Abies bifolia is in the pine family Pinaceae. Commonly known as Rocky Mountains subalpine fir, it is native to the Rocky Mountain Range from New Mexico north to Alaska. The taxonomic classification of this species is disputed among sources, with some recognizing this tree as its own species and others claiming that it is a variety of the more widespread Abies lasiocarpa. The Rocky Mountains subalpine fir is a coniferous tree that can grow up to 100 feet tall and is found throughout subalpine mountainous areas. The cones are a dark gray-blue and are borne erect above the leaves, a characteristic of many fir species. These cones produce a clear sticky resin that helps to prevent damage and attack from insects as the seeds inside the cone mature.


Kalmia microphylla is in the blueberry family Ericaceae. Commonly known as bog laurel, it is native to the western United States and Canada. Bog laurel is found near streams and lakes throughout the North American mountain ranges at high elevations. Like other members of the blueberry family, the petals are fused together in the bog laurel, although the flowers more resemble a shallow cup instead of an urn like their blueberry relatives. The five petals have small indentations where the stamens push into as the flower develops. This puts the pollen bearing stamens under tension so that when a pollinator lands on the flower, the stamens bend inward and shower the insect with pollen, so that it can fertilize the next flower it visits.