roman rulers

Elagabalus: The Transgender Roman Emperor

Reign: 8 June 218 – 11 March 222

Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus was 14 years old when he became Roman Emperor. He is known to history as Elagabalus because he was from birth the high priest of the androgynous sun deity Elagabal. Elagabalus is recorded as having been one of the most infamous and degenerate figures in Roman history.

Elagabalus married and divorced five women but his most stable relationship seems to have been his chariot driver, a blond slave from Caria name Hierocles, whom he referred to as his husband. He married a man name Zoticus, an athlete from Smyrna, in a pubic ceremony at Rome.

When he was married to Hierocles, Elagabalus would dress like a woman and allow himself to be caught in the act of adultery by his husband, who would then beat him as husbands were then allowed to beat their wives.

Elagabalus would paint his eyes, epilate his hair and wear wigs before prostituting himself in taverns, brothels, and even in the imperial palace: 

“Finally, he set aside a room in the palace and there committed his indecencies, always standing nude at the door of the room, as the harlots do, and shaking the curtain which hung from gold rings, while in a soft and melting voice he solicited the passers-by. There were, of course, men who had been specially instructed to play their part. For, as in other matters, so in this business, too, he had numerous agents who sought out those who could best please him by the size of their penis. He would collect money from his patrons and give himself airs over his gains; he would also dispute with his associates in this shameful occupation, claiming that he had more lovers than they and took in more money.”

He was described as having been “delighted to be called the mistress, the wife, the queen of Hierocles” and was reported to have offered vast sums of money to any physician who could equip him with female genitalia.

One of his palace orgies was the scene of an inadvertent massacre when so many flower petals were showered upon the banquet guests that dozens of people suffocated to death as they reclined on their couches.

He was known to harness teams of naked women to his chariot and whip them as they pulled him around the palace grounds.

On his head, he wore a crown in the shape of a tiara, glittering with gold and precious stones.

He preferred to spend his days in the company of the palace women, singing, dancing and weaving.

The soldiers were revolted at the sight of him. With his face made up more elaborately than a modest woman, he was effeminately dressed up in golden necklaces and soft clothes, dancing for everyone to see.

At the age of 18, in March 222 AD, Rome’s soldiers finally rebelled against their Emperor. After slaughtering his minions and tearing out their vital organs, they then fell upon Elagabalus as he hid cowering in a latrine. After killing him, they dragged his body through the streets by a hook and attempted to stuff it into a sewer. When it proved too big, they threw him into the River Tiber.


You can’t even deny this.

This is legit evidence right here.



The Last Emperor of Rome,

The traditional date for the fall of the Western Roman Empire is set at 476 AD.  Other dates can be arguably used, but 476 is a good date to use when looking at Roman history from a simple viewpoint.  The last Roman Emperor was Romulus Augustus, ironically named after Romulus, the founder of Rome, and Augustus the first Roman Emperor.  The interesting thing about the story of the last Roman Emperor was that it had little to with Romulus Augustus.  Rather, the de facto last Roman ruler was his father, a military man named Orestes.

By 475 AD the Western Roman Empire had almost crumbled away to dust.  The empire consisted of little more than Italy, with some isolated territories in northwestern Gaul which had declared independence decades before, and some territories in North Africa which again were so far out of reach from the Imperial court that by that point they were managing their own affairs.

The Roman Army was barely Roman, mostly being made up of Germanic mercenaries which the empire could barely afford to pay. The capital of the empire wasn’t even Rome,having been moved to Ravenna in the year 402 because it was a more defensible location.  The Roman Emperor ruled over nothing, rather being a puppet of Germanic rulers such as Ricimer and Gundobad.  Orestes was the Roman magister militum appointed by the Empror Julius Nepos, basically the chief general of the army.  Orestes date of birth is unknown but he had a long military career, at one point being ambassador to and secretary of Attila the Hun, then working his way up the ranks until he became a Roman general.  Orestes wanted to restore the glory of Rome, to bring Rome back to the good old days when emperors were gods, the empire stretched across Europe and Africa, and no one dared mess with the legions.  

On the 31st of October, 475 AD Orestes orchestrated a coup resulting in the overthrow of Nepos.  Orestes had cultivated the loyalty of the mercenaries which made up the Roman Army, but also added some important incentives such as cash bonuses and Italian land.  Orestes sent Nepos packing to Dalmatia, where Nepos would carve out a small rump state in exile until his death in 480 AD.  Rather than naming himself emperor, Orestes chose his 16 year old son Romulus as emperor.  Orestes was half German and believed the Roman people would be more accepting of a new emperor who had more Roman blood.  However, the Roman people didn’t really take the young Romulus Augustus seriously, nicknaming him “Momyllus Augustulus”, Momyllus meaning “little disgrace” and Augustulus meaning “little Augustus”. While Orestes looked to restore the Roman Empire, the truth of the matter was that most Roman commoners were sick and tired of Imperial rule and all the bullshit that went with it such as overbearing taxes, rampant corruption, civil war, idiotic leaders, and a stagnant economy.  In addition, the Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno also refused to recognize Romulus Augustus as a legitimate emperor, the blessings of the east being necessary for a stable reign.

Neither Orestes nor the “emperor” could really get anything done during their short reign, by that point the Imperial government was so powerless and crippled by lack of funds and corruption it might as well have not existed at all.  Worse yet, the Germanic mercenaries who made up the ranks of the Roman Army were beginning to complain that Orestes wasn’t living up to his promises.  Unfortunately for Orestes, the empire had no cash to spare and no patricians were willing to give up their lands for a bunch of barbarians.  In anger, the mercenaries revolted against Orestes, naming an officer among their ranks named Odoacer to be their leader.  Orestes gathered what few Italian troops he could that were still loyal to him and fled to Piacenza.  However, Orestes small army was no match against Odoacer and his army.  The last loyal Roman forces were easily crushed. Orestes was quickly captured and executed on the 28th of August.  On the 4th of September, 476 Odoacer marched on Revenna and took the city without resistance.  Romulus Augustus also abdicated without a fight. 

Odoacer chose not to name another emperor, instead naming himself King of Italy and dispensing with the old Imperial system entirely.   As for Romulus Augustus, the remainder of his life is unknown to history, but it is rumored that he was granted a state pension by Odoacer and lived out the rest of his life in peace. The Eastern Emperor Zeno gave Odoacer the title of Patrician and demanded that he recognize the rule of Julius Nepos.  Odoacer refused to allow Nepos to return to Italy, and the Eastern Romans were to occupied dealing with the Ostrogoths to do anything about it. Thus, the Western Roman Empire came to an end.

Royal Dynasties in Ancient Israel


Era of Judges
House of Gideon
· Abimelech

Era of the United Kingdom of Israel
House of Saul
· Saul
· Ish-Bosheth (kingship debated)

House of David
· David
· Solomon

Era of the Divided Kingdoms
Southern Kingdom of Judah
House of David
· Rehoboam
· Abijah
· Asa
· Jehoshaphat
· Jehoram
· Ahaziah
· Athaliah
· Joash
· Amaziah
· Uzziah
· Jotham
· Ahaz
· Hezekiah
· Manasseh
· Amon
· Josiah
· Jehoahaz
· Jehoiakim
· Jehoiachin
· Zedekiah

Northern Kingdom of Israel (Samaria)
House of Jeroboam
· Jeroboam
· Nadab

House of Baasha
· Baasha
· Elah

· Zimri

House of Omri
· Omri
· Ahab
· Ahaziah
· Jehoram

House of Jehu
· Jehu
· Jehoahaz
· Jehoash
· Jeroboam II
· Zechariah

· Shallum

House of Gadi | Menahem
· Menahem
· Pekahiah

· Pekah

· Hoshea


Amid Disintegration of Seleucid Empire
Hasmonean Dynasty
· Aristobulus I
· Alexander Jannaeus
· Salome Alexandra
· Aristobulus II
· Hyrcanus II
· Antigonus II Mattathias


Roman Empire
Herodian Dynasty
· Herod the Great
· Herod Archelaus
· Herod Antipas
· Philip the Tetrach
· Salome I
· Herod Agrippa I
· Herod Agrippa II

“Tetrarch,” the title Dammek has affected - and it’s almost certainly an affectation, given that he’s a kid, still using his six-letter childhood name - is a Roman title meaning “ruler of one fourth of the empire” or “one of four co-rulers”

I would be willing to bet that Dammek has three co-conspirators at the head of that rebellion. If so, it’s interesting that Xefros seems to think that Dammek is absolutely in command.


Cartimandua was a 1st-century queen of the Brigantes, a Celtic people living in what is now northern England. She came to power around the time of the Roman conquest of Britain, and formed a large tribal agglomeration that became loyal to Rome. She appears to have been widely influential in early Roman Britain.

Our only knowledge of Cartimandua is through the writings of Roman author Tacitus, who presents her in a negative light. He writes of her treacherous role in the capture of Caratacus, who had sought her protection, her “self-indulgence, her sexual impropriety in rejecting her husband in favour of a common soldier, and her "cunning strategems” during her rule. However, he also consistently names her as a queen, the only one such known in early Roman Britain.

Boudica was ruler of the Iceni people, a Celtic tribe, who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire. In AD 60 or 61, while the Roman governor Gaius Paulinus was leading a campaign on the island of Anglesey off the northwest coast of Wales, Boudica led the Iceni as well as the Trinovantes and others in revolt.

Boudica led 100,000 Iceni, Trinovantes and others to fight the Roman Legio IX Hispana and burned and destroyed several settlements in Britannia. An estimated 70,000–80,000 Romans and British were killed in the three cities by those led by Boudica. The crisis caused the Emperor Nero to consider withdrawing all Roman forces from Britain, but Suetonius’s eventual victory over Boudica confirmed Roman control of the province. Boudica’s fate is not known.

The two women are the only known female Celtic rulers of the age.


Roman History: The Gracchi brothers  

Tiberius and Gaius attempts to pass a land reform legislation that would redistribute aristocratic landholdings established a series of precedents that changed Roman politics forever. 

The Roman army was formed by levy recruits, mainly farmers. Land was not private property, it was given by the republic in usufruct. As Roman expansion grew farmers spent more time away from home, which allowed the concentration of farmland in a few aristocratic hands 

Tiberius was elected tribune of the plebs in 133 BC and using the exceptional power of his magistracy he tried to pass the Lex Sempronia Agraria, a land reform that would reduce the economical power of the senatorial class. He and his supporters were murdered by advocates of the Optimate faction. 

His brother Gaius held the same office ten years later and his reforms were more radical, changing the judicial and military system and even attempting to alter the notion of Roman citizenship. The benefits of his reforms to the equestrian class and Italian allies caused a response from the senate, that took on a mission to discredit Gaius and to win the favour of the plebs. The mission succeeded and he died on 121 BC. 

The creation of new political forces constantly using Roman institutions for their own personal benefit, and the shifting of the centre of policy making from the senate to the plebs betrayed the core of the Roman republic and reinforced the arise of individual leaders in the 1st century BC. The violence that ended the Gracchan period provided a brutal precedent that was followed by Roman rulers for centuries. 

Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641)
“Emperor Charles V on Horseback” (1620)
Located in the Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy

Charles V (1500-1558), was a Duke of Burgundy and Holy Roman Emperor. He was ruler of both the Spanish Empire from 1516 and Holy Roman Empire from 1519, as well as the Habsburg Netherlands from 1506, until he voluntarily stepped down from these and other positions by a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556. Through inheritance, he brought together under his rule extensive territories in western, central, and southern Europe, and the Spanish colonies in the Americas and Asia. As a result, his domains spanned nearly four million square kilometers, and was the first to be described as “the empire on which the sun never sets.”

van Dyck’s portrait is a later version of Charles V based off of “Equestrian Portrait of Charles V” (1584) by Titian (1488/1490-1576)

"Kings" ask game
  • Since so many people liked the “Queens” ask game, I decided to do the “Kings” ask game as well (yes, I know, I included emperors too).
  • Henry VIII.: most overrated ruler?
  • Alexander III of Russia: favorite historical person from your country?
  • Louis XIV: favorite crown jewels?
  • Frederick the Great: 3 things you love about your favorite ruler?
  • Philip II of Spain: favorite biography?
  • Richard III.: most interesting mystery in history?
  • Alexander the Great: favorite pharaoh?
  • Franz Joseph I. : favorite palace/castle?
  • Louis XVI: myth about your favorite ruler?
  • Gustav II Adolf: one question you would ask your favorite ruler?
  • Nicholas II of Russia: the most beautiful ruler?
  • James V of Scotland: favorite coat of arms?
  • Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor: favorite ruler with the same zodiac as you?
  • Frederick VI of Denmark: favorite era?
  • Maximilian I of Mexico: favorite royal house?
  • Genghis Khan: three facts about your favorite ruler?
  • George VI: favorite history blog on tumblr?
Black Soul [Part 1]

wow??? am I starting another multi-chapter fic. yup. I’m trash

This is inspired by Welcome to My World of Fun by @lostin—translation because god damn does mercy write some dark shit

Summary: (no pairings) The king has been overthrown.

Warnings: blood, eventual gore, physical violence, swearing, lots of bad feelings

Read on AO3

Tag list right under the cut

Keep reading

Wiccan History Timeline

This is a work in progress for the history of witchcraft.

15,000 B.C.

Ancient peoples revere healers, known as witches, who practice magic.

700 B.C.

The Celts lived in Europe and were feared by the Roman Empire who adopted many of their customs and practices as their own.

560 B.C.

Exodus 22:18 (Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live) condemns witchcraft.

200 B.C.

Earliest known reference to the Druids.

43 A.D.

Iceni Celts submit to the conquering Roman ruler Calaudius.

61 A.D.

King Prasutagus dies and his wife Queen Boadica is publicly beaten and her two daughters are raped by Roman guards, causing outrage in the Iceni people against Roman rule.

61 A.D. to 63 A.D.

The Iceni Celts are lead in battle against Roman rule by the warrior Queen Boadica. They were almost successful in defeating the Romans.

300 A.D.

Under the pre-Christian Roman Empire, punishment of burning alive was enacted by the State against witches who brought about another person’s death through their enchantments.

306 A.D.

The Christian Council of Elvira refuses last rites to those who had killed a man by a magical spell because such a crime could not be effected “without idolatry” (i.e. the help of the devil).

313 A.D.

Conversion of Emperor Constantine; Christianity is granted official toleration by the Roman Empire.

314 A.D.

Canon 24 of the Council of Ancyra imposes five years of penance upon those who consult magicians. Here, the offence lies in participation in paganism.

420 A.D.

St. Augustine argues that witchcraft is an impossibility.

600 A.D.

Christian pope Gregory the Great proclaims “all the gods of the heathens are demons.”

785 A.D.

The Council of Paderborn rules that sorcerers are to be reduced to serfdom and made over to the service of the Church.

906 A.D.

The document De ecclesiasticis disciplinis ascribed to Regino of Prüm describes popular notions of witchcraft and states it is the duty of priests to “instruct the people that these things are absolutely untrue and that such imaginings are planted in the minds of misbelieving folk, not by a Divine spirit, but by the spirit of evil.”

1012 A.D.

Pope Benedict VIII is consecrated May 17.

1014 A.D.

King Henry II is crowned in Rome on February 14.

1022 A.D.

The first “heretic” is burned in France sparking the witch hysteria.


Pope Gregory VII writes a letter to King Harold of Denmark forbidding witches to be put to death upon presumption of their having caused storms, failure of crops or pestilence.


King John was born on December 24


King John ruled

A man named Gideon was tried by Ordeal of Red Hot poker and proved innocent of witchcraft.

Hubert de Burgh was accused of using Charms to obtain favors from the king.

Cats, dogs, and wolves were hung with their owners for being witch’s familiars.


Christianity has replaced traditional religions, which Christians call paganism.

1208 A.D.

Pope Innocent III attacks the belief that both God and Satan can have supernatural powers. Anyone who held the belief in this were labeled heretics.


Eustace the Monk was drown in Sandwich for having magical powers.


In Germany, the secular law code “Sachsenspiegel” designated death by fire as the proper punishment for witchcraft.


Pope Alexander IV instructs, “The Inquisitors, deputed to investigate heresy, must not intrude into investigations of divination or sorcery without knowledge of manifest heresy involved.” “Manifest heresy” is defined as: “praying at the altars of idols, to offer sacrifices, to consult demons, to elicit responses from them… or associate themselves publicly with heretics.”


Thomas Aquinas argues that demons do exist that try to lead people into temptation.


The first “witch” is burned to death after judicial sentence of an inquisitor, in Toulouse, France. Her name was Hugues de Baniol and she “confessed” to having given birth to a monster after intercourse with an evil spirit and to having nourished it with babies’ flesh which she procured in her nocturnal expeditions.


Women are singled out as witches in Europe.


Beginning of the witch trials in Europe.


Philip IV of France sought to end the Knights Templar in order to gain their wealth, under the rein of Pope Clement V.


Philip IV had the Knights Templar arrested and false confessions of blasphemy, idolatry, and sodomy were given as a result of their days of torture.


Guichard, Bishop of Troyes, was accused of killing the queen of France with sorcery.


After fighting for Christianity for 183 years against the Muslims, the Knights Templar was dissolved and their properties were divided between the hospitallers.


Jacques de Molay, last grand master of the Kinights Templar,was burned at the stake for “Devil Worship” despite his good service for Christianity during the Holy Wars.

Pope Clement V died April 20.


The Bishop of Cahors was found guilty of trying to “think” the pope to death using a crystal ball.


Large-scale witch trial in Toulouse, France, in which 63 persons were accused. Of these, eight were handed over to the state to be burned and the rest were imprisoned.


Pope Gregory XI declares that all magic is done with the aid of demons and thus is open to prosecution for heresy.


Peter de Gruyères, a secular judge, carries out large-scale witch trials in Bern, Switzerland.


King Henry V denounces his step mother, Joan of Navarre, for attempting to kill him using incantations.


Joan of Navarre is imprisoned for using witchcraft to try to kill the king.


Gilles de Rais was hanged on October 26 after being found guilty of 150 human sacrifices to Satan.


Robinet de Vaulx of Arras confessed to Inquisitors that he had attended a Witch’s Sabbat and named those with him. Those people that he named were tortured, brought to trial, found guilty, and condemned to death.


Pope Innocent VIII issues an edict that calls for the eradication of witches and other heathens.

Pope Innocent VIII publishes the bull Summis desiderantes affectibus (“Desiring with the Greatest Ardor”) condemning witchcraft as Satanism, the worst of all possible heresies. The bull also officially grants Heinrich Krämer and James Sprenger, Dominican inquisitors, the right to prosecute persons of any class or any form of crime. He uses Exodus 12:18 to back up his campaign.


Heinrich Krämer and Jacob Sprenger publish Malleus maleficarum (“The Hammer of Witches”), a learned but misogynistic book blaming witchcraft chiefly on women. It was reprinted many times thanks to the newly-invented printing press and was a major influence on the witch-hunt hysteria of the next two centuries. It was regarded as the standard handbook on witchcraft until well into the 18th century.

Malleus Maleficarum (Hammer of Witches) triggers witch-hunts in Europe.


Prosecutions for witchcraft begin in Mexico.


The penal code Carolina decrees that sorcery throughout the German empire should be treated as a criminal offence, and if it injured any person, the witch was to be burned at the stake.


The Scottish Witch Act states that even people who consult with witches to cure various maladies were as guilty of witchcraft as those who actually practiced it.


The Protestant ruler of Saxony imposes the penalty of burning for witchcraft of every kind, including fortune-telling.


Period in which witch-hunts are most severe.


121 persons are burned as witches over three months in Osnabruck, Germany.


Witch trials in North Berwick, Scotland.


King James authorized the torture of suspected witches in Scotland.


In response to a witch panic in the Basque region, La Suprema (the ruling body of the Spanish Inquisition) issues an “Edict of Silence” forbidding all discussion of witchcraft. For, as one inquisitor noted, “There were neither witches nor bewitched until they were talked and written about.”


The Jesuit Friedrich von Spee publishes Cautio criminalis against the witch craze.


The Putnams start a land feud with the Townes near Topsfield, Massachusetts


First hanging for witchcraft in New England.

Alse Young is executed as a witch in Wethersfield, Connecticut.

Mid 1600s

Ninety-three people are accused of witchcraft—fifty in Massachusetts and forty-three in Connecticut. Sixteen are put to death.


Outbreak of witch-hunts in Sweden.


The English government revokes the Massachusetts colonial charter.

Massachusetts minister Increase Mather publishes Remarkable Providences, a handbook for identifying witches.


Rebecca Clinton is convicted of being a witch in Ipswich, Massachusetts.


Samuel Parris is ordained as minister of the Salem village congregation.


Betty Parris and Abigail Williams try a voodoo fortune-telling experiment. They begin having fits.


Ann Putnam, Jr., Elizabeth Hubbard, and other Salem village girls join Betty Parris and Abigail Williams in having fits. They accuse Parris household slave Tituba, Sarah Good, and Sarah Osborne of casting spells on them.

March 1–5

Tituba, Sarah Good, and Sarah Osborne are brought before judges.

March 6–19

The girls accuse Martha Corey of bewitching them. Betty Parris is sent to live in the home of Stephen Sewall.

March 21

Martha Corey is questioned and sent to jail.

March 21–23

Ann Putnam, Sr. begins having fits. She and the girls accuse Rebecca Towne Nurse of putting a spell on them.

March 24

Rebecca Nurse is questioned and sent to jail.

April 30

Thomas Putnam has joined in the accusations. Twenty-three accused witches have been jailed.

May 14

Puritan minister Increase Mather and the new Massachusetts governor, William Phips, arrive in the colony with a new charter from England.

May 31

Thirty-nine other people have been jailed as suspected witches.

June 2

Governor Phipps appoints the Court of Oyer and Terminer to try accused witches. Deputy governor William Stoughton is the chief judge. Bridget Bishop is convicted of witchcraft and sentenced to death.

June 10

Bridget Bishop is hanged. Nathaniel Saltonstall resigns from the panel of judges.

June 29

Sarah Good, Rebecca Nurse, Susannah Martin, Elizabeth Howe, and Sarah Wildes are put on trial. Although Nurse is acquitted, the judges ask the jury to review their decision; return a guilty verdict. Governor Phipps gives Nurse a reprieve, but later withdraws it. All the women are sentenced to death.

July 19

Sarah Good, Rebecca Nurse, Susannah Martin, Elizabeth Howe, and Sarah Wildes are hanged.

August 19

George Burroughs, John Procter, John Willard, George Jacobs, and Martha Carrier are hanged. Elizabeth Procter receives a reprieve because she is pregnant.

September 19

Giles Corey is pressed to death.

September 22

Martha Corey, Mary Easty, Alice Parker, Mary Parker, Ann Pudeator, Margaret Scott, Wilmot Redd, and Samuel Wardell are hanged.

October 3

Increase Mather gives a sermon in which he questions the validity of spectral evidence. The sermon is later published as Cases of Conscience concerning Evil Spirits Personating Men.

October 12

Governor Phipps forbids the jailing of more suspected witches.

October 29

Governor Phipps dissolves the Court of Oyer and Terminer.


The “bewitched” Salem girls are called to Gloucester to identify witches, but they are ignored when they have fits.


Between May and October, 19 people are tried and hanged as witches in Salem, Massachusetts.


Cotton Mather publishes Wonders of the Invisible World in defense of the witch trials.

January 3

A Superior Court, headed by William Stoughton, is formed to try accused witches. After three are found guilty, Phipps gives them a reprieve; he also gives reprieves to five others sentenced previously.

January 31

Stoughton resigns from the court in protest against the reprieves.


Governor Phipps orders all remaining accused witches released from jail after payment of their fees.


January 14

The Massachusetts General Assembly declares a Day of Fasting to commemorate the victims of the trials. Twelve trial jurors sign a statement admitting they convicted and condemned people to death on the basis of insufficient evidence. Salem trial judge Samuel Sewall makes a public apology for his role in the executions.

Robert Calef writes More Wonders of the Invisible World, in which he attacks accusers and judges in the Salem trials.

Samuel Parris is forced to resign as minister of the Salem village church.

Early 1700s

The Enlightenment begins to displace Puritanism and traditional superstitions.


The Reverend Joseph Green formally reverses Martha Corey’s excommunication from Salem village church.


Ann Putnam, Jr. makes an apology for her role in sending innocent people to their deaths.


The Massachusetts General Court grants the sum of 578 pounds as compensation to the families of Salem trial victims.


The last trial for witchcraft in Germany is carried out at Würzburg.


Torture is abolished in Prussia.


Last known execution for witchcraft takes place in Switzerland, in the Protestant canton of Glarus.


Belief in witchcraft lingers in New England.


Torture is abolished in Bavaria.


Torture is abolished in Hanover.


American writer Nathaniel Hawthorne writes Young Goodman Brown, one of many stories and novels about Puritan bigotry and repression.


Birth of Aleister Crowley, occultist who influenced Gerald Gardner.


Birth of Gerald Gardner, founder of Gardnerian Wicca.


Aleister Crowley joins the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, of which William Butler Yeats was also a member.


Charles Godfrey Leland publishes Aradia or the Goddess of the Witches.

Early 1900s

The British Order of the Druids revives the practice of Wicca.


Crowley meets a leader of German Masonic order called the Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.), a combination of Masonic rites and the traditions of the Rosicrucians, the Templars, the Illuminists, and Bengali Tantrism. Crowley was soon initiated into the order and progressing through the degrees of the order.


Crowley is named Grand Master of the O.T.O. for Great Britain and Ireland.


British archaeologist Margaret Murray writes The Witch-Cult in Europe, sparking an interest in witch covens.


Birth of Alexander Sanders, founder of Alexandrian Wicca.


Margaret Murray published her article “Witchcraft” in the 14th edition of Encyclopedia Britannica.


The O.T.O. in Germany is effectively dissolved by the Nazis.


Gardner joins the Folklore Society and presents a paper on witchcraft.


The year Gerald Gardner claims he was initiated into a witch cult called the New Forest Coven, led by Dorothy Clutterbuck.


January 30

Zsuzsanna Budapest, feminist writer and leader of Dianic Wicca, is born.


Gardner joins the nudist group The Fiveacres Country Club.


Gardner begins work on High Magic’s Aid, a fictional novel partially based on those of his Southern Coven. The witches of his coven opposed making their rituals public, which is why it was presented as fiction and filled out with rituals from other sources.


Gardner and Edith Woodford-Grimes start a company called Ancient Crafts Ltd.


Gardner meets Crowley at Crowley’s home in Hastings for the first time on May 1, and visits him again several times during May.


Gardner becomes a member of the O.T.O. in May and is authorized by Crowley to found an O.T.O. encampment and initiate new members.


Crowley dies on December 1.


On December 27, Gardner writes a letter claiming to have been designated as successor to Crowley as leader of the O.T.O. Karl Germer assumed leadership instead, and held it until his death in 1962.


Gerald Gardner publishes High Magic’s Aid under the pseudonym Scire.


Gardner begins distancing himself from Crowley and the O.T.O. in favor of Wicca.

Gardner states in a letter that Crowley had participated in the witch cult but left in disgust due to the leadership of the High Priestess and the nudity.


Anti-witchcraft laws of 1735 are repealed by the British Parliament.

English writer Gerald B. Gardner declares himself a witch.

Gardner founds the “Northern Coven” in London and holds a small rite at his home near the British Museum on May Eve.


Doreen Valiente is initated by Gardner, and soon became High Priestess.


Gardner publishes Witchcraft Today, an event which many regard as the founding of Wicca.


Wicca splits into two factions, one that supports Gardner’s growing publicity of the religion (led by Gardner) and one that opposes it (led by Doreen Valiente).


Gardner publishes The Meaning of Witchcraft, in which he first uses the term “Wica.”


Neo–paganism spreads throughout North America and Europe.


Gardner winters in Lebanon to help his failing health.


Gardner dies of heart failure on the SS Scottish Prince in the Mediterranean. His body is buried at the next port of call, Tunis.


The Council of American Witches (which no longer exists) formulated a kind of basic Wiccan creed.


The Covenant of the Goddess is formed to incorporate hundreds of separate Wiccan covens. It is officially recognized as a church in the United States.


The District Court of Virginia declares that Wicca is a legitimate religion protected by the First Amendment.


A federal appeals court ruled that Wicca was a legal religion. Wicca is therefore now protected by the U.S. Constitution as are other religions.


Valiente publishes The Rebirth of Witchcraft, a first-hand account of the history and development of Wicca.


Aiden A. Kelly publishes Crafting the Art of Magic, Book I, which aims to show that Gardner’s Book of Shadows could be entirely traced to earlier sources.


A Wiccan vernal equinox celebration starts a controversy at Fort Hood, Texas.


The Bush Administration votes to allow the pentacle (5 pointed star inside a circle) to be engraved on the headstones of fallen pagan soldiers buried in Arlington National Cemetery and other U.S. military burial grounds.


His Princess: Part 7

Summary: Gabriel has one job and that’s to keep Princess Y/N safe. He finds it easy to protect her physically, but protecting her heart is a different matter. Especially since he falls in love with her when she is supposed to marry someone else.

Warnings: gabrielxreader, Princess!Reader, Knight!Gabriel, some language

Word Count: 2317

Author: Gwen

Parts: One, Two, Three, Four, Five, Six

Rough gray stones scrape against your hands as you try to get in a sitting position. You blink a few times before you can get a clear vision of where you are. Dim light filters in through a high up window. A chilly draft blows through, making you shiver in your dark purple riding gear.

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MBTI types as Roman Emperors.

Suggested by meanroman

ISFJ: Would increase laws rather than change them, the first thing they’d focus about would be courts, to be sure that people had the right justice, keeping cirumstances in mind as well.

ESFJ: Would probably be surrounded by counselors, who would help them making important decisions. They’d have a rather calm and pacific empire, but they’d also be ready to defend themselves at any time.

ISFP: Would make sure that their empire’s temples were different than the others, and would have a quite free empire. Wouldn’t attack other tribes or other kingdoms. Would probably base their economy on unique handmade products.

ESFP: Even though they could be a little unprofessional, they would make a pretty good leader. They would probably be one of the few emperors to also entratain their people by performances and shows of every kind. They would melt with every social group, and they’d attend every social gathering, becoming one of the most liked leaders.

ISTP: Would try to leave their print on their empire. Their realist view of the world would help them with social decisions, which will always be unpredictable (this could be useful in a conflictual situation). They would probably be one of the most likely rulers to join the army as a simple soldier.

ESTP: Scattered conquerors, they’d probably initiate risky excursions in places where no one has been yet. They’ll try to climb mountains, to pass through deserts and to navigate in the most dangerous oceans. Their army would probably be one of the strongest.

ISTJ: Would come off as ruthless and evil dictators, when they’d actually just try to embrace the law without being partial. They’d be organized rulers, with just a few (or none) counselors, because they’d probably be afraid of the possibility of an inside man from another army.

ESTJ: This leader would have full command on the army, and their soldiers would be the best. They’d be rather conservative emperors, with a realistic plan for every situation.

INTJ: The mysterious and solitaire emperor. They would be one of the least likely (if not the least likely) to form alliances with other kingdoms, because they would rather have a strong and unbreakable empire by their own. They’d be visionaries, unpredicatble but still organized. They’d probably be neutral in most of the conflicts.

ENTJ: The ultimate colonizer. With their adventurous yet organized spirit, they’d try to expand their empire as much as they can, probably with success. They’d easily make strategic alliances, creating a win and win situation with smaller kingdoms. Would attack only if needed.

INFJ: The caring leader. Strategic and clever, yet altruistic and full of humanity. Would try to include their people as much as they can in decisions. Would make few strong, resistant and lasting alliances, and would try to make their empire (and the world) a better place, one step at the time.

ENFJ: Probably the first one to introduct full democracy. Would rarely attack, and if they did it would be just to solve a conflict and restore the peace. Their economy would be based upon fully equal exchange of materials. Likely to make alliances with kingdoms with a situation similar to theirs.

INFP: The idealistic leader. Would try to make their empire an utopia, probably being kind of guillable and too optimistic.Would make alliances with stronger kingdoms, to always have a cover.

ENFP: Like the ESFP, they would probably try to live as a normal citizen rather than like a powerful leader. They would organize a lot of new holidays for made-up recurrences, just to make their people more bubbly, happy and carefree.Most likely to make a ton of alliances, but would rarely attack another kingdom.

INTP: Neutral in conflicts, INTPs would make laid-back, quiet and peaceful leaders.They’d rarely go to social gatherings (they’d rather send someone to represent them), so they’d come off as mysterious. Would take rational choices in social and militar matters. They would also try to change laws logically, to make a positive new impact on the world.

ENTP: Would attack other kingdoms without thinking twice, if they had a logic reason to do so. They wouldn’t make a lot of alliances due to their skeptic nature, but if they were completely sure of the loyalty of other kingdoms, then they’d have no problem with helping them.They’d probably stand for the most liberal and revolutionary party.


Cleopatra Full Movie HQ

Cleopatra, famed Egyptian Queen born in 69 BC, is shown to have been brought by Roman ruler Julius Caesar at age 18. Caesar becomes sexually obsessed, beds her, and eventually has a son by her. However, his Roman followers and his wife are not pleased by the union. In fact, as Caesar has only a daughter by his wife, he had picked Octavian as his successor. The out-of-wedlock son of Cleopatra is seen to be a threat to his future leadership. Thus Brutus and other Roman legislators plot the assassination of Caesar. Caesar’s loyal general, Marc Antony, and Octavian then divide up the Roman Empire. Antony takes Egypt and soon takes up the affair with Cleopatra. However, Octavian soon launches an attack on Antony and ultimately defeats and mortally wounds him. Rather than permitting herself to be humiliated by Octavian, Cleopatra sends her son away to India and she commits suicide by permitting the deadly asp to bite her.

A Summary of 2014

♪ On the twelfth day of Hetalia, Himaruya gave to me,

  • Twelve frozen countries

  • Eleven Hetaween maids

  • Ten Roman rulers

  • Nine heroines

  • Eight months of hiatus

  • Seven days of Halloween

  • Six Tumblr memes

  • Five ninjas

  • Four steampunk presidents

  • Three new nations

  • Two world stars

  • And the sixth season of Hetalia! ♪