rocky planet

We Just Identified More Than 200 New (Potential) Planets

The Kepler space telescope is our first mission capable of identifying Earth-size planets around other stars. On Monday, June 19, 2017, scientists from many countries gathered at our Ames Research Center to talk about the latest results from the spacecraft, which include the identification of more than 200 potential new worlds! Here’s what you need to know:

We found 219 new planet candidates.

All of these worlds were found in a patch of sky near the Cygnus constellation in our Milky Way galaxy. Between 2009 and 2013, Kepler searched more than 200,000 stars in the region for orbiting planets. The 219 new planet candidates are part of the more than 4,000 planet candidates and 2,300 confirmed planets Kepler has identified to date.

Ten of these worlds are like our own.

Out of the 219 new planet candidates, 10 are possibly rocky, terrestrial worlds and orbit their star in the habitable zone – the range of distances from a star where liquid water could pool on the surface of a rocky planet.

Small planets come in two sizes.

Kepler has opened up our eyes to the existence of many small worlds. It turns out a lot of these planets are either approximately 1.5 times the size of Earth or just smaller than Neptune. The cool names given to planets of these sizes? Super Earths and mini-Neptunes.

Some of the new planets could be habitable. 

Water is a key ingredient to life as we know it. Many of the new planet candidates are likely to have small rocky cores enveloped by a thick atmosphere of hydrogen and helium, and some are thought to be ocean worlds. That doesn’t necessarily mean the oceans of these planets are full of water, but we can dream, can’t we?

Other Earths are out there.

Kepler’s survey has made it possible for us to measure the number of Earth-size habitable zone planets in our galaxy. Determining how many planets like our own that exist is the big question we’ll explore next.

The hunt for new planets continues.

Kepler continues to search for planets in different regions of space. With the launch of our Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) in 2018, we’re going to search for planets nearest the sun and measure the composition of their atmospheres. In the mid-2020s, we have our sights on taking a picture of small planets like Earth with our Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST).

*All images of planets are artist illustrations.

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Some intriguing exoplanets

An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet that orbits a star other than the Sun. The first scientific detection of an exoplanet was in 1988. However, the first confirmed detection came in 1992; since then, and as of 1 April 2017, there have been 3,607 exoplanets discovered in 2,701 planetary systems and 610 multiple planetary systems confirmed.

1- Kepler-186f

was the first rocky planet to be found within the habitable zone – the region around the host star where the temperature is right for liquid water. This planet is also very close in size to Earth. Even though we may not find out what’s going on at the surface of this planet anytime soon, it’s a strong reminder of why new technologies are being developed that will enable scientists to get a closer look at distant worlds.

2- CoRoT 7b

The first super-Earth identified as a rocky exoplanet, this planet proved that worlds like the Earth were indeed possible and that the search for potentially habitable worlds (rocky planets in the habitable zone) might be fruitful.

3- Kepler-22b  

A planet in the habitable zone and a possible water-world planet unlike any seen in our solar system.

4- Kepler 10-b

Kepler’s first rocky planet discovery is a scorched, Earth-size world that scientists believe may have a lava ocean on its surface.

5- 55 Cancri e

55 Cancri e is a toasty world that rushes around its star every 18 hours. It orbits so closely – about 25 times closer than Mercury is to our sun – that it is tidally locked with one face forever blisters under the heat of its sun. The planet is proposed to have a rocky core surrounded by a layer of water in a “supercritical” state, where it is both liquid and gas, and then the whole planet is thought to be topped by a blanket of steam.

6- 51 Pegasi b

This giant planet, which is about half the mass of Jupiter and orbits its star every four days, was the first confirmed exoplanet around a sun-like star, a discovery that launched a whole new field of exploration.

7- Kepler-444 system

The oldest known planetary system has five terrestrial-sized planets, all in orbital resonance. This weird group showed that solar systems have formed and lived in our galaxy for nearly its entire existence.

8- PSR B1257+12 system

Discovered in 1992 and 1994, the planets that orbit pulsar PSR B1257+12 are not only the smallest planetary bodies known to exist outside our solar system, they also orbit a neutron star. These weird “pulsar planets” demonstrated that planets exist in all environments in the galaxy – even around the remnants of an exploded star.

9- HD 80606 b  

This world has the most eccentric orbit, and as one scientist put it, “wears its heart on its sleeve,” with storms, rotation, atmospheric heating, and a crazy orbit all plainly visible.

10- OGLE-2005-BLG-390

Considered to be the first cold super Earth, this exoplanet began to form a Jupiter-like core of rock and ice, but couldn’t grow fast enough in size. Its final mass is five times that of Earth. The planet’s nickname is Hoth, after a planet from Star War

Credits: NASA / JPL-Caltech

As seen in the posts about space Australia, and one mentioning AILENS coming during a zombie epidemic (fuckin beautiful I need that to be a story) I had this idea. Group of teenagers. Zombie apocalypse + Aliens. That one post on how weird it is that when we get scared we SING.

Idea: Teenagers singing MCR’s “mama” in the middle of fending off a horde of zombies. Aliens in the sky just happen to listen in.
____
It had been weeks sense flight crew 158-a landed on the rocky planet, and days since they realized the main intelligent species had been overrun by a viral infection. 3 Terran days ago, they found the group. 10 fledgeling humans, ages seeming to range from before to after development, camping within one of the previous schooling establishments. This one, like a surprising amount of others, had been built with extreme procedure to cause people to be unable to enter or exit. Quite odd, indeed.

What was stranger, is how the humans held their ground during an attack. An estimate of over 60 of the infected, all making their way towards the camp. Instead of fleeing like any Zerca would, they stayed put loading their guns and making their way to high points. On top of the gates, through second-story windows, trees decorating the front and back of the building. And then they waited, and the strangest thing happened. A loud drumming sound came from within the school, coupled with other instruments, and it was resonating with one of the bottom floor rooms. And then their voices started, seemingly ritualistic, anger in the words as bullets started to fire.

“Mama, we all go to hell. Mama we all go to hell-”

Solar System: 10 Things to Know This Week...Halloween Edition!

This week, we’re getting into the Halloween spirit with 10 spooktacular things to let your imagination run wild. 

It’s not Halloween without our favorite scary characters, but what if they could stop bothering us Earthlings and go far, far away? We begin with where Dracula, Frankenstein, and other creepy creatures might choose to live if the galaxy were theirs to claim…

1. The dark (k)night.

The prince of darkness himself, Dracula, can finally seek sweet respite from the Sun. We think he’d love to live on a rocky planet named YZ Ceti d that orbits so close to its red star that it’s tidally locked keeping one side of the planet in perpetual nighttime and the other side in perpetual daytime, with a brilliant red sky (though we can guess which side Dracula will prefer). 

2. Where art thou, werewolves? 

Home sweet home for our furry Full Moon friends might just be on Trappist-1, a planetary system with seven planets—and where standing on one planet would mean the other planets look like six moons (some as big as our Moon in the sky). 

3. Left in the dust. 

We couldn’t think of anyone better to live on Proxima b than The Mummy. Hopefully this ancient monster can finally rest in peace on an exoplanet that scientists theorize is a desert planet once home to ancient oceans. 

4. Cloudy with a chance of Frankenstein.

One scientific experiment we’d like to conduct: whether Frankenstein would rather live on HAT-P-11b or Kepler-3b, theorized to have fierce thunderstorms and lightning. 

5. The walking dead. 

We’re pretty confident that if zombies were to pick a planet, they’d want one that shares their love of death and destruction. We think they’d feel right at home on one of the pulsar planets, which are scorched by radiation because they orbit a dead star. 

6. Rest your weary bones. 

Skeletons need look no further: Osiris, an exoplanet that’s so close to a star that it’s “losing its flesh” as the star destroys it, seems like a perfect match. 

7. Enough of the scary stuff. 

For kids out there, turn pumpkin decorating into an out-of-this-world activity with space-themed stencils, from Saturn to the Sun. 

8. Spooky sounds. 

Cassini’s radio emissions from Saturn could give creaky doors and howling winds a run for their money. Listen to the eerie audio recordings here and find more HERE.

9. Pumpkin-carve like a NASA engineer. 

NASA engineers design and build robots that can fly millions of miles to study other planets for a living—so on Halloween, they can’t help but bring that creative thinking to the grand old tradition of pumpkin carving. Take a cue from their creations with these insider tips.

10. Detective for a day. 

From blades of ice on Pluto to a fuzzy, white “bunny” photographed on Mars, become a solar system sleuth and see if you can solve the stellar mysteries in this slideshow (then compare with how scientists cracked the case). 

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.

telegraph.co.uk
Nasa discover new solar system with ‘best chance yet of alien life’ yet - LIVE
Life may have evolved on at least three planets in a newly discovered solar system just 39 light years from Earth, NASA has announced.

⚠️️ BREAKTHROUGH  ⚠️️ 

Nasa is currently livestreaming a conference about the discovery of a new solar system !

“Astronomers have detected no less than seven Earth-sized worlds orbiting a cool dwarf star known as TRAPPIST-1.The six inner planets lie in a temperate zone where surface temperatures range from zero to 100C.

Of these, at least three are thought to be capable of having oceans, increasing the likelihood of life.

No other star system known contains such a large number of Earth-sized and probably rocky planets.”

I AM SO EXCITED

angst is lit and all but one of my favorite things is domestic future fics! give me 27 year old lance being captured bc he had a space cold and wasnt at the top of his game and is all chained and just sighs like “jesus fucking CHRIST am i gonna get roasted when they come rescue me who eve gets captured anymore smh keith is gonna kill me i dont want his passive aggressive post capture cuddles” 

or when they find a new place to go to and it’s a rocky planet and shiros like “oh man we better keep hunk back we don’t want his rock kink to come out :/” shiro’s a SAVAGE even at 35

they visit their families and have a bigass dinner and their fams are like :/? i do not understand?? bc they have their own ‘been together in space figting aliens for 10 years’ language

they still ROAST keith for I CRADLED YOU IN MY ARMS!!! klance are cuddling and it’s 6 am and it’s space mall day and they have a few more hours before it’s time to leave and they’re chillin and lanc just whispers “we’re having a bonding moment! im cradling you in my ArMs!” and keith punches him ://

also coran being really weird? but still sweet and as a lil 18 year old baby lance confesses he feels like a 7th wheel and coran is :/? wat that Mean?? and when lance explains coran builds a vehicle that needs 7 wheels exactly and pidge helped bc she didnt fucking know and coran is so PROUD when e presents it… that 9 years later they still use it for going around in the castle and lance is :’) when he sees it (and keith gets rly sappy with him)

matt stays with them (sam goes home) bc he wants to be there for shiro and pidge and they’re so cute together and allura liked shir but seeing him with matt made her really happy (she has a princess gf or something) and lance and matt compete over who’s a cuter couple (it’s a tie bc shiro and matt play dirty but keith is so sappy but also doesn’t know that there’s a competition)

9

Saturn’s Moon, Enceladus, Is Our Closest Great Hope For Life Beyond Earth

“Cassini provided scientists with a wealth of data about Enceladus’ surface and the composition of its powerful plumes. This data showed evidence of a deep saltwater ocean with an energy source beneath Enceladus’ surface. The presence of water, warmth, and organic molecules are the necessary requirements for sustaining life as we know it. Water is proven to exist, while the tidal forces from Saturn provide the necessary heat. Based on observations of other bodies in the Solar System, Enceladus likely contains the raw ingredients for life as well. The suspected existence of all three hints at the possible presence of the precursors to amino acids in this vast subsurface ocean. Should we find extraterrestrial life on Enceladus – or in the geyser-like plumes erupting into space – the implications are almost incomprehensible.”

When you think about life beyond Earth, you likely think of it occurring on a somewhat Earth-like planet. A rocky world, with either a past or present liquid ocean atop the surface, seems ideal. But that might not even be where life on Earth originated! Deep beneath the Earth’s surface, geologically active hydrothermal vents currently support diverse colonies of life without any energy from the Sun. Saturn’s icy moon, Enceladus, has a subsurface ocean unlike any other world we’ve yet discovered. The tidal forces of Saturn itself provide the necessary heat, and also create cracks in the Enceladean surface, enabling massive geysers. This subsurface ocean rises hundreds of kilometers high, regularly resurfaces the world with a coat of fresh ice, and even creates the E-ring of Saturn. But most spectacularly, it may house actively living organisms, and could be the next-best world for life, after Earth, in the Solar System today.

Come get the full story on Enceladus, and welcome Starts With A Bang’s newest contributor, the remarkable Jesse Shanahan!

Taking the Vital Signs of Mars

Does Mars have quakes? What is the temperature of the Red Planet? How did Mars even form? What can it tell us about how other rocky planets formed?

The Mars InSight lander is scheduled to launch in May 2018 to search for the answers to those questions.

InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) will conduct the first thorough “check-up” of Mars in more than 4.5 billion years, measuring its “pulse”, or seismic activity; its temperature; and its “reflexes” (the way the planet wobbles when it is pulled by the Sun and its moons).

How and Why?

By using sophisticated instruments – tools that can measure the vital signs of a planet – InSight will delve deep beneath the surface of Mars, detecting the clues left by the earliest stages of planetary formation.  

Previous Mars missions have explored the surface history of the Red Planet. Mars has been less geologically active than Earth, so it retains a more complete record of its history in its core, mantle and crust. InSight will study the sizes, densities and overall structure of the Red Planet’s core, mantle and crust. 

The lander will also measure the rate at which heat escapes from the planet’s interior, and provide glimpses into the evolutionary processes of all the rocky planets in our solar system, including Earth, and even those circling other stars!

Send Your Name to Mars!

You can send your name to Mars onboard the InSight lander! The deadline to get your Martian boarding pass is Nov. 1. To submit your name, visit: mars.nasa.gov/syn/insight

Learn more about Mars InSight HERE.

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9

Seven planets, including three habitable ones, found around ultra-cool dwarf star

“Unlike the worlds in our Solar System, each one should be tidally locked to the parent star, meaning that the same side always sees “day” while the opposite side resides in eternal night. Yet life on Earth began in the oceans, and of these seven worlds, the fourth, fifth and sixth might all have conditions to support liquid oceans or lakes – if the atmosphere is favorable – bathed in eternal sunlight.”

What is it that makes our Solar System special? It’s Earth, of course. A rocky planet of the right mass and composition, the right distance from our Sun, the right atmosphere, the surface oceans, and all the life that’s ensued is what makes us special. Not just special, but unique, at least among the planets we’ve found so far. But there are other planetary systems out there with Earth-like worlds. Similar to Earth in mass, size, temperature and many other conditions, these might represent planets where life similar to what we find here arose. For the first time, we’ve found a planetary system with not just one Earth-like, potentially habitable world, but three!

Come meet the worlds around the ultra-cool star TRAPPIST-1, and learn what the prospects are for these worlds being truly Earth-like.

Solar System: Things to Know This Week

What’s next for NASA? A quick look at some of the big things coming up:

1. We will add to our existing robotic fleet at the Red Planet with the InSight Mars lander set to study the planet’s interior.

This terrestrial planet explorer will address one of the most fundamental issues of planetary and solar system science - understanding the processes that shaped the rocky planets of the inner solar system (including Earth) more than four billion years ago.

2. The Mars 2020 rover will look for signs of past microbial life, gather samples for potential future return to Earth.

The Mars 2020 mission takes the next step by not only seeking signs of habitable conditions on the Red Planet in the ancient past, but also searching for signs of past microbial life itself. The Mars 2020 rover introduces a drill that can collect core samples of the most promising rocks and soils and set them aside in a “cache” on the surface of Mars.

3. The James Webb Space Telescope will be the premier observatory of the next decade, studying the history of our Universe in infrared.

Webb will study every phase in the history of our Universe, ranging from the first luminous glows after the Big Bang, to the formation of solar systems capable of supporting life on planets like Earth, to the evolution of our own solar system.

4. The Parker Solar Probe will “touch the Sun,” traveling closer to the surface than any spacecraft before.

This spacecraft, about the size of a small car, will travel directly into the sun’s atmosphere about 4 million miles from our star’s surface. Parker Solar Probe and its four suites of instruments – studying magnetic and electric fields, energetic particles, and the solar wind – will be protected from the Sun’s enormous heat by a 4.5-inch-thick carbon-composite heat shield.

5. Our OSIRIS-REx spacecraft arrives at the near-Earth asteroid Bennu in August 2018, and will return a sample for study in 2023.

This mission will help scientists investigate how planets formed and how life began, as well as improve our understanding of asteroids that could impact Earth.

6. Launching in 2018, the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will search for planets around 200,000 bright, nearby stars.

The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is the next step in the search for planets outside of our solar system (exoplanets), including those that could support life. The mission will find exoplanets that periodically block part of the light from their host stars, events called transits.

7. A mission to Jupiter’s ocean-bearing moon Europa is being planned for launch in the 2020s.

The mission will place a spacecraft in orbit around Jupiter in order to perform a detailed investigation of Europa – a world that shows strong evidence for an ocean of liquid water beneath its icy crust and which could host conditions favorable for life.

8. We will launch our first integrated test flight of the Space Launch System rocket and Orion spacecraft, known as Exploration Mission-1.

The Space Launch System rocket will launch with Orion atop it. During Exploration Mission-1, Orion will venture thousands of miles beyond the moon during an approximately three week mission.

9. We are looking at what a flexible deep space gateway near the Moon could be.

We’ve issued a draft announcement seeking U.S. industry-led studies for an advanced solar electric propulsion (SEP) vehicle capability. The studies will help define required capabilities and reduce risk for the 50 kilowatt-class SEP needed for the agency’s near-term exploration goals.

10. Want to know more? Read the full story.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.

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The Greatest Cosmic Puzzle: Astronomers Find Stars That Appear Older Than The Universe

“Now, it’s always possible that there’s something fishy that happened in the star’s past that we can’t know about today. It’s possible that it was born as a higher-mass star and something stripped the outer layers off, reducing the star’s lifetime precipitously. It’s possible that the star absorbed some material later-in-life that changed its heavy element content, skewing our perceptions today. Or it’s possible that we’ve got a misunderstanding in the subgiant phase of the stellar evolution of these old, low-metallicity stars. These unknowns (and in some cases, unknowables) are possible sources of errors when we try and compute the ages of the oldest stars.

But if we’ve got these ages right, there might potentially be a problem. You can’t have a star that exists in our Universe that’s older than the Universe itself. Either something’s wrong with our estimates for the ages of some of these stars, something’s wrong with our estimates for the age of the Universe, or something else, that we’re not even considering, is off.”

Age may be just a number, but in cosmic terms, there are some rules it’s pretty important to obey. It should be impossible to have a complex creature that’s older than the planets; a rocky planet that predates the stars; or a star that’s older than the Universe itself. With a figure of 13.8 billion years, we’ve arrived at an incredibly accurate estimate for the age of the Universe since the Big Bang from a slew of different sources, and so nothing should be older than that. When we survey the stars in the Milky Way, however, we find not only many that are older than 12 billion years, but a few that may predate the galaxy itself, hailing from just 300 million years after the Big Bang. In one alarming find, though, there’s a particular star, HD 140283, that appears to be 14.5 billion years old. A star older than the Universe itself is impossible, of course, but there’s got to be a reason for this discrepancy.

Is the age of the star wrong? Our estimate for the age of the Universe? Or is something else afoot? Regardless, there’s more to learn, and a compelling cosmic puzzle to investigate here.

Keith and Shiro’s bond is stronger than we realize.

So after finishing season two not even 12 hours after it aired, and with many things becoming canon (aka Galra Keith), I had to go back to the first episode to watch it all again and actually understand every detail.

So we all know that Keith and Shiro were left stranded in a rocky planet full of lizard-like creatures that are not friendly at all. We see an injured Shiro, a distraught Keith and more importantly: both of them trying to desperately find each other. We see Shiro at his most vulnerable and Keith going through as many obstacles as needed: jumping across a void, running through geisers, almost dying…

He even has Shiro’s words in his mind all the time:

Let’s remember that Shiro BARELY remembers who Keith is, and their past together, in the Garrison or wherever it took place, is unclear. But Keith obviously remembers Shiro since the beginning, which is obvious since S01E01, when he rescues Shiro.

This conection, I’m positive, is bigger than what he has with Lance, Pidge or Hunk. I mean, sure, he has a bond with his fellow paladins, but hear me out: Shiro is his priority.

His connection and bond with Shiro comes from even before the other paladins even met.

Let’s start by one of the biggest moments: the Black Lion.

When Shiro is baldy hurt and in critical danger because of the alien lizards, the Lion, the one that was barely loyal to Shiro and even had an inclination for Zarkon, is still unactive while its paladin is near death. We all know Shiro had issues with his Lion that continue to develop, but what happens as soon as Keith tries to make contact with the Black Lion?

It recieves Keith. It lets Keith take control and safe Shiro. It let another paladin that had a totally different Lion hop in and take control.

You could say “yeah, Black did it for Shiro, it needed someone to control it to act and Keith was the only one, so it had no choice”, but let’s remember that Red could act without a pilot whenever Keith was in danger various times through the season. That either means that Keith has an outstanding connection to the Lions (which is totally possible, considering that he was the one to find the Blue Lion first), or the Black Lion recognized Shiro and Keith’s bond and trusted, I repeat, trusted Keith enough to control him, just as Shiro completely trusts Keith.

Which means that Shiro and Keith’s bond is gigantic, and perhaps one of the strongest within the paladins.

Also, the infamous quote:

There it is. It’s obvious. Shiro has all his trust placed on Keith, who he doesn’t even remember properly. And, oh, when did he say this? Right after he saw Keith and the Black Lion’s connection, and saw that Keith was able to lead the Black Lion without any issues, and now sees that Keith could lead Voltron.

And it’s not even a thing that happened once. It’s not just Shiro being delirious and wounded in a stranded planet with little to no hope of being rescued. He even says it again:

It is clear that this was no mistake. Shiro trusts Keith. He would place the huge duty of leading Voltron on him because he knows better than anyone of what Keith is capable, and makes sure that Keith knows.

That is the amount of trust they have in each other.

Second Moment: The Marmora Headquarters.

Now we get to see the bond from both sides: Shiro, worried to death as he sees Keith being beaten up over and over again, and Keith, still having Shiro as a predominant thought.

Shiro obviously doesn’t want Keith to go through the trials. He might die. Voltron would lose a paladin, and most importantly, Shiro might lose one of his most important conections to his past, Keith himself.

But then this scene comes up:

He smiles. There is relieve all over him when he sees Shiro coming to help him. And we know for a a fact that Keith Kogane does not smile often.

We are told that Keith is seeing his hopes and feares being materialized before him. I think the method they use is take the person’s biggest hope, and make that one hope throw all his fears at him. That would make anyone fall into despair, right?

And who is Keith’s biggest hope?

Shiro.

Takashi fucking Shirogane.

He is beaten up, has almost fainted, is losing hope, just wants the truth about his past and himself and where he comes from and who he is. But what does he want over all?

Edit: Shiro’s reaction during this moment.

So, yes, Keith is beaten up. He can barely stand up. He is weak, he is suffering, and Shiro, knowing he is in pain, intervenes without a doubt, and you know why? Because he knows how it feels to have your past torture you, to feel despair, to have your mind attack you, and he won’t let Keith go through that. So he forces his way through soldiers that could easily defeat him, as he is outnumbered, and places his own self in danger.

For Keith.

And as soon as he gets to Keith and has him with him, and he sees a soldier trying to attack Keith to take away the blade, it doesn’t even stop for a second and drops everything to go protect Keith.

To me, that’s who Shiro is: A man, broken and distraught by his past and his trauma, that will defend those he loves without doubting, even if it means that he will get hurt or die. He did the same for Matt in the Galra Prison: he placed himself in danger to save him. He did the same with Allura: he went back for her and got terribly injured in the process.

And now he does it for Keith.

Third point: Keith is growing.

This is an obvious point after he learned his Galra origins. Keith, either because of his new knowledge or because he now knows Shiro sees him as his right hand and possible future leader, becomes warmer, more open, even congratulates his teammates like Shiro does. He grows as a person and becomes more mature despite still being hotheaded:

This could be taken as him learning from Shiro, or trying to follow his advice to become a better person. Whatever it is, Keith is growing so much in a small amount of time. He is no longer a loner emo teen, but is opening to his surroundings and to new people, which we know didn’t happen before in his life since he is an orphan with almost no knowledge of his past, a loner, and a dropout.

If that is not what strong bonds do, then I don’t know what does.

More Moments:

Unlike Allura, who held a grudge against Keith for some episodes due to him having Galra blood in his veins, Shiro never attacked or was afraid of Keith. He knows his buddy is still there, that nothing has changed, and will still be there for him, Galra or not.

Keith is always checking, during battles, that Shiro is okay. He not only intervened in Zarkon’s laser at the end of season one so that he wouldn’t take the Black Lion, but he is, most of the time if not always, the first one to realize that Shiro is in trouble.

Shiro is the only one that says goodbye to him before their individual missions.

He is the first one and the most desperate to reach Shiro’s lion at the end of this season.

He is even placed as the focus of attention when they realize that Shiro is gone.

IN CONCLUSION: Shiro and Keith’s bond was extremely developed in this season and both characters, specially Keith, grew due to that bond. I hope that next season will give us more to this – specially the story of how they met – but this season did a great job developing both characters and making Keith not just a broody, emo boy with almost no time to develop.

Solar System: Things to Know This Week

Earth is the ultimate ocean planet (that we know of), but it turns out that our solar system has water in some surprising places, with five ocean-bearing moons and potentially several more worlds with their own oceans. 

1. The Original “Alien Ocean”

Our Galileo spacecraft (1989-2003) detected the first evidence of an ocean beyond Earth under the ice of Jupiter’s icy moon Europa.

2. Lost Oceans

There are signs that Mars and Venus once had oceans, but something catastrophic may have wiped them out. Earth’s natural force field – our magnetosphere – acts like shield against the erosive force of the solar wind.

3. Earth, the Original Ocean World

The search for life beyond Earth relies, in large part, on understanding our home planet. Among the newest Earth ocean explorers us the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System, or CYGNSS–a constellation of microsatellites that will make detailed measurements of wind speeds over Earth’s oceans to help understand hurricanes. The spacecraft have moved into their science operations phase.

4. Sister Ships

It’s fitting the first mission to explore an alien ocean is named in honor of fast-sailing clipper ships of old. Our Europa Clipper spacecraft will seek signs of habitability on Jupiter’s moon Europa.

5. Game Changer

Scientists expected Saturn’s moon Enceladus to be a tiny, solid chunk of ice and rock. But, not long after arriving at Saturn, our Cassini spacecraft made a series of incremental discoveries, eventually confirming that a global subsurface ocean is venting into space, with signs of hydrothermal activity.

6. Why Ocean Worlds Matter

“The question of whether or not life exists beyond Earth, the question of whether or not biology works beyond our home planet, is one of humanity’s oldest and yet unanswered questions. And for the first time in the history of humanity, we have the tools and technology and capability to potentially answer this question. And, we know where to go to find it. Jupiter’s ocean world Europa.” - Kevin Hand, NASA Astrobiologist

7. More Alien Oceans

Scientists think Jupiter’s giant moons Ganymede and Callisto also hide oceans beneath their surfaces. Elsewhere in the solar system, scientists hope to look for hidden oceans on far-flung worlds from Ceres in the main asteroid belt to Pluto in the Kuiper Belt.

8. Cold Faithful(s)?

Thanks to our Cassini orbiter we know the tiny moon Enceladus is venting its ocean into space in a towering, beautiful plume. The Hubble Space Telescope also has seen tantalizing hints of plumes on Jupiter’s moon Europa. Plumes are useful because they provide samples of ocean chemistry for oceans that could be miles below the surface and difficult for spacecraft to reach. It’s like they’re giving out free samples!

9. Titanic Seas and Ocean

Saturn’s moon Titan not only has liquid hydrocarbon seas on its surface. It also shows signs of a global, subsurface saltwater ocean–making the giant moon a place to possibly look for life as we know it and life as we don’t know it … yet.

10. Oceans Beyond

Several of the thousands of planets discovered beyond our solar system orbit their stars in zones where liquid surface water is possible–including Proxima-b, a rocky planet orbiting the star nearest to our own.

BONUS: Adopt a bit of YOUR Ocean World

We invite everyone to help us celebrate Earth Day 2017 by virtually adopting a piece of Earth as seen from space. Your personalized adoption certificate will feature data from our Earth-observing satellites for a randomly assigned location, much of it ocean (it is 70 percent of the Earth’s surface after all!). Print it and share it, then explore other locations with our interactive map and get even more Earth science data from NASA’s Worldview website.

Visit go.nasa.gov/adopt to adopt your piece of the planet today!

Discover more lists of 10 things to know about our solar system HERE.

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