“Blue Blubber Jellyfish” (Catostylus mosaicus)

Also known as the “Jelly Blubber”, C. mosaicus is a species of Catostylid jellyfish which is widely distributed throughout coastal areas in the Indo-Pacific, including Australia. Catyostlus mosaicus is a fairly commonly encountered species and can occur in large swarms at times. Like most jellyfish C. mosaicus uses stinging nematocysts to dispatch its prey which typically consists of small fish and zooplankton. C. mosaicus has several color morphs with more southern individuals possessing a white or brown color and northern individuals sporting a distinct blue color. 


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Image: Via Fernandez


Mediterranean Jellyfish (Cotylorhiza tuberculata)

Also known as the Fried Egg Jellyfish, the Mediterranean Jellyfish is a species of Cepheid jellyfish that occurs in the Mediterranean, Aegean, and Adriatic Seas. Like most jellyfish C. tuberculata is a predator and will feed on zooplankton, which are dispatched via stinging nematocysts. the Mediterranean Jellyfish’s sting is mild and has little to no effect on humans.


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Images: GFDL and Antonio Sontuoso

Crowned Jellyfish - Cephea cephea

Scientifically named Cephea cephea (Rhizostomeae - Cepheidae), the Crowned Jellyfish, also known as Cauliflower Jellyfish, is one of three species in its genus, all found in the Indo-Pacific and East Atlantic.

Believe it or not, this beauty is targeted by the jellyfish fishing industry, especially during large blooms, and commonly and historically eaten as a delicacy or for medicinal purposes in China and Japan, along with multiple other species from its order, Rhizostomeae. 

References: [1] - [2]

Photo credit: ©Derek Haslam | Locality: Red Sea (2007)

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Crowned Jellyfish - Cephea cephea

Cephea cephea is a true jellyfish (Scyphozoa - Rhizostomeae - Cepheidae) found in the Indo-Pacific and East Atlantic. It is a large jellyfish, reaching 50-60 cm in diameter, with multiple wart-like projections on top of the central mound of its bell, which is surrounded by a moat. The thin frilled skirt around the crown is used for swimming. Its main body is blue-purple, its eight oral arms are brown and highly divided into a large, curly-looking surface area resembling a cauliflower (hence this jellyfish’s other common name, Cauliflower Jellyfish).  Multiple long colorless filaments with stinging cells for capturing prey trail behind as it swims.  

Cephea cephea is targeted by the jellyfish fishing industry, especially during large blooms, and commonly and historically eaten as a delicacy or for medicinal purposes in China and Japan, along with multiple other species.

References: [1] - [2

Photo credit: ©Tanaka Juuyoh | Locality: Mactan Cebu, Central Visayas, Philippines (2005)

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Haeckel’s Jellyfish - Pseudorhiza haeckeli

The Haeckel’s Jellyfish, Pseudorhiza haeckeli (Rhizostomeae - Lychnorhizidae), is a species of jellyfish native to Australian waters. This jellyfish has the body (bell) rounded and with the exterior surface covered in numerous raised lumps (bearing nematocysts). The bell is up to 40 cm across, transparent, and with brownish coarse reticular (honeycomb) pattern which gives it also the common name of Net-patterned Jellyfish. Inside the body it has a cross structure visible through transparent bell. 

References: [1] - [2]

Photo credit: ©Peter Day | Locality: Port Victoria, South Australia, Australia (2015)

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Cassiopea xamchana

…is a species of upside-down jellyfish (Cassiopea spp.) that is native to warm parts of the western Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico. Like other members of the genus Cassiopea, C. xamchana inhabits areas of muddy seabed in inshore bays and shallow lagoons where it will rest on its bell with its tentacles pointing upwards (thus the name upside-down). Cassiopea xamchana gets some of its nutrients from symbiotic zooanthellae it possesses inside its tissues but can also cat prey using the stinging cells in its tentacles. 


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Image: Svdmolen

Jellyfish - Thysanostoma thysanura

Described by Haeckel in 1880, Thysanostoma thysanura (Rhizostomeae - Thysanostomatidae) is a beautiful pelagic jellyfish which can reach up to 12 cm. It is known that this jellyfish, found from the central Indo-Pacific to Japan, has associations with the copepod Paramacrochiron japonicum, and the fish Carangoides ferdau.

References: [1] - [2] - [3] - [4]

Photo credit: ©Hans Spicar | Locality: Koh Tao, Thailand (2004)

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