The tombs offers a couple of suprises. The Corinthian columns are completely Roman, but the shape of the monuments is Punic. The epitaph, for example, is flanked by two eagles, which is customary in this area. The false doors have their closest parallel in the art of ancient Egypt. Oddly, the false door in the northern monument faces the southeast, and not - as one would have expected - the west, the realm of the dead. Perhaps the person who lies buried here, a man named Ben Hamdan, wanted to connect his tomb to the Unconquered Sun (Sol Invictus), which in December rises in the southeast.
Silver Denarius: issued by Julius Caesar when he was fighting a civil war with the supporters of Pompey. It shows a kind of victory monument the Romans set up on battlefields. The equipment shown here is typical of the Celts of Gaul. The political message is clear: ‘Support me, I am the man who conquered Gaul for you’.
Named after the former landowners. It has two floors and an underground burial chamber and is constructed out of laterite in red and yellow, typical of Roman construction in the area in the 2nd century. This was where the Barberini sarcophagus was discovered.
Armed with a 3-D printer and a computer-guided stonecutter, cultural heritage advocates are taking on the jackhammers of the Islamic State and its destructive ideology.
When Islamic State militants seized the Syrian desert town of Palmyra last May, an orgy of demolition began. Using dynamite, fire, bulldozers and pickaxes, the wrecking crew targeted 2,000-year-old Greco-Roman temples, monuments and stone statues. Palmyra’s 20-foot-tall Arch of Triumph, a symbolically important monument, lay in ruins.
For ISIS, it was a frenzied attempt to erase the past — and profit from the illicit sale of the leftovers.
Now, the destroyed Arch of Triumph will rise again, thanks to advances in photogrammetry, which turns photographs into 3-D models. A 12-ton replica of the arch, made of stone, will be installed in London’s Trafalgar Square on Tuesday, with plans to bring it to New York later this year.
~The adventures of a monument~ The Rotunda of Galerius in Thessaloniki, built in 306 AD, once meant to be a temple of Zeus, or a mausoleum for Galerius himself, later turned to an orthodox church of Agios Georgios, to become converted into a mosque by the Ottoman conquerors in 1590. In its original plan, the dome of the Rotunda had an oculus, as does the Pantheon in Rome. Nowdays, the Rotunda is a famous historical monument of Thessaloniki, the monument’s beauty is unaltered in time.
Roman Monuments: The Pantheon as it appears today was rebuilt (after the previous temple on this location burnt down) by emperor Hadrian in 126 AD.
For more than 1700 years, its cupola was the largest in the world. A special blend of Roman concrete was used for the construction, explaining its toughness and the reduced weight of the whole structure. By 609 AD, the Pantheon was used as a Christian church. Nowadays, it is one of the best preserved structures from Roman times, and still a marvellous example of architectural and engineering brilliance.
Roman Monuments: On the outskirts of medieval Rome, the Villa Giulia was erected in 1553 as a summer residence for pope Julius III. Nowadays this jewel of Renaissance architecture houses the Etruscan National Museum (unfortunately, photographing is not allowed indoors).
It’s the highest area in the city, and its cultural and political centre.
This big square
would be the equivalent to the Greek agora or the Roman forum. These two monuments are the eternal flame and fountain, they are dedicated to the gods of fire and water, which are important elements for the people in the city.
Behind the archways there’s the temple of knowledge, which works as a library. Here are kept the documents about the history of the city, the island, the creation of the world and religion according to the citizens.
The building in the second last picture is the school.