir and a wife; Richard sought to secure his position on the throne by arranging a marriage treaty with Portugal, which would ultimately not come to fruition; he also publicly categorically denied any intentions of marrying his niece, Elizabeth of York, following his wife’s death; Richard’s reign finally ended with his death at the Battle of Bosworth Field on the 22nd of August 1485 where he was defeated by Henry Tudor’s forces of Lancastrian loyalists and disaffected Yorkists; it is said that Richard died in the thickest of the fighting.
❀ William Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings - During the second half of Edward IV’s reign, Hastings served as Lord Chamberlain and Lieutenant of Calais as well as having lordship over a significant portion of the English midlands; Hastings also had notable active feuds with the Woodville family at this time, especially with his step son-in-law, Thomas Grey; following Edward IV’s death in 1483, Hastings sought to circumvent the Woodvilles monopoly over the young king Edward V and wrote to Richard, Duke of Gloucester, informing him of the Woodvilles movements; Hastings then supported Richard as Lord Protector and worked with him as a member of the royal council; on the 13th of June 1483, Hastings was accused of plotting with the Woodvilles to overthrow Richard as Lord Protector, using his mistress, Jane Shore, as a go between; Hastings was then immediately taken from the council meeting within the Tower of London and was summarily executed in the courtyard; it is still not known whether there was an actual plot or not against Richard that was formulated by Hastings; he was not attainted and his wife was placed under the protection of her cousin, Richard III of England.
❀ John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk - After the death of Edward IV in April 1483, Norfolk bore the royal banner at Edward IV’s funeral; in the following political clashes between factions, John supported Richard of Gloucester’s claim to the throne and as a result, bore his crown at Richard III’s coronation; Norfolk was then appointed Lord High Steward to Richard III; on the 28th of June 1483, he was created 1st Duke of Norfolk, he was later also created Earl Marshal, and Lord Admiral of all England, Ireland, and Aquitaine; Norfolk commanded the vanguard at the Battle of Bosworth Field; he is said to have been killed when a Lancastrian arrow struck him in the face after the face guard had been torn off his helmet during an earlier altercation with John De Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford.

BATTLES:

♔ Buckingham’s rebellion - 24th of September 1483
♔ Battle of Bosworth Field - 22nd of August 1485
♔ Battle of Stoke Field - 16th of June 1487