rocket stage

23 Black Female Scientists Who Changed The Damn World

Okay so prior to Alice, people had known for hundreds of years that a potential treatment to leprosy existed in the form of something called Chaulmoogra oil. It was too thick to effectively circulate through the body, but Alice Ball, science prodigy and chemist extraordinaire, was the one who FINALLY figured how to turn it into a working treatment. It’s thanks to her that a leprosy crisis was avoided in the early 1900s. Bless you, Alice.

Stay with me for a second because this is actual rocket science. Centaur is a second-stage rocket launcher: the workhorse of the rocket world used to propel countless probes and satellites into space. It’s been invaluable to NASA since its creation, first allowing the U.S. to catch up to the Soviet Union during the space race, and eventually propelling spacecrafts to land on the moon and fly by other planets in the solar system.

So yes: Annie Easley helped DO that. She also contributed energy research to power plants and electronic batteries, which enabled the creation of hybrid vehicles. Go ahead and thank Annie for those, too.

Prior to Jeanne, the impact of discrimination and its accompanying stress factors were rarely explored or acknowledged in relationship to health. She also researched the impact of racism on childhood development and ways to approach therapy that addressed the needs of people of color. And Jeanne broke a ton of ground for black psychologists through her roles in academia and her publications.

Jewel researched ways to alter cell growth AND experimented with growing human tumor tissue outside of the human body to use for cancer treatment tests (instead of testing on living people). As if that wasn’t enough, she also helped to form the National Science Foundation’s Committee on Women and Minorities in Science.

The chair of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission monitors the byproduct of nuclear reactors, so it’s a pretty big deal. Shirley also served on a bunch of advisory boards for international security and energy, AND she was the first black woman to get a Ph.D from MIT.

See the full list:

23 Black Female Scientists Who Changed The Damn World

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Flying through the Falcon Factory

Science in Space!

What science is headed to the International Space Station with Orbital ATK’s cargo resupply launch? From investigations that study magnetic cell culturing to crystal growth, let’s take a look…

Orbital ATK is targeted to launch its Cygnus spacecraft into orbit on April 18, delivering tons of cargo, supplies and experiments to the crew onboard.

Efficacy and Metabolism of Azonafide Antibody-Drug Conjugates in Microgravity Investigation

In microgravity, cancer cells grow in 3-D. Structures that closely resemble their form in the human body, which allows us to better test the efficacy of a drug. This experiment tests new antibody drug conjugates.

These conjugates combine an immune-activating drug with antibodies and target only cancer cells, which could potentially increase the effectiveness of chemotherapy and potentially reduce the associated side-effects. Results from this investigation could help inform drug design for cancer patients, as well as more insight into how microgravity effects a drug’s performance.

Genes in Space

The Genes in Space-2 experiment aims to understand how the regulation of telomeres (protective caps on the tips of chromosomes) can change during spaceflight. Julian Rubinfien, 16-year-old DNA scientist and now space researcher, is sending his experiment to space as part of this investigation. 

3-D Cell Culturing in Space

Cells cultured in space spontaneously grow in 3-D, as opposed to cells cultured on Earth which grow in 2-D, resulting in characteristics more representative of how cells grow and function in living organisms. The Magnetic 3-D Cell Culture for Biological Research in Microgravity investigation will test magnetized cells and tools that may make it easier to handle cells and cell cultures.

This could help investigators improve the ability to reproduce similar investigations on Earth.

SUBSA

The Solidification Using a Baffle in Sealed Ampoules (SUBSA) investigation was originally operated successfully aboard the space station in 2002. 

Although it has been updated with modernized software, data acquisition, high definition video and communications interfaces, its objective remains the same: advance our understanding of the processes involved in semiconductor crystal growth. 

Space Debris

Out-of-function satellites, spent rocket stages and other debris frequently reenter Earth’s atmosphere, where most of it breaks up and disintegrates before hitting the ground. However, some larger objects can survive. The Thermal Protection Material Flight Test and Reentry Data Collection (RED-Data2) investigation will study a new type of recording device that rides alongside of a spacecraft reentering the Earth’s atmosphere. Along the way, it will record data about the extreme conditions it encounters, something scientists have been unable to test on a large scale thus afar.

Understanding what happens to a spacecraft as it reenters the atmosphere could lead to increased accuracy of spacecraft breakup predictions, an improved design of future spacecraft and the development of materials that can resist the extreme heat and pressure of returning to Earth. 

IceCube CubeSat

IceCube, a small satellite known as a CubeSat, will measure cloud ice using an 883-Gigahertz radiometer. Used to predict weather and climate models, IceCube will collect the first global map of cloud-induced radiances. 

The key objective for this investigation is to raise the technology readiness level, a NASA assessment that measures a technology’s maturity level.

Advanced Plant Habitat

Joining the space station’s growing list of facilities is the Advanced Plant Habitat, a fully enclosed, environmentally controlled plant habitat used to conduct plant bioscience research. This habitat integrates proven microgravity plant growth processes with newly-developed technologies to increase overall efficiency and reliability. 

The ability to cultivate plants for food and oxygen generation aboard the space station is a key step in the planning of longer-duration, deep space missions where frequent resupply missions may not be a possibility.

Watch Launch!

Orbital ATK and United Launch Alliance (ULA) are targeting Tuesday, April 18 for launch of the Cygnus cargo spacecraft to the International Space Station. Liftoff is currently slated for 11 a.m. EST.

Watch live HERE.

You can also watch the launch live in 360! This will be the world’s first live 360-degree stream of a rocket launch. Watch the 360 stream HERE.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com

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     While driving down Interstate 5 through Santa Ana, California, you may have spotted this rocket. Even for space fans, identifying this vehicle may be difficult. It is a rare Delta Cryogenic Second Stage (DCSS) for the short lived Delta III rocket. This DCSS has a home at Discovery Cube Orange County, where she acts as an effective billboard for this educational museum. This equipment is appropriately placed near Huntington Beach where this particular payload fairing was manufactured.

     On August 27, 1998, the Delta 259 mission lifted off from Launch Complex 17B at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, marking the first flight of a Delta III, carrying the Galaxy 10 communication satellite. During the burn of its first stage, a design flaw in the rocket’s guidance system caused it to violently diverge from its planned trajectory and begin to break up. During the breakup process, the flight termination system was activated by the range safety officer, causing what was left of the rocket to explode. The Galaxy 10 satellite could be seen that night as a flaming ball streaking down until it spectacularly exploded as it hit the Atlantic Ocean. 

     The second flight of a Delta III would take place on May 5, 1999, as the Delta 269 mission flew from the same pad. Thanks to a manufacturing flaw in the Pratt & Whitney RL10B-2 engine, the second stage burn was cut short, causing the stage to tumble into a useless orbit. The Orion 3 communication satellite was written off and a second payload was lost.

     A final flight of the Delta III would take place on August 23, 2000, with the Delta 280 mission, which carried a dummy payload called DM-F3. This time, the flight was a success, but it was too late for the Delta III. The commercial satellite industry took a steep dive in the late 1990s. The more powerful Delta IV was just a few years away from its first flight, and Boeing was pursuing a more conservative Delta II Heavy rocket. These factors, combined with the failures, caused the Delta III to be quietly shelved. Some spare parts from the program were flown on various Delta II and Delta IV flights, and in the late 2000s, Boeing donated this DCSS to Discovery Cube Orange County where it stands today, greeting passersby on Interstate 5.

Imagine babysitting Groot with Peter...

Originally posted by nicolasprenger

Warnings: way too cute for human consumption, probably language

A/N: This was a request by @grootiez. I hope you like it because I loved it. Definitely spurred more Groot ideas.

Tags: @bitch-m-fabulous , @thecupcakeconsumer, @courtneychicken

You sat reading aloud next to the tiny planted Groot. He had been growing well since sacrificing himself and you hoped he would talk soon. You never met full sized Groot but between the stories and how much time you spent sitting with Baby Groot, you were pretty sure you would have loved him. The group was supposed to be going into the city on the planet you just landed so that they could collect some general supplies and maybe intel. You hated going outside so you opted out and just gave Rocket a brief list in exchange for you staying with Groot.ย 

Keep reading

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Landing

Stages of Rocketshipping

Look at these dorky villains.

They must be really good friends. Look how cute they are.

Holy Matrimony. WHAT HAPPENED IN THAT BALLOON?! OMG!

Training Daze? OMG! KISS! Damn it Meowth!

What are you doing, James??

And they’re in the hot spring together, NAKED?!

THEY JUST PROMISED TO MEET IN THE AFTERLIFE OMG!

So when are they getting married/having babies, writers? Hmmmm?!

Eighty-Four Years Later

Any other band opening their show: HEY GUYS! WELCOME TO OUR SHOW!


Muse opening their show: Two robots come on stage and fight and then they both explode and glitter comes out and then drones come and fly over the audience and then they explode and then there’s fire and then some rockets crash into the stage and light comes out of the rockets and then Matt Bellamy flies down on one of them wire things wearing an alien costume and then Chris and Dom fly down too and Dick Down starts playing and everyone dies

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Space Age turns 60: Sputnik-1 and the paradigm shift of history.

Sixty years ago, the Soviet Union thrust the world into the Space Age with the launch of the world’s first artificial satellite, Sputnik-1.

Weighing 83-kilograms and measuring just under two feet in diameter, Sputnik’s ubiquitous beeping and the visibility of its accompanying rocket stage in the night sky plunged America into a deep fear that the Soviets were suddenly technologically superior.

Although the Soviets had stated in the months leading to Sputnik’s launch that they were intending to place a satellite into orbit, American efforts to do the same had not proved successful nor had the full backing of the government and American public.

The world experienced the ‘Sputnik moment;’ the transformation of society from an archaic age of the past to a new era of history. People the world over tuned in on amateur radio sets to hear the beep-beep of the satellite as it passed overhead. Never before in human history did our species experience such profound collective fear of the future and amazement at humanity’s technological progress.

Such conflicting thoughts were heightened with the November 3 launch of Sputnik-2 with the dog Laika on board. It was not until the American Explorer-1 satellite successfully achieved orbit on January 31, 1958 did much of the Western world begin to feel that the United States was making headway against the soviet union on the now-fledgling space race.

Although the satellite only remained in orbit for three months - burning up in the atmosphere on January 4, 1958 - its impact altered the course of human history. The American government reacted with such ferversim that the political foundations for NASA were laid as well as the academic, scientific, industrial and socio-economic drivers necessary for the space age. Sputnik’s launch thrust America and the Soviet Union into an aspect of total war not entirely expected during the Cold War - the all-consuming race for space.

The future started 60 years ago with a repeating set of beeps from the heavens above.

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SPRA line thrower

Designed by Alfred James Schermuly and produced during the 1920′s as the Schermuly Pistol Rocket Apparatus.
1 ¾" caliber muzzle fitted over a 1″/26,5mm pistol section.

The SPRA was used by sailors to throw lines of rope to runaway boats or overboard crew. It used a two-stage rocket propelled by a blank cartridge, giving it its proper course, and an internal charge to fly it the rest of the way.

three Schermuly rockets

These guns were conversion of the ubiquitous ‘Very’ flare guns manufactured by Webley, in these cases the MkV and MkIII variants.

a Webley and Scott N°1 MkV flare pistol

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Juno and I went to the Port of Los Angeles to view a space-flown SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket! 🚀 This one landed on a drone ship downrange in the Pacific Ocean after launching the Formosat-5 mission for Taiwan on August 24. 🛰

Being this close to such a magnificent piece of space hardware was absolutely unreal! Even Juno was speechless! 🐶😱

LEGO Ideas NASA Apollo Saturn V 21309 Building Kit | Buy-Now!

  • Features a meter-high (approximately 1:110 scale) model of the NASA Apollo Saturn V with a removable S-IC first rocket stage with main rocket engine details with removable S-II second rocket stage
  • Includes removable S-II second rocket stage with engine details, removable S-IVB third rocket stage with the Apollo spacecraft and rescue rocket, plus 3 stands to display the model horizontally
  • The Apollo spacecraft features the lunar lander and the lunar orbiter
  • Includes a booklet about the manned Apollo Moon missions and the fan designers of this set
  • Measures over 39 inches (100cm) high and 6 inches (17cm) in diameter
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Vector R completes first test launch en route to easier smallsat access to space.

Vector Space Systems, a private spaceflight company based out of Tuscon, successfully completed their first test launch May 3. An engineering version of the rocket lifted off from a makeshift launch pad in the Mojave desert shortly after 3pm EDT. The vehicle featured smaller propellant tanks and a single 5,000 lbf engine keeping with the company’s desire to incrementally test the vehicle. 

In order to forgo a lengthy process for an FAA-issued commercial launch licence, the company only utilised a single, 5,000lbf engine on the first stage, instead focussing testing on the vehicle’s avionics and computer systems,

Vector CEO Jim Cantrell expects around five flights of the vehicle before an orbital test flight completes the testing phase. The rocket is expected to place six satellites and up to 132 pounds in Low Earth Orbit.

Vector-R aims to provide a launch vehicle for the microsatellites and cubesats, book-sized payloads often flown piggyback atop larger rockets. Since these usually fly as secondary payloads to larger satellites, their access to space is out of the control of their parent companies.

By having a dedicated launch service such as Vector R and Rocket Lab’s Electron, cubesats would launch at a more rapid pace and much cheaper than the current paradigm.

The rocket is expected to place six satellites and up to 132 pounds in Low Earth Orbit. Vector-R is a two-stage, liquid fuelled rocket with three first stage engines and a single upper stage engine. Up to six satellites can fit into the rocket’s nosecone.

Of the three major companies currently breaking into the smallsat market - Vector, Rocket Lab, and Virgin Orbit - Vector is the first to actually test flight hardware. The company hopes to offer launch services for as little as 1.5 million dollars with a weekly launch cadence. Currently, smallsat launches piggybacking on larger vehicles must wait months in between launches.

P/C: Vector Space Systems

When people have their biases and prejudices, yes, I am aware. My head is not in the sand. But my thing is, if I can’t work with you, I will work around you. I was not about to be [so] discouraged that I’d walk away. That may be a solution for some people, but it’s not mine.
— 

Annie J. Easley

Annie J. Easley (April 23, 1933 – June 25, 2011) was an African-American computer scientist, mathematician, and rocket scientist.

She worked for the Lewis Research Center (now Glenn Research Center) of NASA and its predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA).

She was a leading member of the team which developed software for the Centaur rocket stage and one of the first African-Americans to work as a computer scientist at NASA.

Cover of Science and Engineering Newsletter featuring Easley at the Lewis Research Center. Image source: NASA
 

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Esoteric Origins of Alchemy

Early alchemists Zosimus and Isis said alchemical knowledge came from fallen angels sexually attracted to human women. The early Christian church fathers believed them and claimed the angels had sinned against the orders of god. Who were these angels?
The Book of Enoch (Enoch 1), the Book of the Secrets of Enoch (Enoch 2) and the Book of Jubilees contain more details about the fallen angels referred to in Genesis. Enoch 2 was probably written by a Hellenistic Jew in the first century CE. Enoch 1 and the Book of Jubilees are Jewish works of the intertestamental period written down in the second century BCE. The information contained in them is much older than the date of these manuscripts.
Enoch was the great grandfather of Noah. Genesis 5: 22-24 says, “And E-noch walked with God after he begat Me-thu-se-lah three hundred years, and begat sons and daughters: And all the days of E-noch were three hundred sixty and five years: And E-noch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him.” The Books of Enoch describe how he was taken to the heavens after a tour of the
earth: “The Lord spoke, ‘Have no fear, Enoch, good man and scribe of goodness. Come hear my voice. Go speak to the Watcher of Heaven, who have sent you to intercede for them. Tell them: You should intercede for men, and not men for you. Why did you leave lofty, holy Heaven to sleep with women, to defile yourselves with the daughters of men and take them as your wives…?’” After God’s rhetorical admonition against his lustful yet loving angels he said to Enoch, “As for the Watcher who sent you to intercede for them, tell them: ‘You were in Heaven but the mysteries were not revealed to you. You knew worthless ones, and in the hardness of your hearts you revealed these to women, and through these secrets women and men work much evil [on] earth.’ Say to them, ‘You have no peace.’" After his audience with God, angels including the archangel Uriel took Enoch on journeys through hell and heaven. From there the angel Raguel took him to the Seven Mountains in the Northwest and the Tree of Life. “Fragrant trees encircled the throne. Among them was a tree like no other. Its fragrance was beyond all fragrance, and its leaves and blooms and wood never withered….” Michael, the leader of the angels tells Enoch, “As for this fragrant tree, no mortal is permitted to touch it till the great judgment….” Enoch was instructed by the Lord to write down what had been revealed to him and to teach the people this wisdom. He did so in 366 books. Scholars believe the meaning of the name Enoch stems from a variant of the Hebrew root connoting “to train, to educate.” Scholars have been able to verify the general historical accuracy of the Old Testament by comparing the biblical episodes to much older parallel chronicles written in cuneiform characters on clay tablets from the ancient Mesopotamian kingdoms of Assyria and Babylonia. The oldest of all are from Sumer. Shumer is “land of the Watchers” in Akkadian, the root semitic language used by the Assyrians and Babylonians. The Sumerian King List records all the rulers of earth back over 400,000 years. This huge stretch of time coupled with reigns into the thousands of years has caused most historians to reject its accuracy. However all the early rulers were gods—immortals. The King List does record the reign of Enmeduranki whose name meant “ruler whose me connect Heaven and Earth.” A tablet described by W.G. Lambert tells a story similar to Enoch’s: “Enmeduranki [was] a prince in Sippar, beloved of Anu, Enlil and Ea. Shamash in the Bright Temple appointed him. Shamash and Adad [took him] to the assembly [of the gods]… They showed him how to observe oil on water, a secret of Anu, Enlil and Ea. They gave him the Divine Tablet, the kibdu secret of Heaven and Earth… They taught him how to make calculations with numbers.” Anu, Enlil, Ea, Shamash and Adad were Sumerian gods called Anunnaki meaning “those who from Heaven to Earth came.”
A tablet referred to as CBS 14061 describes an incident paralleling the Enochian marriage of an angel to a human woman. The tablet tells of a young god named Martu who fell in love with the daughter of the high priest of Nin-ab. Martu complained to his goddess mother, “In my city I have friends, they have taken wives. I have companions, they have taken wives. In my city, unlike my friends, I have not taken a wife; I have no wife, I have no children.” Martu’s mother asked him if the woman he desired “appreciated his gaze.” Then the goddess gave her consent to the marriage. Enlil the leader of the gods on Earth became increasingly upset over the pollution of Anunnaki blood by these marriages and over the young Anunnaki gods becoming more interested in freedom and idyllic life on earth than taking orders from Enlil. He said “I will destroy the Earthling whom I have created off the face of the Earth.” The peoples of ancient civilization, Sumerians, Egyptians, Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Hittites, Hebrews etc., in their sacred writings all describe gods that physically dwelt on Earth. This was aside from their writings on philosophy and mysticism. According to the Sumerians these gods came from the planet Nibiru, “planet of the crossing;” the Assyrians and Babylonians called it Marduk, after their chief god. The Sumerians never called the Anunnaki, “gods.” They were called din.gir, a two syllable word. Din meant “righteous, pure, bright;” gir was a term used to describe a sharp-edged object. As an epithet for the Anunnaki dingir meant “righteous ones of the bright pointed objects.” The Sumerian pictograph for the word looks like a two-staged rocket with a pointed capsule at the top. Sumerian texts break up history into two epochs divided by the great Deluge—the Biblical Flood. After the waters receded “‘the great Anunnaki who decree the fate’ decided that the gods ‘were too lofty for mankind.’ The term used—elu in Akkadian—means exactly that: ‘Lofty Ones;’ from it comes the Babylonian, Assyrian, Hebrew, and Ugaritic El—the term to which the Greeks gave the connotation ‘god.’” Returning to Genesis chapter six, after the sons of God took human wives, verse four continues: “There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became the mighty men which were of old, men of renown.” However the King James version erroneously translated the Hebrew term ne-filim as “giants,” and shem as “renown.” If the original words are used the verse reads: “The Nefilim were upon the Earth, in those days and thereafter too, when the sons of the gods cohabitated with the daughters of the Adam, and they bore children unto them. They were the mighty ones of Eternity—The People of the shem.” Nefilim stems from the Semitic root NFL, “to be cast down.” The first line of Genesis 6:4 means Those who were cast down were upon the Earth. They were the fallen angels!
They were also the People of the shem. “The Mesopotamian texts that refer to the inner enclosures of temples, or the heavenly journeys of the gods, or even to instances where mortals ascended to the heavens, employ the Sumerian term mu or its Semitic derivatives shu-mu (“that which is a mu”), sham, or shem. Because the term also connoted ‘that by which one is remembered,’ the word has come to be taken as meaning ‘name….’ Like most Sumerian syllabic words, mu had a primary meaning; in the case of mu, it was ‘that which rises straight.’ Its thirty-odd nuances encompassed the meanings heights, fire, command, a counted period…” After Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II had rebuilt Marduk’s sacred precinct within fortified walls made of fired brick and gleaming black marble, he recorded: “I raised the head of the boat ID.GE.UL the chariot of Marduk’s princeliness; The boat ZAG.MU.KU, whose approach is observed, the supreme traveler between Heaven and Earth, in the midst of the pavilion I enclosed, screening off its sides.” ID.GE.UL means high to heaven, bright at night. ZAG.MU.KU means bright mu which is for afar. The Mesopotamians believed the gods were immortal. The Sumerians said one year on planet Nibiru, a sar, was equivalent in time to 3600 earth years. They also said Anunnaki lifespans were 120 sars which is 120 x 3600 or 432,000 years. According to the King List 120 sars had passed from the time the Anunnaki arrived on Earth to the time of the Flood. However when the Lofty Ones came to Earth their lifespans began to sync with Earth’s faster orbit and they faced rapid aging compared to that on Nibiru. They discovered that by eating food from their home planet they could keep the aging process synced to the pace of Nibiru. The Sumerian god of wisdom Enki (Ea) was the leader of the first sons of Anu that came down to Earth. He played the pivotal role in saving humanity from the global Deluge. He defied the Anunnaki ruling council and told Ziusudra (the Sumerian Noah) how to build a ship on which to save humanity from the killing flood. Ea would have been over 120 sars old at that time, yet his relationship with humanity continued to be actively reported for thousands of years thereafter.
Within his sacred precinct “Mound of Creation” in Eridu, Enki unraveled the secrets of life and death. His emblem was two serpents entwined on a staff—the basis for the winged caduceus symbol used by modern Western medicine. Enki was the god who created the first humans: “In those days, in those years, The Wise One of Eridu, Ea, created him as a model of men.” His name was Adapa, Adam in the Old Testament: “Elohim created the Adam in His image—in the image of Elohim created He him.” Through Enki’s creative efforts “wide understanding he perfected for him…. Wisdom [he had given him]…. To him he had given Knowledge; Eternal Life he had not given him.” Anu wondered “why did Ea, to a worthless human the plan of Heaven disclose—rendering him distinguished, making a shem for him?” Enki “made him take the road to Heaven, and to Heaven he went up. When he had ascended to Heaven he approached the Gate of Anu.” Enki had told Adapa that if Anu offered him food, he was not to eat the Bread of Life nor drink the Water of Life because they were poison.
After Adapa answered Anu’s questions Anu said, “‘What can we do for him? Fetch him the bread of (eternal) life and let him eat!’
“They fetched him the bread of (eternal) life, but he would not eat. They fetched him the water of (eternal) life, but he would not drink…Anu watched him and laughed at him.
‘Come, Adapa, why didn’t you eat? Why didn’t you drink? Didn’t you want to be immortal? Alas for downtrodden people!’
“‘(But) Ea my lord told me: “You mustn’t eat! You mustn’t drink.”
“‘Take him and send him back to his earth.’” And so humanity missed out on immortality until the sons of the gods fell in love with the daughters of men, married them and had children by them. Then not wanting their lovers to die they taught them the secrets of immortality that Ea had discovered. Those secrets were the secrets of alchemy. Ea’s youngest son was Ningizzida, Lord of the Tree of Truth, in Mesopotamia. He was revered as Thoth in Egypt and Hermes in the West.
By the beginning of the current era philosophers had removed the physical existence of the gods to the abstract, implying their powers were aspects of spiritual phenomena coincident to the forces of Nature. The early alchemists of that time period still claimed like the ancient priests before them, that the knowledge they possessed was a gift from the gods, and their pursuit of immortality was in emulation of the gods’ pursuit of immortality.