Yet, even now, the day might not have been wholly lost (or perhaps its outcome might have been postponed) if the Paris sections had rallied in support of the Jacobin leaders, as in August 1792 and June 1793. Not only the Jacobin Club but the Commune continued to voice support for the arrested men; Hanriot, Robespierrist chief of the National Guard, escaped from the squad sent to arrest him; and the turnkey of the prison to which Robespierre and his group were directed refused to acknowledge their escort’s mandate, so that they were free to seek refuge among their friends at the City Hall. Moreover, the conspirators acted with caution, being still uncertain which way the wind would finally blow. But, though urged by his companions to issue a call for insurrection, Robespierre hesitated too long - either through legalistic scruple or because he lacked the will to act. More important, perhaps, was the simple fact that, when it came to the point, the sans-culottes, estranged by his recent [economic] policies, showed little inclination to take up arms for a cause they no longer believed in. It was certainly not for lack of time or opportunity to make up their minds. All through the afternoon and evening, the two contending parties, based respectively on the Commune and the Convention, sent mutually conflicting orders, threats, pleas, and declarations to the sections and battalions of the National Guard, appealing to their loyalties. At one time, in response to the Commune’s summons, 3,000 armed men, supported by the thirty-two pieces of artillery, were drawn up outside the City Hall. But they lacked both leadership and purpose and, as the tide of the debate in the sectional assemblies and ‘revolutionary’ committees turned against the Robespierrists, the whole of his force gradually melted away.

George Rude, Robespierre: Portrait of a Revolutionary Democrat
Our Revolution
The next step for Bernie Sanders' movement is a new group called Our Revolution, which will fight to transform America and advance the progressive agenda that we believe in.

The next phase of Bernie Sanders’ political revolution starts now.”

The Democratic presidential candidate and U.S. senator told USA Today in an exclusive interview published Friday that he plans “to launch educational and political organizations within the next few weeks to keep his progressive movement alive.”

Additionally, according to the newspaper:

”Sanders plans to support at least 100 candidates running for a wide range of public offices—from local school boards to Congress—at least through the 2016 elections. And he’ll continue to raise funds for candidates while campaigning for them all over the country. He said he probably will campaign for Tim Canova, a progressive primary challenger to Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz of Florida, who chairs the Democratic National Committee.

These efforts will be organized under the new Sanders Institute; the Our Revolution political group; and a third organization that USA Today writes, “may play a more direct role in campaign advertising.”

USA Today reports:

“The Sanders Institute will focus on elevating issues and ideas—through media and documentaries—that Sanders said the “corporate media” fails to focus on, including the disappearing middle class, “massive” income inequality, horrific levels of poverty and problems affecting seniors and children.

Jane Sanders, Sanders’ wife and political adviser, said the organization will help address issues that came into sharp focus on the campaign trail, such as “heartbreaking” issues facing Native Americans, and possible solutions the campaign discovered to address their health care needs.”

“It would be ridiculous for us to learn and not convey that information,” she said.

Former Sanders aide and deputy senior advisor to his campaign Shannon Jackson will head up Our Revolution.

Sanders told the paper: “If we are successful, what it will mean is that the progressive message and the issues that I campaigned on will be increasingly spread throughout this country. The goal here is to do what I think the Democratic establishment has not been very effective in doing. And that is at the grassroots level, encourage people to get involved, give them the tools they need to win, help them financially.”

Meanwhile, as Clare Foran reported Thursday for The Atlantic, “Sanders supporters are also actively working to carry on the revolution. Brand New Congress is one example.”

St. Martin’s Press also announced Thursday that the democratic socialist is writing a book—Our Revolution: A Future to Believe In—to be published November 15, 2016, one week after the general election.

(From this Common Dreams article)

Fourteen Defining Characteristics Of Fascism

By Dr. Lawrence Britt

Dr. Lawrence Britt has examined the fascist regimes of Hitler (Germany), Mussolini (Italy), Franco (Spain), Suharto (Indonesia) and several Latin American regimes. Britt found 14 defining characteristics common to each:
1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism - Fascist regimes tend to make constant use of patriotic mottos, slogans, symbols, songs, and other paraphernalia. Flags are seen everywhere, as are flag symbols on clothing and in public displays.
2. Disdain for the Recognition of Human Rights - Because of fear of enemies and the need for security, the people in fascist regimes are persuaded that human rights can be ignored in certain cases because of “need.” The people tend to look the other way or even approve of torture, summary executions, assassinations, long incarcerations of prisoners, etc.
3. Identification of Enemies/Scapegoats as a Unifying Cause - The people are rallied into a unifying patriotic frenzy over the need to eliminate a perceived common threat or foe: racial , ethnic or religious minorities; liberals; communists; socialists, terrorists, etc.
4. Supremacy of the Military - Even when there are widespread domestic problems, the military is given a disproportionate amount of government funding, and the domestic agenda is neglected. Soldiers and military service are glamorized.
5. Rampant Sexism - The governments of fascist nations tend to be almost exclusively male-dominated. Under fascist regimes, traditional gender roles are made more rigid. Divorce, abortion and homosexuality are suppressed and the state is represented as the ultimate guardian of the family institution.
6. Controlled Mass Media - Sometimes to media is directly controlled by the government, but in other cases, the media is indirectly controlled by government regulation, or sympathetic media spokespeople and executives. Censorship, especially in war time, is very common.
7. Obsession with National Security - Fear is used as a motivational tool by the government over the masses.
8. Religion and Government are Intertwined - Governments in fascist nations tend to use the most common religion in the nation as a tool to manipulate public opinion. Religious rhetoric and terminology is common from government leaders, even when the major tenets of the religion are diametrically opposed to the government’s policies or actions.
9. Corporate Power is Protected - The industrial and business aristocracy of a fascist nation often are the ones who put the government leaders into power, creating a mutually beneficial business/government relationship and power elite.
10. Labor Power is Suppressed - Because the organizing power of labor is the only real threat to a fascist government, labor unions are either eliminated entirely, or are severely suppressed.
11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts - Fascist nations tend to promote and tolerate open hostility to higher education, and academia. It is not uncommon for professors and other academics to be censored or even arrested. Free expression in the arts and letters is openly attacked.
12. Obsession with Crime and Punishment - Under fascist regimes, the police are given almost limitless power to enforce laws. The people are often willing to overlook police abuses and even forego civil liberties in the name of patriotism. There is often a national police force with virtually unlimited power in fascist nations.
13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption - Fascist regimes almost always are governed by groups of friends and associates who appoint each other to government positions and use governmental power and authority to protect their friends from accountability. It is not uncommon in fascist regimes for national resources and even treasures to be appropriated or even outright stolen by government leaders.
14. Fraudulent Elections - Sometimes elections in fascist nations are a complete sham. Other times elections are manipulated by smear campaigns against or even assassination of opposition candidates, use of legislation to control voting numbers or political district boundaries, and manipulation of the media. Fascist nations also typically use their judiciaries to manipulate or control elections.

11 minutes long and totally worth your time.

There is no such thing as a neutral educational process. Education either functions as an instrument that is used to facilitate the integration of the younger generation into the logic of the present system and bring about conformity to it, or it becomes ‘the practice of freedom,’ the means by which men and women deal critically and creatively with reality and discover how to participate in the transformation of their world.
—  Richard Shaull (Forward to The Pedagogy of the Oppressed by Paulo Freire)

→ July 14, 1789 - The Storming of the Bastille

The Bastille, a fortress and prison in the heart of Paris, had come to symbolize the authority, and abuse thereof, of the French monarchy. When the tensions in Paris reached a boiling point, the Bastille was stormed and captured by commoners, beginning in explosive style the French Revolution. July 14 is now celebrated as Bastille Day in France and within the international French diaspora.