rna virus


Gene Editing Strategy Eliminates HIV-1 Infection:

For the first time ever, scientists have shown how they can edit animal genes to shut down a HIV infection and then stop it from spreading further. The new study is the next step in the ongoing efforts to find a permanent cure for the disease.
During acute HIV infection, the cells replicate within the human body but are able to effectively conceal themselves in latent reservoirs – making them much harder to locate and treat.
But the new findings from Temple University and University of Pittsburgh, have shown that researchers are able to excise HIV DNA from the genomes, using gene-editing technology, and this causes the process of replication to stop.
Not only that but they can them eliminate infected cells, reducing the RNA expression of viral genes by roughly 60 to 95%.
The tool, known as CRISPR/Cas9 is the first to be used in this way, and was tested in three different animal models, including a ‘humanized’ model in mice where they were transplanted with human immune cells infected with the virus.
With this, the researchers were able to investigate the ability of CRISPR/Cas9 strategy to block viral replication and potentially prevent systemic infection.

Wesker’s Report II

Story 1 : “Woman Specimen Subject”

31st July, 1978 (Monday)

It was summer, 20 years ago and I was 18 years old when I
visited there for the first time. I can still smell the
stench of the air stirred up by the helicopter’s rotor
blades.The mansion looked perfectly ordinary from the sky, but on
the ground, I sensed something that made me fear to tread.
Birkin, who was two years younger than me, was interested in
nothing but the research paper he was reading.

We had only been assigned to that place two days previously,
the same day they decided to close down the executive
training center we belonged to. This looked either carefully
planned or pure coincidence, only Spencer knows.
Here, Arklay Laboratory, was the very place where Spencer
himself had a base for ’T-virus’ research.

As we got off the helicopter, we saw the Laboratory Manager
was waiting for us at the lift. I can’t even remember the
guy’s name.

No matter what his official title, the laboratory belonged to
Birkin and I from that day. We were given full authority as
chief research engineers. This was of course Spencer’s
intention. We had been chosen.

We completely ignored the Laboratory Manager and got into the
lift as the previous day I had memorized a map of the building.
As for Birkin, he didn’t mean any offense but he never had time
for others.

Being in our company for more than five seconds would have made
most people angry. The Laboratory Manager, however, showed no

As I was an egoistic young man these days, I did not take any
notice of his lack of reaction. After all, while I was there I was merely dancing to Spencer’s tune and the Lab Manager knew his intention better than I did
and acted accordingly.

While we were in the lift, Birkin was concentrating on the
papers, which contained detailed reports on Ebola, a Filovirius,
which had been discovered in Africa two years ago.

Even now, many people across the world are still studying Ebola.
But there are two distinct reasons why:

Some are studying the virus in order to save lives, while others have more sinister reasons.

90% of those infected with the Ebola virus will die. Once
infected, body tissue is destroyed within ten days. There is no
vaccination and no cure. If used as a weapon it is incredibly
frightening. Of course the treaty on Prohibition of Use of
Biological Weapons had been in effect long before that so it was
illegal to conduct research on the potential use of the virus as
a weapon. However, it’s perfectly legal to conduct research on it
to prevent its spreading if it was used by someone else as a

It is only a thin line between the two researches - in fact
there is practically no difference between the two. As you must
investigate how it can be used as a weapon in order to know how
it can be stopped.

This means it is possible to pretend that research is for the
purpose of prevention and cure while your true aim is the

However, Birkin was interested in neither of these routes as
the virus had too many imperfections.

Firstly, it dies easily when in contact with direct sunlight
and can only survive outside the body for a few days.

Secondly, the virus does not have enough time to move onto the
next host as it kills its initial host too quickly.

Lastly, the virus is transmitted in bodily fluids and secretions,
which can easily be prevented.

However, consider this :

What if the person infected with the virus could stand up and
walk ? And if subconsciously they sought direct physical contact
with uninfected people ?

The Ebola gene is an RNA gene. RNA genes can mutate a human’s
genes and that mutation would allow the human to have mutant-like
semi-immortality ?

This creature would be a “Human Biological Weapon.” To all
intents and purposes, dead as a human being but still infecting
other humans as long as it continued to function.

It was lucky for us that Ebola did not exhibit such

We could keep the Ebola with that particular capacity just for

The organization, which was established around Spencer, was for
the manufacture of this “living weapon.” Officially, it was a
pharmaceutical company specializing in a cure for the virus,
nut in reality it was a factory producing biological weapons.

The discovery of the “Founder Virus,” which can modify genes, seemed
to be the genesis of this entire business.

In order to manufacture the “Human Biological Weapon” from the
“Founder virus,” it was necessary to develop a variant with that
particular peculiarity enhanced.

That was the T-virus project.

The “Founder virus” is an RNA virus. RNA viruses are known to
have a tendency to mutilate. That tendency enables us to
manipulate them, strengthening their certain peculiarities.

Birkin wondered if he could combine the Ebola gene with the
mutated “Founder virus” to enhance its peculiarity. The sample of
the Ebola virus had already arrived to this laboratory.

After switching from lift to lift, we eventually reached the top
security unit of the laboratory.

Even Birkin took his eyes off his report when we met “her” for the
first time.

We knew nothing about her. She was the biggest secret at the
laboratory and her data was never removed from the premises.

The records showed that she had been there ever since the institute
was established.

She was 25 years old. No one knew who she was or why she was there.

She was a human specimen to develop the “T-virus” on.

The experiment started on the 10th, November 1967.

She had been receiving injections of viruses for 11 years.

Birkin mumbled something -

Was it to curse ? Or to praise ?

We realized that there was no turning back.

Were we to lead the research to a successful conclusion or rot
away like her ? Of course we had no choice.

The sight of her bound to a shabby hospital bed moved something
in out of my conscience.

Was it apart of Spencer’s plan ?

(Record continues three years later)

Story 2 : ‘Alexia 1’

27th July 1981 (Sat)

(Three years after the previous report)

Today a 10 year old girl was appointed as a senior researcher at
the South Pole Laboratory.

Her name was Alexia Ashford.

I was 21 years old and Birkin was 19.

Irritatingly, the rumor about Alexia of the South Pole monopolized
discussions amongst Arklay’s researchers.

The Ashford name was legendary to the old staff who had bee at
Umbrella long enough to remember.

Whenever the research came to a standstill they always said 'If only
Dr Ashford was still alive.“

Certainly Dr. Ashford was a great scientist, one of the original
research team who discovered the “Founder virus,” and the originator
of the ’T-virus’ project.

However, he died soon after Umbrella was established. 13 years has
passed since his death. What was the point of expecting anything
from the Ashfords ?

In fact the South Pole laboratory, which was founded after Dr.
Edward’s death by his son, had so far yielded no results.

So, not much can be expected from the granddaughter, Alexia.

However, from that day, our dotard subordinates started saying
“If only Ms Alexia were here.”

It seemed like there was no potential for future development in
this lab as long as we had staff like those senile fools, who
could only judge people by their genealogy instead of using their
own sense of values.

Those fools could never take initiative and would remain as minor
researchers even though they had one foot in the grave. But I was
different, I had good judgement.

If I, as the chief researcher, had become emotional, the
development of the ’T-virus’ would have been delayed further.

To achieve results, one must stay calm and make sensible decisions
whatever the circumstances.

An idea came to me—

The success of the research relied on how to handle those ancient
gentlemen. As they could drop dead at any moment, wouldn’t they be
most useful if we were to use them for the most dangerous experiments.

The art of management is to utilize everyone beneath you.

However, Birkin was becoming a nuisance.

His reaction towards the Alexia rumors was so pathetic.

Although he never said it, he took pride in becoming the youngest
chief researcher ever at the age of 16. But this 10 year old girl
had smashed his figurative trophy to pieces. It must have been the
first time he had felt defeated.

He could never approve of someone who was younger than him, with a noble pedigree, and a woman at that.

It was unimaginable that he was being affected by a personnel
reshuffle in such a far away place, where there had been no
achievements for so long.

After all, he was still a kid.

Immature as he was, I needed him to pull himself together.

Over the last three years, our research had reached the second stage.

By then, the “T-virus” was becoming stable enough to be used to
create “Living Biological Weapons,” better known as Zombies.

However, the virus would never be able to modify the human gene
100% -  there are incompatibilities between the virus and the genes
because no one person’s genes are exactly alike.

10% of all humans would make a lucky escape and not develop the
disease, even though a zombie infected them with the virus. There
was nothing we could do about this, no matter how hard we tried.

If it had a 90% success rate then it was good enough to use as a
biological weapon but Spencer didn’t seem to be satisfied.

Our boss wanted a “stand-alone” weapon which could wipe out and
entire population.

But, what for ?

Essentially, the virtue of biological weapons was the low
development costs. But our “Living Biological Weapon” was becoming
extremely expensive.

Spencer would never have chosen this path if he was looking for
financial rewards.

If manufactured for use in conjunction with an orthodox weapon, it
would have made a handsome profit. But to keep the research going to
make a stand-alone, exterminatory weapon did not make business sense.

Why did he continue ignoring the cost ?

If his aim was to monopolize the entire war industry by changing
the very concepts of war perhaps I could agree a little bit.

I still didn’t know what his true intention was.

Apart from Spencer’s intentions, Birkin was engineering a living
biological weapon with an increased emphasis on its ability to fight.

He was trying to create it not only through mutating human genes
with the “T-virus” but also by adding another creature’s genetic

This fighting human bio-weapon, made to kill off any opposing forces or people that are immune to the virus, was later called “The Hunter.”

But we had to suspend the experiment for a while - to protect the
specimens from Birkin.

Birkin, who had this meaningless anger directed at Alexia, started
acting abnormally.

He would stay at the research facility late into the night continuously doing tests without a plan.

My staff and I collected biopsy samples as quickly as possible
before the specimens could die, but we couldn’t keep up with Birkin’s

The Manager of the Laboratory supplied the new specimens as if
nothing had happened, but they didn’t survive long.

It was Hell.

But she, the female specimen survived.

She was 28 years old by then and had spent 14 years in this lab.

The numerous injections of the “Founder virus” she had received over
the past 14 years would have left her bereft of any logical reasoning,
but if she still had any mind left, death would have been the one
and only thing she wanted.

But, she continued to live.

Why was she the only one to survive ?

The experiment data did not highlight and difference between her and
the other specimens.

We needed much more time to find out the answers to that question.

(Record continued 2 years later)

Story 3 : 'Alexia 2’

31st December 1983

(Two years after the previous record)

My 6th winter at Arklay Laboratory.

Two almost stagnant years had passed without much achievement,
but the turning point had finally arrived.

The catalyst was a report we received that morning.

Alexia had died at the Antarctic institute.

It was said that Alexia was accidentally infected by the T-Veronica
virus which she herself had developed.

At that time, Alexia was 12 years old, and was too young to continue
this kind of dangerous research.

A rumor began to circulate that Alexia had deliberately infected
herself with the virus, but that seemed very unlikely. More likely,
she had not got over the death of her father a year earlier and had
made an error.

At the Antarctic institute, Alexia’s research was then taken over by
her twin brother, her only blood relative. But no one expected any
worthwhile results from him. The Ashford family line seemed to have
almost died out without producing anything of note. As I suspected,
the legend surrounding this family was no more than that.

Alexia’s death changed Birkin - or should I say it transformed Birkin
back to the person he once was. It played a major factor in Birkin’s
psychological well-being as his researchers started showing him more
respect. With Alexia dead, these was no longer anyone who exhibited
greater potential than him.

However, talking about Alexia in front of him was still a taboo.

Birkin strongly disagreed when I tried to get a hold of a T-Veronica

I had to bide my time to find a better opportunity to find out about
Alexia’s research.

In spite of the fact that Birkin was in a much stronger, position he
still never matured.

However, in those days, I had much bigger issues to contend with.

The Arklay Laboratory was situated in the center of a mountainous
region, itself surrounded by a deep forest. I often went out for
walks during my time there, but I never came across anyone else.

Helicopter was the only means of reaching the laboratory, making it
inaccessible to outsiders. The remoteness of the area and lack of
people is an important factor when choosing a site for an institute
like this, in order to minimize a potential disaster if the virus

However, biological weapons were not as simple as that.

The viruses would not just infect human beings.

No virus chooses just one type of carrier.

For example, apart from humans, the influenza virus can infect birds,
pigs, horses and even sea lions. It complicates the matter further when you know that not all the species of the same family can be infected. For instance, ducks and chickens might become infected, but other species of birds are
spared. More over, the same virus may take different carriers,
depending on its variants. It is impossible to know all the carriers
for even just one virus.

The biggest problem is the high adaptability of the “T-virus.”

While Birkin was not contributing much, I had been studying the
possibility of secondary infection from the “T-virus.” What I
discovered was that the “T-virus” has carriers in almost every
single species. Not only animals, but plants, insects, even fish. Almost
all species have a potential to multiply and spread the

When I was strolling through the woods, I always thought -

Why did Spencer choose this location ?

There were so many species that co-existed in the forest.

What would happen if the virus escaped and came into contact with a
creature capable of being a carrier ?

If it were some insects, then they would not pose a big threat of
secondary infection due to their size.

But insects can multiply to enormous numbers.

In that case, how far could the virus be spread ?

Suppose it was some plants. It may appear at first that the
possibility of widespread infection would be small as plants cannot

But what about their pollen ?

This location was too dangerous.

Come to think of it, it made perfect sense for the Ashfords to choose
Antarctica as a site for their laboratory.

In contrast, this location it seems was selected in order to spread
the virus.

But that couldn’t be true, could it ?

What did Spencer want us to do ?

These thoughts were too important to share with anybody else in the

The only person I could possibly ask was Birkin. But, it was obvious
there was no point in talking to him about it.

What I needed was more information.

Around this time, I started to feel the limitations of my situation.

In order to find out Spencer’s true intention, I needed to be in a
position which would give me access to the information I required.

I had no hesitation in giving up my present position for that purpose but I did not want to be too hasty, because if Spencer had any
suspicions about my real motives then the game would be over.

I concentrated on my research with Birkin so that my real thoughts
would not betray me.

While we were keeping ourselves busy, the female specimen was
almost forgotten about.

A failure with no use, but still she lived on. We called her a
failure because we could not get any valid data from her until that experiment took place, five years later.

Story 4 : 'Nemesis’

1st July 1988 (Fri)

(Five years after the last record)

It was our 11th summer since we arrived at the Arklay Laboratory.

I was 28 years old.

Birkin was then a father with a two year old daughter and a wife. This wife was
also a researcher at Arklay.

It was hard to believe that anyone could marry and bring up a child
while both of them worked there. On the other hand, because he was
different he could continue his research at Arklay.

Only the mad could succeed there.

In those 10 years, our research finally reached the third stage.

A highly sophisticated “Fighting Biological Weapon” with
intelligence, which would obey programmed orders and act as a
soldier. This was the monster we worked to create. We called it
“The Tyrant.”

But from the beginning there was one huge obstacle - it was almost
impossible to obtain a living subject on which we could base the
Tyrant. The supply of genetically adaptable human beings for the
Tyrant was extremely limited.

This is due to the nature of the “T-virus.”

The “T-virus” variant which was ideal to create the zombies and
the Hunters was suitable for most humans, but it had a fault of
making the carrier’s brain cells decline.

To transform the carrier into a Tyrant we needed to keep the
carrier’s intelligence at a certain level. In order to overcome
this issue, Birkin had been working on extracting a variant which
would cause the least amount of damage to the brain when it adapted
itself perfectly to the carrier.

However, humans with a genetic match to this variant were extremely

The Genetic Analytic team’s simulation report told us that only one
in ten million would be infected and transformed into a Tyrant with
the remainder becoming zombies.

It might have been possible to develop a more progressive strain of
the “T-virus” which could transform more humans into Tyrants.
However, to push the research further, first of all we required human
subjects with a perfect genetic match to the new variant.

There was little possibility that such a specimen would be supplied
to us, because even if we scoured the whole USA, we would only be
able to find 50 or so of them. In fact, at the time, even with the
utmost effort we only managed to collect a few specimens with a close

Even from the outset, our research was at a standstill.

But one day, we heard a rumor that a European laboratory were working
on a project to create the third generation Living Biological Weapon.

It was called the “Nemesis Project.”

I acted quickly to obtain a sample from the project so that I could
use it to our advantage. Of course, Birkin was against this idea, but
this time I somehow managed to persuade him. He had no choice but to
admit that our research wouldn’t go any further unless we found a
matching specimen.

A few days later, in the middle of the night, a parcel arrived from
Europe via various transit points. It arrived to our heliport in a
small box.

"Nemesis Prototype.”

We had to pull many strings to obtain if from the French laboratory
where it had been developed, but it could not have happened without
the support of Spencer.

Birkin showed no interest at all, but he accepted the importance of
the experiment.

The sample had been developed with a new design in mind.

A parasitic living body created by genetic modification - that
was Nemesis.

An intelligent lifeform that was unable to do anything on
its own.

However, once it parasitized the brain of another living being it
would take full control of the body and demonstrate its highly
developed aptitude for combat. The project was to provide the
intelligence and the biological body for combat separately and then
combine them in order to create one living biological weapon.

If it was successful we no longer needed to worry about the problems
we had previously encountered.

But there was a new problem in that it did not always settle in the
carrier in the same manner as we desired.

On the report attached to the sample we saw nothing but a long list
of deaths.

The carriers lasted for only about five minutes after Nemesis took
control of their brains.

But, we already knew that an incomplete prototype would be extremely

If we succeeded in prolonging the carriers’ survival then we could
hope to take the lead in the Nemesis project.

This was my aim.

Naturally, I was planning to use the female specimen.

With her unusual ability to survive, she could endure the Nemesis
prototype for a long time.

Even if we failed, we would lose nothing.

However, our experiments took an unexpected turn.

Nemesis vanished when it tried to enter her brain.

At first, we could not understand what happened.

We never thought that she would take over the parasite.

That was the beginning.

Until then, she was barely alive but something was about to awaken
in her.

We began to reexamine her.

Over the last 10 years, she had been checked down to the minutest
details, but we decided to ignore the past data and start anew. Now,
for the first time in her 21 years of being here, something no one
had seen was about to be revealed.

After much examination, only Birkin noticed it.

Something definitely existed in her.

This, however, went beyond the original “T-virus” project and led us
in a totally new and different direction.

That was the beginning of “G-Virus” project, which changed all our

Story 5: 'G-Virus’

31st July 1995 (Mon)

(Seven years after the previous record)

It was summer again and 17 years from the time I first visited the

Whenever I went there I always remember the smell of the wind from
that day. Nothing has changed since then, even the buildings and

I could see Birkin, who had already arrived, standing on the

I had not seen him for a long time.

Four years have passed since I left Arklay Laboratory.

At that time, when Birkin’s “G-virus” project was approved, I
applied for my transfer to the Information Bureau and was readily
accepted. It must have looked natural for everyone that I was giving
up my career as a researcher and seeking a change.

Actually, the “G-virus” project was beyond my abilities. Even if I did
not have any reason to find out Spencer’s true intention, it was true
that I felt my faculties as a researcher had reached their limits.

In spite of the downdraft caused by the helicopter, Birkin never took
his eyes off the research papers. Although it seemed he still visited
Arklay regularly, he was no longer a researcher at that facility.

Sometime ago, he had been transferred to a huge underground laboratory
in Raccoon City, which was his base for the G-virus project headed
by himself.

Quite honestly, four years ago, I never thought that Spencer would
approve the “G-virus“project because it was founded on an unknown
belief and deviated from the original concept of a biological weapon.

The distinct difference between the “G-virus” and the T-Virus was
that the organism infected by the “G-virus” continued to mutate by
itself. Because a virus is an unprotected form of gene, it can easily
mutate. This mutation can happen when a virus is left on its own,
but once a virus is in another organism, it is a different story.

A gene in an organism’s body hardly mutates even though its structure
was modified by a virus, unless some external influences, such as
exposure to radiation, takes place. However, an organism infected with
the “G-virus” keeps mutating itself without any external influence
until it dies.

Similar characteristics did exist in the “T-virus.”

When we placed the “Living Biological Weapon” under certain
circumstances, we recorded some genetic recombination caused by an
activated virus in its own body. However, in the case of the T-Virus,
it always needed some external influences to trigger the
recombination and the results were always close to what we predicted.

G-infected organisms totally lacked such predictability.

No one could foresee what recombination it would take, and whatever
the means to stop the process it kept mutating nonetheless making
our manipulation worthless.

Seven years ago, Birkin found similar signs of this effect in the
female specimen. On the surface she had not changed at all, but
internally, she changed continuously and remained alive by merging
and coexisting with all the experimental viruses she was administered.
And the 21 years of internal mutation evolved her enough to accept
the parasitic organism Nemesis.

The “G-virus” project was trying to push this abnormality to the
ultimate limit.

But, the end result of this project could be either the evolution
of the ultimate organism or total destruction.

Can we call this a weapon ?

What made Spencer approve this project ?

Even though I had been in the Information Bureau for four years by
this time, I could still not understand his motives. And now,
Spencer does not even come to Arklay.

It is as if he had foreseen something was about to happen there.

The image of Spencer was fading away from me like a mirage in the

But, an opportunity must present itself sometime.

If I can survive until then.

The lift was carrying both Birkin and me to the highest security
level to the place where we saw her for the first time. The new
chief researcher John, Birkin’s successor, was waiting for us there.

He was transferred from the Chicago Laboratory and was said to be
an excellent scientist, but he seemed to be too normal to work for
this laboratory. He had doubts about the cruelty of the research
and reported to his superior to correct the situation.

That caused a big enough stir even in the Information Bureau.

It was everyone’s opinion that if any information was leaked, it
had to come from him.

We ignored John and started to give her the final treatment.

To kill her.

She had regained a little intelligence after taking in the Nemesis.
But, it resulted in nothing more than making her behave strangely.

The odd behavior continued to escalate. Nowadays, she peels off
other women’s faces and wears them over her own. The records show
that she behaved in the same manner when she was first given the
“Founder virus.” We were never sure what made her react in such a
way, but her termination was decided after three researchers became
her victims.

Now the study of the “G-virus” was on track she lost her status as
a valuable specimen.

The termination of her vital signs was checked and confirmed
repeatedly for the next three days. Then, the body was taken away
to some location at the instruction of the Laboratory Manager.

Even now, I still do not know who she was and why she was brought

Of course it was exactly the same for other specimens.

However, if she had not been there, the G-Project might never have
existed and if that was the case then Birkin and I would be in very
different situations.

As I left Arklay Laboratory, I was thinking things over.

Just how calculating is Spencer ?

anonymous asked:

11, 17, 44

11. Best Friend?

I have one. She a’right. No, but I love her to death. Literally could not survive without her

17. Someone you miss

Does my dog count?

44. A random fact about anything

Did you know that the reason why HIV is so difficult to find a cure for is due to its own RNA polymerase. The virus itself undergoes a process called reverse transcriptase where it turns its own RNA into DNA via RNA polymerase and inserts the new DNA into the host DNA causing more components of the virus to be made by the cell rather than producing protein for it’s normal function. Within this DNA is a code for RNA polymerase to be made but since the process is so fast, the DNA gets mutated and the sequence that codes for RNA polymerase constantly changes so the protein itself changes with every replication, making it hard to destroy via a drug. I’m a pre-med nerd, get over it.


Are Viruses Alive Or Something Else? By TestTube Plus

There is an ongoing debate about whether or not viruses are actually alive but how long has this debate been circling the science world and have we reached a verdict?

jusybrowsing  asked:

Ok so its called yellow fever yada yada yada spread through the bite of a femal mosquito yada yada yada its a RNA virus yada yada yada places where its common there will be vaccines yada yada yada ok so here we go death occurs in up to half of those who get it.

if CB actually ‘dies’

he’d end up looking something like this:

Penyakit Yang di Anggap Ringan, Padahal Mematikan !

Seringkali kita menganggap remeh penyakit yang ada di sekitar kita. Tanpa kita sadari penyakit tersebut dapat merenggut nyawa orang-orang disekitar kita, atau bahkan kita sendiri. Apa saja penyakit itu ? berikut beberapa penyakit sederhana yang dapat menyebabkan kematian.

1. Mendengkur (Ngorok)
Kebiasaan tidur mendengkur yang dianggap biasa oleh semua orang itu ternyata dapat menyebabkan resiko kematian. Menurut Dokter Andreas A.Prasadja dari Sleep Disorder Clinic – RS. Mitra Kemayoran, resiko itu bermula dari masalah gangguan tidur yang bernama Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). Andreas menyebutkan gangguan OSA ini terjadinya penyempitan saluran pernafasa atas saat tidur. Penyempitan ini menyebabkan tidak efektifnya pertukaran antara oksigen dengan karbondioksida pada saat tidur. Akibatnya di pagi hari si penderita merasa tidak segar dan masih kurang istirahat. Tidak jarang ia juga mengeluhkan sakit kepala di pagi hari. Sedangkan pada siang hari karena banyaknya aktifitas mungkin ia tidak merasakan kantuk, tetapi di saat meeting atau sedang mengendarai rasa kantuk yang tak tertahankan bisa menyerang setiap saat. Akibatnya, Kemampuan konsentrasi dan daya ingat menurun, dan nyawa pun banyak yang melayang karena kecelakaan lalu lintas yang diakibatkan oleh rasa kantuk dan berkurangnya reflex untuk menghindar.

2. Gigi Berlubang
Sakit gigi sering dianggap sebagai penyakit yang sepele, terutama bagi orang yang belum pernah mengalaminya. Namun akibat yang ditimbulkan sakit gigi dapat mengganggu aktifitas sehari-hari dan bahkan sangat berbahaya karena bisa menyebabkan kematian. Pasalnya apabila gigi tersebut tidak dirawat Maka gigi yang berlubang dapat menjadi jalan yang cukup besar bagi bakteri untuk dapat masuk ke dalam tubuh. Masalah utama yang menyebabkan sakit gigi adalah lubang pada gigi yang dimasuki oleh bakteri. Infeksi yang terjadi pada gusi dan akar gigi dapat menjalar ke berbagai organ vital, dan bisa menyebabkan berbagai gangguan kesehatan.
Apabila daya tahan tubuh kita sedang lemah, maka infeksi bakteri akan semakin hebat. Bila tidak segera diobati, infeksi akan menyebar ke daerah di sekitar mulut seperti leher dan pipi. Kondisi ini bisa di katakan cukup serius, dan mengharuskan si penderita untuk melakukan operasi pada daerah yang terinfeksi untuk mengeluarkan nanahnya. Bila kondisinya cukup parah, ada resiko terjadinya kematian jika kondisi pasien sangat lemah, disertai komplikasi penyakit lain ataupun perawatan yang kurang intensif.

3. Maag
Penyakit yang sering dianggap sepele oleh sebagian penderitanya, namun sangat berbahaya. jika penyakit ini sudah terlalu parah, bisa menyebabkan Penyakit baru, yaitu gejala Thypus. Bahkan kematian ! Penyebab dari penyakit maag yaitu, pola makan yang tidak teratur atau sering terlambat makan sehingga menimbulkan luka pada lambung yang diakibatkan oleh aktifitas lambung pada saat perut sedang kosong. Kebiasaan buruk ini sering dilakukan oleh banyak orang dengan alasan sibuk dan lain-lain. Penyebab lainnya dari penyakit maag, yaitu stress dan kurang istirahat, kurangnya istirahat bisa menyebabkan turunnya nafsu makan dan dapat menimbulkan maag.
Gejala-gejala dari penyakit maag yaitu: perut kembung, perut akan terasa penuh walaupun perut penderita sedang kosong. mual dan rasa ingin muntah pada saat makan, rasa perih pada perut dan ulu hati, merasa lapar namun tidak nafsu makan, sering bersendawa, sendawa tersebut disebabkan karna asam lambung yg tinggi.
Cara mengatasi maag dengan cepat saat sedang kambuh, yaitu dengan meminum obat yang mengandung Hydrotalcite, Magnesium hidroksia, dan Simethicone yg biasa dijual di apotik dan toko obat. Dan bagi anda yg tidak biasa meminum obat generik, terdapat juga obat tradisional/alami untuk mencegah dan mengobati maag yaitu dengan memakan Singkong Madu mentah 1 potong setiap hari sebelum makan. Selain obat-obat di atas, kita juga bisa mencegah kambuhnya penyakit maag dengan menghindari makanan pedas, asam, makanan yg mengandung santan, serta makanan yg susah di cerna oleh lambung karena membuat luka di lambung semakin parah. Dan juga menghindari minuman yg menyebabkan asam lambung naik, seperti kopi dan minuman soda.

4. Sariawan
Jangan pernah sepelekan sariawan. Apalagi, jika sariawan itu selalu muncul dalam jangka waktu 6 bulan hingga 1 tahun. sering menderita sariawan ternyata merupakan indikasi utama terjadinya penyakit pemfigus vulgaris. penyakit ini tidak bisa disembuhkan, dan akan diidap penderita hingga akhir hayatnya. Bahkan, 50 persen penderita akan meninggal dalam waktu 12 bulan jika tidak segera diberikan pertolongan. Penyakit ini tidak menular, mereka yang beresiko terkena penyakit pemfigus vulgaris rata-rata berusia antara 50 sampai 60 tahun. Dan merupakan keturunan dari bangsa Yahudi, Indian atau Mediteranian.

5. Demam
Demam merupakan penyakit yang sering dialami setiap orang dan biasanya demam terjadi akibat adanya infeksi pada tubuh manusia, penyakit demam yang bisa menyebabkan kematian adalah demam berdarah, yaitu demam yang disebabkan oleh virus dengue. Virus dengue dapat masuk ke dalam tubuh melalui gigitan nyamuk Aedes Aegypti. Gejala yang akan timbul biasanya demam tinggi mencapai 39-40 derajat celcius dan timbul secara mendadak, disertai keringat yang cukup banyak dan tubuh tampak loyo, nyeri di seluruh tubuh, pendarahan yang tampak dari luar maupun dari dalam. Bila sudah terlihat tanda-tanda seperti di atas, ada baiknya si penderita langsung dibawa ke rumah sakit. Kalau tidak maka akan menyebabkan kematian.

6. Keracunan makanan
Saat ini kita sering mendengar banyak anak-anak atau bahkan orang dewasa yang keracunan makanan. Hal ini bisa terjadi karena pengolahan makanan yang tidak sempurna, adanya zat beracun yang terkandung di dalam makanan namun kita tidak mengetahuinya. Hal ini disebabkan adanya persaingan yang tidak sehat diantara para penjual makanan dengan tujuan untuk menghancurkan usaha si lawan agar tidak laku. Atau hanya sedekar mencari keuntungan yang lebih banyak dengan cara jalan pintas. tanda-tanda keracunan makanan adalan perut akan terasa mual dan diare biasanya ini akan sembuh sendiri. Namun banyak juga akibat keracunan makanan yang berujung maut, karena penanganan yang buruk

7. Influenza
Influenza atau yang lebih dikenal dengan sebutan flu, merupakan penyakit yang bisa menular yang di sebabkan oleh Virus RNA dari familia Orthomyxoviriade (virus influenza). Gejala yang di timbulkan dari penyakit ini adalah badan menggigil, sakit di bagian kepala, sakit tenggorokan, nyeri otot, batuk, demam dan rasa tidak nyaman di sekujur tubuh. Influenza biasanya ditularkan melalui udara lewat batuk dan bersin, yang akan menimbulkan aerosol yang mengandung virus. Akhir-akhir ini banyak orang yang meninggal akibat penyakit influenza, flu yang sedang marak tersebar di seluruh dunia ialah flu babi (H1N1) dan flu Burung (H5N1). Bila anda sudah terjangkit segera periksakan diri ke dokter. Karena penyakit ini sangat berbahaya dan bisa merenggut nyawa anda.

8. Diabetes
Penyakit diabetes atau yang sering kita sebut penyakit kencing manis. biasanya disebabkan karena terlalu banyak mengkonsumsi gula. Banyak orang menganggap remeh penyakit ini. Padahal diabetes merupakan salah satu penyakit yang berbahaya karena bisa menyebabkan kematian. Pada tahun 2013 indonesia memiliki sekitar 8.5 juta penderita diabetes yang merupakan jumlah ke-4 terbanyak di Asia dan nomor 7 di dunia. Faktor yang menyebabkan diabetes antara lain: orang dewasa yang umurnya diatas 45 tahun, berat badan yang terlalu gemuk (obesitas), tekanan darah tinggi (140/90 mmHg) dan faktor keturunan.


salam sehat bahagia - @dokterfina

Smoking Marijuana Can Protect You From Ebola

Not a day has gone by in the last few weeks without a mention of Ebola. Having made its way into North America, Ebola has become reached the top of the “to fear” list, making many worry that it will only be a matter of time before the disease dominates the continent. Effective vaccines and treatments for Ebola have yet to be discovered, though one may be hiding in plain sight: cannabis.

Cannabinoids in marijuana have gained more and more of a reputation as a way to control and aid one’s immune systems, specifically with diseases that target a body’s natural defense measures against viruses, like HIV. Dr. David B. Allen, medical director of Cannabis Sativa, Inc, and Brad Morehouse, founder of NewCure.org, both believe cannabis can combat Ebola in the same way.

First, a rundown on what Ebola is and does, so everyone understands the argument. Ebola is a virus that targets the RNA (which creates proteins) in cells, takes over, then begins to replicate itself. The virus is able to hide itself from virus killing cells by creating indivisibility cloak-like surface proteins, which makes fighting Ebola especially difficult for the body.

Another consequence of Ebola being an RNA virus is that it makes each strain unique to the individual infected, thus making the creation of a widely applicable vaccine incredibly difficult.

What makes Ebola deadly is the way in which one’s immune system reacts as time goes on. Aside from creating hemorrhaging and leaking between cells, Ebola primarily kills when a person’s body releases a massive amount of enzymes (a cytokine storm) and an overabundant, and fatal amount, of immune cells being activated.

That’s where marijuana comes in as a potential saving grace to those afflicted with Ebola. As Joe Martin points out, cannabis is contains natural antiretrovirals and is also an anti-inflammatory able to reduce the harm to the body caused by a cytokine storm.

Requested Anonymously

You have a better chance of running into a shiny than running into a wild pokémon with pokérus. Still, this pokémon virus has huge benefits and is sought after in the competitive and casual communities alike. In the game, an infected pokémon will gain double the stats every time it levels up. But what does this mean in a more physical sense?

To start, let’s talk about viruses. We know Pokérus is a virus, which to be honest doesn’t tell us a whole lot. Viruses are as diverse and as crazy as anything, infecting you with everything from colds and flus to rabies and ebola. Their appearances vary as much as their symptoms, and many of them look very alien.

So what exactly is a virus? Cells in your body, along with bacteria, are stand-alone living entities able to eat, grow, and reproduce. Viruses are something different altogether. Viruses are little envelopes full of genetics: a protective protein coating surrounding single or double strands of DNA or RNA.  By themselves, viruses are not able to function. This is why they need to infect a host cell: to live and reproduce.

They do this through the lytic cycle. Basically, a virus will invade a host cell, and take over the cell’s machinery. The virus will trick the cell into working for them: they turn the host cell into little virus-factories, building more and more viruses with the cell’s machinery which then can go and infect new cells.

This is why viruses are contagious. If someone sneezes on you, or you breathe in a virus, it can start entering your cells and start reproducing right away. This is how pokérus is spread. However, it should be noted that a lot of viruses are species-specific; humans cannot be infected with pokérus.

However, pokérus is unique due to its positive effects. Viruses are generally not something you want. For example, a runny nose: cold viruses will infect and kill cells in your nose, and with less cells lining your sinuses, fluid flows freely. Fevers are your bodies response, trying to kill the virus by literally turning up the heat.

So somehow, instead of destroying and taking over host cells, Pokérus viruses benefit them. Pokérus doesn’t infect and kill a pokémon’s cells; it strengthens them. Exactly how is widely up to interpretation. What does a stat boost in-game equate to in real life? 

Maybe the pokémon is buffed up as if on steroids. This would mean that pokérus increases protein production and ATP levels. Or maybe, Pokérus just helps a pokémon grow strong, by enabling them to more easily break down and use vitamins like calicium. It all has to do with whatever the virus’ DNA/RNA strand tells the cell to do. Most viruses just tell the cell to build more viruses, but the pokérus DNA must be like a motivational speech for a cell. And then it replicates and spreads, of course.

Pokérus is a virus, which will take over a pokémon’s cell and cause beneficial side affects, as it reproduces and spreads through a pokémon’s body and eventually into other pokémon.

anonymous asked:

I'm confused about why we need a new flu shot every year. Or rather, I understand that we need a new flu shot because the flu is constantly evolving, but I'm confused about why polio, tetanus, whooping cough, etc apparently aren't.

This is a really good question. I didn’t know the answer either, and looking it up online I see a lot of bigshot immunologists and biochemists who aren’t sure themselves. I don’t see anybody with a really base-level satisfying explanation.

There are two simple partial answers, though. First, flu is an RNA virus and RNA mutates much more quickly than DNA. This would be a great explanation except that even other RNA viruses don’t mutate as much as the flu.

Second, flu infects a lot of different animals, so you’re always having the bird flu and the swine flu meeting the human flu and “exchanging notes”; this is an unpredictable enterprise and sometimes causes huge shifts in genetic code that other viruses never get. But the flu seems to mutate unusually much even aside from this.

The best I can do after reading a couple of people’s thoughts on the subject: mutating rapidly is good for a virus insofar as it allows it to evade the immune system, but bad insofar as if it mutates too rapidly its genetic code will become hopelessly garbled and the virus won’t work at all. Different viruses have taken different spots in this tradeoff space, and the flu has taken the far right of it. It may have stumbled across some unusually simple mechanisms that let it accumulate more genetic error than usual and still survive. Or it could be that its live-fast-die-young infection strategy means it’s more interested in evading the immune system than other viruses and willing to accept higher nonfunctionality rates in order to do so.

You can read some more here: http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1001005

HIV, AIDS e i Tram gialli di San Francisco.

In risposta all'appello lanciatomi dal Dr. Kon-Igi riguardo la seguente domanda: “se mi prendo una pasticca di Truvada mi passa la tosse e il raffreddore?” (qui)

Il Truvada, per chi non lo sapesse ancora (e magari un giorno potrebbe tornarvi utile dato che c'avete il brutto vizio di trombarvi il primo che vi capita senza preservativi), è un farmaco per curare l'HIV.

Ma andiamo con ordine e partiamo da quando Dio creò tutte le specie, tra cui Giggi Sabani, i virus e, data la sua vena altamente sadica, i retrovirus, che non sono una parola inventata dal fascismo per indicare comportamenti romanicamente deprecabili e poco virili, ma una classe di virus ad RNA. 

Ora, il 56% di voi non c'avrà capito un cazzo lo stesso e mi spiego meglio. La vita si tramanda da padre a figlio attraverso i geni. Il fenotipo (il naso grosso, i capelli fini, le tette piccole ecc.) sono caratteri genetici. I geni sono sequenze di DNA. I virus, come tutti i viventi, hanno un genoma a DNA, con il difetto che non hanno il macchinario per leggere il loro stesso DNA. Per farlo devono infettare un ospite e così si avvalgono del sistema cellulare vostro per farsi i cazzi loro. Un po’ come il tizio che vi scrocca la linea internet a vostra insaputa e ci scarica gli album di Gigi D'Alessio. Poi arriva la SIAE e dovete pagare voi le multe.

Ora, il DNA è una macromolecola a doppia elica (Bartezzaghi, 34 orizzontale). Le eliche vanno in senso antiparallelo, cioè stanno insieme facendo un 69 e quando si devono replicare, o tramandare l'informazione, usano il metodo Gutenberg: un'elica fa da stampo per la nuova con il semplice principio del calco. Lo stesso vale per la trasmissione del segnale. Il DNA si apre (le due eliche si staccano), si lega un scanner a lettura ottica all'inizio del gene e che noi biologi chiamiamo Polimerasi. Con il principio del calco, crea un filamento simile al DNA e che si chiama RNA, lungo tanto quanto il gene. L'RNA viene preso da un tizio chiamato Ribosoma che lo traduce in una proteina. La proteina è il risultato del vostro gene dei capelli fini, gli occhi grigi, le tette piccole e via dicendo.

I retrovirus, tipo l'HIV, al contrario di tutti noi, hanno un genoma ad RNA. Quindi, prima di replicarsi, devono fare il processo inverso: trasformare il loro RNA in DNA e poi farsi leggere e tradurre come detto sopra. Se non fanno sto passaggio sono utili tanto quanto un pacchetto office craccato per Microsoft scaricato su un Mac. 
Per farlo hanno bisogno di un enzima che si chiama RT: reverse transcriptase. Ora voi direte “ho capito spaam, quanti cazzi, ma sto Truvada?” Ecco, ci arriviamo. La RT cambia l'RNA al DNA e così, anni fa a qualcuno è venuta l'idea di fottere l'HIV bloccandolo proprio sul nascere, ovvero, bloccando la RT in modo da non farlo trasformare in DNA.

Il Truvada allora, blocca la RT, così che l'infezione si rallenta e questo significa che la quantità di virus, nel vostro sangue, scende in maniera consistente. In più, il Truvada aumenta il numero di cellule CD4, il bersaglio favorito dell'HIV.

Quindi, se avete un raffreddore, cioè un normale virus a DNA e prendete il Truvada, che blocca l'RT per i virus ad RNA, non gli farete una beneamata sega. Sarebbe come farsi un ciclo di chemio perché avete mal di denti o anche tagliare via l'intero Senato della Repubblica perché serve un miliardo d'euro per coprire un buco nero da 2.000 miliardi. 

Concludo con una nota per i feticisti dell'evoluzione. Quando un fesso vi viene a dire “se l'evoluzione è una teoria vera, perché oggi le scimmie non si trasformano più in esseri umani?” Allora, comprategli un chupa-chups alla cannella, dategli due pacche sulle spalle e sorridendo fategli notare come i virus e i retrovirus si adattano a nuovi ambienti, tramite mutazioni, nel giro di un anno. Un tipico esempio evolutivo.

E poi sparite via come quando fuori arriva la polizia.