returning to africa

ibtimes.co.uk
Slavery returns to Africa: Migrants sold at open markets in Libya
Vulnerable refugees from West Africa often arrive in the country with no money and no papers.

Migrants from West Africa are being openly traded in “public slave markets” across Libya.

As a departure point for refugees trying to get to Europe, migrants arriving in Libya from sub-Saharan Africa are particularly vulnerable due to a lack of money and little in the way of documentation.

Survivors have told the International Organization for Migration (IOM) how there are slave markets and private prisons all over Libya.

Mohammed Abdiker, IOM’s head of operation and emergencies, said: “The situation is dire. The more IOM engages inside Libya, the more we learn that it is a vale of tears for all too many migrants.”

One survivor from Senegal spoke of how he was brought by smugglers across Niger in a bus to the southern Libyan city of Sabha, where he was due to risk a boat trip to Europe. When the middleman did not get his fee, the survivor was put up for sale along with other passengers.

He was taken to a prison where he worked without pay while the captors demanded 300,000 West African francs (about £380) before selling him on to a larger jail. Livia Manante, an IOM officer based in Niger, said migrants would be brought to a square where they were put up for sale.

Manante said: “IOM Italy has confirmed that this story is similar to many stories reported by migrants and collected at landing points in southern Italy, including the slave market reports.”

Those who did not get their ransom paid were often taken away and killed while others would die of hunger and disease in unsanitary conditions.

“If the number of migrants goes down, because of death or someone is ransomed, the kidnappers just go to the market and buy one,” Manente said.

The going rate for a migrant was between $200 (£160) and $500 (£400) each, with many forced into captivity for months before they are freed or sold on. So far this year more than 170 bodies have washed up on the shores of the Mediterranean while the Libyan Coast Guard has also rescued thousands more.

IOM has helped repatriate 1,500 people back to West Africa so far this year where it is trying to inform people not to risk the journey to Libya where they face exploitation.

“Migrants who go to Libya while trying to get to Europe, have no idea of the torture archipelago that awaits them just over the border,” said Leonard Doyle, chief IOM spokesman in Geneva. “There they become commodities to be bought, sold and discarded when they have no more value.”

Sources: 

Maril Davis | Twitter Q&A | February 19, 2017

FAN: you take 10 months for 13 eps? WOW…
MARIL: we started shooting in September and we’ll be wrapping up in June

Does that mean you’ll get the summer off?
No. Writers room will still be going and prep underway for S4. Whoop

Is that the longest schedule to date? Voyager is a sweeping story.
Not for 13. But it was longer when we did first season with 16 eps. Took us a year. Oct-Oct

Do you first film everything and then cut or have already begun to cut?
We cut as we go but sometimes have to pick up things later. VFX takes time. Still working on Culloden! :)

So that work might be in the same wk or next?  so you budget for X # of reshoots, yes? I’m an academic now but always a producer at heart.
No. That happens later. After director finishes their cut

The wedding scene for exple. does director shoot as scripted, then later ask for alt? Or is an alt built in as another choice.
Director shoots as scripted. After producers watch cut we may decide we need to pick up an extra shoot or insert 

“Still working on Culloden!” which we could have done without IMO
Personally I always missed that in the book. It was talked about so much but never seen

What about a break before S4 starts? Will that begin in July or August? I’ll be in Scotland in September hope to see filming.
No real break for production. We start prep on S4 before S3 ends

Are you consider fans suggestions or constructive criticism when you prepare a season or episode? 
I’m always open to hearing both good and bad. 

Hardest working cast and crew in the business.
I don’t think we’re necessarily the hardest working cast and crew out there. We’re just biased :P

Hi @TallShipProds did you start casting for Jocasta’s reole? I’m so exciting for this season. Voyager is my favourite book.
Miss Jocasta isn’t in Voyager  

Will filming in S3 return to Scotland after South Africa?
No. the Scotland portion of S3 is completed.

Citizens of Jackdaw
Edward Kenway/Adéwalé
Citizens of Jackdaw

Edward: So what’ll you do with your Share of the Gold we take from Governor Torres? Return to Africa? Prince among Men?

Adéwalé: I cannot return to a Place I have never been. I was born in Trinidad, a Slave from my first Breath.

Edward: Ah. But wouldn’t you feel… I don’t know… More welcome there?

Adéwalé: As you might feel more welcome in Paris?

Edward: Fair Point.

Adéwalé: With this Skin and this Voice, where can I go in the World and feel at Ease? This Country here is my best Chance. This Country called Jackdaw, where I know the Names of all Citizens, and they know Mine, and we work together. Not always out of Love, but to keep our Country afloat.

Edward: I think I understand ye. Let’s take her, then. For the Citizens of Jackdaw!

Basically the era where being thicker than a midget was a crime just because Africans happen to be thick. Sarah (Saartije) Baartman was a Khoisan (South African) woman who performed under the name “Hottentot Venus” in 19th century England and France. She is the original video vixen: discovered at home in South Africa during her late teens, she was offered money and fame in Europe as a singer and dancer. Little did she know that she would be exploited and put on display for everyone to gaze at her large butt, long clitoris/labia, small waist, big breast and kinky hair– all traits that are very common amongst Khoisan women. As her shows attracted more fans, she was forced against her will to have sex with men AND WOMEN who gave enough money to her exploiters. Sarah got none of the money, as she was once promised. After her act got old, she was forced into prostitution, where she died of std’s and alcoholism. The obsession with Saartije lasted after her death as well. For more than 100 years, visitors and “scientist” were able to examine her dissected body parts in Paris museums. The 19th century shapewear, the “bustle” was inspired by her in order to give european women her unique physique. Yes, an old school booty pop. On behalf of Nelson Mandela’s request, Paris returned Saartije’s remains to South Africa in 2002. Black men, it’s time that you start respecting the black woman’s body, because this act of objectifying it was taught to you. #sarahbaartman

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Born on this day…

April 4, 1928

Marguerite Annie Johnson (Maya Angelou): Author, Poet, Activist

Books (Autobiographies of Maya Angelou):

I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings 

captures the longing of lonely children, the brute insult of bigotry, and the wonder of words that can make the world right. Maya Angelou’s debut memoir is a modern American classic beloved worldwide.

Gather Together in My Name 

continues Maya Angelou’s personal story, begun so unforgettably in I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings…Maya Angelou, still in her teens, has given birth to a son. But the next few years are difficult ones as she tries to find a place in the world for herself and her child. 

Singin’ and Swingin’ and Gettin’ Merry Like Christmas 

in this third self-contained volume of her autobiography…Maya Angelou moves into the adult world. Maya struggles to support herself and her son through a series of odd jobs and weathers a failed marriage to a white man before landing a gig singing in one of the most popular nightclubs on the San Francisco coast.

The Heart of a Woman 

in The Heart of a Woman, Maya Angelou leaves California with her son, Guy, to move to New York. There she enters the society and world of black artists and writers, reads her work at the Harlem Writers Guild, and begins to take part in the struggle of black Americans for their rightful place in the world

All God’s Children Need Traveling Shoes

in 1962 the poet, musician, and performer Maya Angelou claimed another piece of her identity by moving to Ghana, joining a community of “Revolutionist Returnees” inspired by the promise of pan-Africanism…lyrical and acutely perceptive exploration of what it means to be an African American on the mother continent, where color no longer matters but where American-ness keeps asserting itself in ways both puzzling and heartbreaking.

 A Song Flung Up to Heaven 

opens as Maya Angelou returns from Africa to the United States to work with Malcolm X. But first she has to journey to California to be reunited with her mother and brother. No sooner does she arrive there than she learns that Malcolm X has been assassinated.

Mom & Me & Mom 

at last, the legendary author shares the deepest personal story of her life: her relationship with her mother.

Quote:

There is no greater agony than bearing an untold story inside you.

Additional Quick Read:

Angelou’s Memoirs Place Her in Literary History 

White people in Haitian vodou, again.

There have been a series of messages in my ask box hitting the same point in several different ways, based on a bunch of things I’ve posted recently regarding the participation of white folks in vodou.

It’s not a lie or even a stretch of the imagination that white folks, in general, are fucking AWFUL when it comes to anything that has to do with minority anything. We generally kick down the door, grab what we want, head home, and then repackage and sell it at a profit, which inevitably robs the original owners of life and livelihood. It happens ALL THE TIME with Haitian vodou (looking at you, purveyors of random objects covered in veve, so-called paket kongo, lwa ‘elekes’, lwa ‘conjure oils’, ‘voodoo dolls’, and on and on and onnnn) and it has for a long, LONG time. Entire religious movements have been made on the backs of a white kidnapping of aesthetic ideas of Haitian vodou, and they thrive in parts of the US, with so-called places of worship filled with only white folks, the wrong drums, a so-called priye ginen crammed with Kabbalah and other white people babble, and plastic maraca stand-ins for asson.

It’s not okay, but that’s an unpopular opinion in the US because the idea of easy-access spirituality is kind of the flavor of the moment and folks who have learned traditionally get shit flung at them for speaking up. Another topic for another time.

None of that, though, precludes a white person being legitimately involved in Haitian vodou in an appropriate way, which involves going to the actual community of practitioners–real live Haitian folks practicing a Haitian religion–and presenting oneself in the hopes that the spirits and the community will find a place for you. It’s not easy, and it requires a LOT of work–not only are there practical considerations like actually traveling to that community, learning the language/songs/prayers/dances, ways of interaction, and more, but there is the work of decolonizing yourself and the way you move in the world. Coming into Haitian vodou as a white and/or non-Haitian person is voluntarily entering into cultural deprogramming. Whiteness is not the center of the universe and it’s not a consideration in the flow and function of the religion, beyond if you can be trusted as a white person, since white people exploit Haiti all the time.

These are tasks white vodouwizan can tackle right off the bat in the US, where that is a hard enough task. Confronting our inherent in-grown racism is a large task and it is solely on our shoulders–it is not the responsibility of the Haitians that may welcome us to participate. Haitian sosyetes that welcome white folks often go out of their way to bring in outsiders–white or not–as softly as possible, since they are well aware that white folks don’t have a culturally-based religious upbringing, nor have most white folks seen anything like vodou before. That doesn’t mean they are holding our hands while we sort of blink in the sunlight of being in a place where we are the minority, the outsider, the one who gets looked at sideways. That increases thousandfold if you go to Haiti, where distrust can be blatant and where there is largely no cushioning available–Haiti is a hard place and vodou is a hard religion.

The central function of vodou in terms of who is welcome is two-part–the community/people and the spirits. No one can make their way into the djevo without the support and approval of the community who in turn supports that djevo and the support and approval of the spirits who own that djevo and the community that supports it. If the community won’t have you, the spirits can’t overrule that. If the spirits won’t have you, the community should not overrule that (and it will go terribly for them if they do–think initiatory chamber on fire, people dying during kanzo etc). That extends to who is welcome at public ceremonies, too. Reactions range from the spirits having shown up, looked at a person, and literally asked them ‘what are you doing here’ (mild side) to a spirit literally chasing someone out of the temple while screaming and attempting to stab them with a knife (the hole are still in the door that the spirit stabbed instead). I have been at fetes that have ground to a halt when someone showed up who was not welcome by the community showed up and had to be dealt with.

If all of those musters are passed, there are still layers of approval from the spirits that come via divination and direct interaction–NOTHING is done without approval from the spirits, and their approval is sought after frequently. It’s not a matter of just showing up and, bam, you’re in. It’s layers and layers of commitment, work, and approval. The community watches and the spirits watch, and things develop.

Most criticism of white folks in the religion comes from people outside of religion, who carry a Western view of religion and community where showing up means tacit approval and where things are simple and clear cut. This leads to pronouncements of ‘no, only Type Of Person can join vodou’ or ‘it’s closed except for Black folks’, which disregard the actual cultural function of vodou and show a lack of understanding of how skin color is conceived of in Haiti.

From where I sit, this has three main causes:

1. Lack of perceived agency for Haitian vodouwizan and the spirits of vodou. Either Haitian vodouwizan can open their mouths and declare who is welcome in their religion, or they cannot. Either the spirits have agency to decide who they will bring into the religion, or they don’t. Speaking for or over Haitians has a simple root cause–racism and bigotry. Since Haiti is a country that has a long and complicated relationship with poverty, this often translates outside of Haiti to Haitians being simple or unintelligent, which is misplaced. And, of course, many Haitians are people of color, which leaves a lot of people feeling like they can speak over them. 

Declaring who a spirit will call is super interesting, because it makes me wonder why someone is seeking out a religion while discarding a core tenet of the religion (the lwa are act of their own volition, to satisfy their will and desires and to serve the will and desire of the master of the universe). If you can’t support how a religion functions, then perhaps seeking out a community that doesn’t have that tenet is a better choice.

2. Haitian vodou is not an African religion, it is a HAITIAN religion. While vodou has roots in Africa and the Middle Passage, it is a distinctly Haitian religion that is deeply, DEEPLY rooted in Haiti and Haitian culture. Bwa Kayiman–the rite that both started the Haitian revolution and really codified what Haitian vodou is today–held at it’s core a realization by those enslaved Africans who would become the first Haitians that they would never be able to return to Africa and that Haiti was now their home and their children’s birthright, so things had to change to account for that. Lumping Haitian vodou into a pan-African worldview erases what makes the religion vodou–it cannot be separated from Haitian culture, at all, without losing what vodou is.

Pushing Haitian vodou into a pan-African paradigm sets up Black folks who are interested in vodou for a really hard time because it communicates a unifying ideal that is just not present. While non-Haitian Black folks may blend well in a religion where most of the adherents would be assigned Black/African-American by a US census taker, the same cultural challenges will be present them as a white person would face–language, cultural understandings, etc. If anything, non-Haitian Black folks can face bigger scrutiny in the religion than white folks do. It is understood that white folks generally won’t know their ass from their head when they show up but someone who can visually be mistaken to be Haitian? Why don’t they know what is going on? How come they can’t turn? Don’t they know any Kreyol?

Birthright CAN exist for Haitians in vodou, but it doesn’t really extend past that.

3. There is a deep and growing need for religious and spiritual spaces for Black folks and other people of color that are only available for Black folks and other people of color. I don’t have a lot to say about this because it’s not my place, beyond that I think that’s a vital and important thing and should be supported by any person who wants to step under the ally umbrella. Vodou as a religion, though, has been open to non-Haitians and white folks for long, long time, and so cannot and does not provide that. I know that there is a lot happening in various corners of pagan and witchcraft communities for Black folks and people of color in general, and I am happy to amplify anything I see about that for folks who might be interested.

So, there’s that. I welcome more discussion and questions on vodou in general and vodou and race in specific if people have them!

In early-twentieth-century urban Peru, few cultural traditions remained that were considered Afro-Peruvian. Race was perceived as changeable, whiteness was equated with social mobility, and, as Raúl Romero explains (1994), Peruvians of African descent typically were not viewed as a separate ethnic group because they identified culturally, along with the descendants of Europeans, as criollos, a term that originally described the children of Africans born into slavery and later included European descendants born in Peru. After independence, the word criollo came to describe a set of cultural practices that were believed to be of European origin, including música criolla, or Creole music. At Lima’s jaranas (multi-day, invitation-only social gatherings involving the communal affirmation of shared criollo culture through food, drink, humor, music, and dance), ethnically diverse criollos performed música criolla, especially the marinera, on the guitar, cajón (box drum), and other instruments. Those who did not play an instrument sang, danced, or performed the special rhythmic handclap patterns unique to each musical genre, affirming the participatory character of creating and maintaining a shared culture. Although the performers were of mixed ethnic backgrounds, by the middle of the century this music was considered to be of strictly European origin (Romero 1994).

Before the Afro-Peruvian revival, many blacks in Peru identified with criollo culture, yet they were denied the social benefits afforded white criollos. In the 1960s, while African independence movements and the U.S. civil rights movement sought to overturn colonialism and racism, respectively, in Peru, music and dance were the first successful arenas for the politics of black resistance. Whereas for some critics, staged music and dance might seem an unlikely format for collective protest, the first step for Afro-descendants in the isolated black Pacific was to make themselves visible as a group by organizing around a newly embraced collective, ethnic, and diasporic identity before they could unite in a political struggle for civil rights. In the Afro-Peruvian revival, black Peruvians began by mounting staged performances that reinscribed forgotten and ignored black culture in Peruvian official history, starting with times of slavery (plantation settings, slave dances, and so on). The leaders of the Afro-Peruvian revival reconstructed lost black Peruvian music and dances for theatrical performances and recordings, musically promoting racial difference to challenge the prevailing ideology of criollo unity without racial equality.


Many Peruvian musicians date the beginning of the revival to 1956, when Peruvian scholar José Durand (a white criollo) founded the Pancho Fierro company, which presented the first major staged performance of reconstructed Afro-Peruvian music and dance at Lima’s Municipal Theater. Several black Peruvians who participated in Durand’s company formed their own groups in the 1960s, including the charismatic siblings Nicomedes and Victoria Santa Cruz. Perú Negro, the only group from the revival still existing in the twenty-first century, was founded in 1969 by former protégés of Victoria Santa Cruz…


Like her brother, Victoria Santa Cruz looked toward the black Atlantic to forge a transnational diasporic identity for black Peruvians, transplanting musical instruments and cultural expressions in revival productions. But Victoria Santa Cruz’s most celebrated legacy in Peru is her idiosyncratic deployment of “ancestral memory” as the cornerstone of a choreographic technique that enabled her to “return” to Africa by looking deep within her own body for the residue of organic ancestral rhythms…


Explaining what she means by “ancestral memory,” Victoria Santa Cruz writes: “What is ancestry? Is it a memory? And if so, what is it trying to make us remember? … The popular and cultural manifestations, rooted in Africa, which I inherited and later accepted as ancestral vocation, created a certain disposition toward rhythm, which over the years has turned itself into a new technique, ‘the discovery and development of rhythmic sense’ … I reached my climax … when I went deep into that magical world that bears the name of rhythm” (Santa Cruz 1978, 18). Elsewhere, she said: “Having discovered, first ancestrally and later through study and practice, that every gesture, word, and movement is a consequence of a state of being, and that this state of being is tied to connections and disconnections of fixed centers or plexus … allowed me to rediscover profound messages in dance and traditional music that could be recovered and communicated. … The black man knows through ancestry, even when he is not conscious of it, that what is outwardly elaborated has its origin or foundation in the interior of those who generate it” (V. Santa Cruz 1988, 85).

—  Heidi Carolyn Feldman,  “Strategies of the Black Pacific: Music and Diasporic Identity in Peru,” Comparative Perspectives on Afro-Latin America (2012)

Major General Dan Pienaar in Egypt, 1942. His 1 South African Division played a significant part in securing victory at El Alamein, and he was twice awarded the DSO. Sadly, he was killed on 19 December 1942 when his aircraft crashed into Lake Victoria at Kisumu while returning to South Africa.

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James Keziah Delaney, a man who has been to the ends of the earth and come back irrevocably changed. Believed to be long dead, he returns home to London from Africa in 1814 to inherit what is left of his father’s shipping empire and rebuild a life for himself. But when his father’s legacy is revealed to be a poisoned chalice and enemies lurk in every dark corner, James must navigate increasingly complex territories to avoid his own death sentence. Encircled by conspiracy, murder, and betrayal – a dark family mystery unfolds in an explosively colourful tale of love and treachery.

Taboo, 2016.

Star Wars/Hogwarts AU

@kyberpunk gave me the original idea for a Hogwarts Professor Obi-Wan (as I’m sure ya’ll know) but it seems that my brain decided to add to it all, and rewrite my original ideas into… well this.

I’m going to add parts of it to this blog, since it’s already 7k now and doesn’t seem to want to stop. Obi-Wan centric because why not. I basically hate the limit of JK’s magical world, and how Latin is the magical language of the day. Like, sods that mate. VARIETY!

Obligatory tagging of my lovelies now!: @sanerontheinside, @lilyrose225writes, @maawi,  @eclipsemidnight, @meabhair, @markwatnae, @deadcatwithaflamethrower (it’s 2am I can’t think of anyone else nrgh)

Enjoy the first part below!

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There was a lot of hype in the wizarding world, Obi-Wan found, that revolved around the line of Slytherin being the last line capable of speaking to snakes. And of that line, the infamous Tom Riddle, aka Lord Voldemort, was the last. With no other family members, and the Gaunt family literally dead, the wizarding world assumed that Parselmagic had died with them.

Of course, the fact that the vaunted Harry Potter – who Obi-Wan did not envy in the slightest – was capable of the same ability although his entire family line was magically Gryffindor through and through… well, that was sort of casually glossed over.

Very few knew the true story behind Potter’s affinity for Parseltongue, but it seemed to be an almost expected story to share in the Staff Room whenever a new member of staff was appointed to the school. Though, to be fair, it wasn’t exactly that Potter was the focus of the story, but rather the events of his entire time at Hogwarts. As a warning of sorts.

“Don’t ignore what is in front of you because you don’t like what it could mean. You’ll end up with a giant snake petrifying everyone and supposedly-dead Dark Lord’s ruining the entire year.”

That was essentially the purpose of accosting new staff and waylaying them with frankly terrifying information – which would have any sane person deciding “no thank you” and handing in their resignation less than a day into term.

Unfortunately, Obi-Wan had never been considered sane.

Keep reading

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Tom and his father Edward ‘Chips’ Hardy at the premiere of the new BBC One drama ‘Taboo’ at Picturehouse Central in London | November 29, 2016 | C21 Drama Summit screening

TABΘΘ, an original drama series starring #TomHardy, premieres in the UK 7th January 2017 on @BBCOne and in the US 10th January 2017 on @fxnetworks ‏~ Go follow @TabooFX and @sonofhorace1814 :)

Set in 1814, TABΘΘ follows James Keziah Delaney, a man who has been to the ends of the earth and comes back irrevocably changed. Believed to be long dead, he returns home to London from Africa to inherit what is left of his father’s shipping empire and rebuild a life for himself. But his father’s legacy is a poisoned chalice, and with enemies lurking in every dark corner, James must navigate increasingly complex territories to avoid his own death sentence. Encircled by conspiracy, murder, and betrayal, a dark family mystery unfolds in a combustible tale of love and treachery.

🎩
Directors: Kristoffer Nyholm, Anders Engström
Exec. Producers: Scott Free London; Hardy Son & Baker
Created by Steven Knight with Tom Hardy and Chips Hardy

Ph. Dave Benett/Getty Images

father and son 💕

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March 9th 1841: United States v. The Amistad

On this day in 1841, the Supreme Court issued their decision in United States v. The Amistad on the case of the 1839 mutiny aboard a slave ship. The rebellion occurred on the Spanish ship The Amistad as it was bound for Havana, Cuba, where captured men would be sold to a Caribbean plantation. The mutiny of fifty-three abducted men from Sierra Leone was led by Joseph Cinqué, and they killed the captain and ordered the sailors to turn the ship around and return to Africa. However, the ship was soon seized by an American ship off the coast of Long Island, New York. The mutineers were imprisoned on murder charges, while a debate over what to do with them gripped the United States. Abolitionists led the effort to free the men, fighting ownership claims of the Spanish government which were supported by President Martin van Buren. A state court referred the Amistad case to the federal judicial system, and it reached the Supreme Court in 1841. In a landmark decision, the Court ruled in favour of the Africans - who were defended by former President John Quincy Adams. The Court declared that the men were illegally held as slaves, and decreed that they were free to return to their homeland. While slavery was legal in the United States, the importation of slaves had been banned in 1808, thus ruling that the men had been kidnapped and were justified in using violence to escape their condition.

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Teasers from @sonofhorace1814

STORY ~ Set in 1814, TABΘΘ follows James Keziah Delaney (Tom Hardy), a man who has been to the ends of the earth and comes back irrevocably changed. Believed to be long dead, he returns home to London from Africa to inherit what is left of his father’s shipping empire and rebuild a life for himself. But his father’s legacy is a poisoned chalice, and with enemies lurking in every dark corner, James must navigate increasingly complex territories to avoid his own death sentence. Encircled by conspiracy, murder, and betrayal, a dark family mystery unfolds in a combustible tale of love and treachery.

TABΘΘ premieres in the UK 7th January 2017 on @BBCOne and in the US 10th January 2017 on @fxnetworks

🎩 Starring (main cast) Tom Hardy, Oona Chaplin @oonacc, David Hayman,
Michael Kelly @realmichaelkelly, Jonathan Pryce, Leo Bill @serpicleo1, with Franka Potente @franka_potente, Stephen Graham @stephengraham73, Scroobius Pip @scroobiuspipyo, Danny Ligairi @dannyligairibofficial and many more …✯ plus some very special cameos ✯ :)

At the age of five, Sarah Forbes Bonetta Davies, born into a Royal, West African dynasty, was taken to England and presented to Queen Victoria as a “gift” from one royal family to another. A unique and admired figure in history, she spent her life between the British royal household and her homeland in Africa.

Sarah Forbes Bonetta Davies, a West African Yoruba girl, was captured by the King of Dahomey in 1848 during a “slave-hunt” war in which her parents were killed. In 1850, when she was around eight years old, she was rescued by Captain Frederick E Forbes of the Royal Navy whilst he was visiting Dahomey as an emissary of the British Government. Forbes convinced King Ghezo of Dahomey to give Sarah to Queen Victoria saying: “She would be a present from the King of the Blacks to the Queen of the Whites.” The young girl was subsequently given the name Forbes as well as that of his ship, the ‘Bonetta’.

She returned to England with Forbes who presented her to Queen Victoria, who in turn gave her over to the Church Missionary Society to be educated. Sarah suffered from fragile health and in 1851 she returned to Africa to attend the Female Institution in Freetown, Sierra Leone. When she was 12 years old, Queen Victoria commanded that Sarah return to England, where she was placed under the charge of Mr and Mrs Schon at Chatham.

Queen Victoria was so impressed by the girl’s natural regal manner and her gift for academic studies, Literature, Art and Music that she gave her an allowance for her welfare and Sarah became a regular visitor to Windsor Castle. Sarah’s genius became admired throughout the royal court and she continued to outshine her tutors with her advanced abilities in all studies.

At the age of 18, Sarah received a proposal from James Pinson Labulo Davies, a 31 year old Yoruba businessman of considerable wealth who was living in Britain. She initially refused his proposal and it is reported that in order to persuade her to accept Sarah was sent to live with two elderly ladies in Brighton whose house she described as a “desolate little pig sty”.

Queen Victoria sanctioned Sarah to be married in St Nicholas Church in Brighton in August 1862. The wedding party, which arrived from West Hill Lodge, Brighton in ten carriages and pairs of grays, was made up of “White ladies with African gentlemen, and African ladies with White gentlemen” There were sixteen bridesmaids. The newlyweds moved back to West Africa and Sarah was baptised at a church in the town of Badagry, a former slave port. They settled in Lagos where her husband became a member of the Legislative Council from 1872-74 (in which year Lagos Colony was for a time amalgamated into the Gold Coast).

Shortly after her marriage, Sarah gave birth to a daughter and was granted permission by the Queen to name the child Victoria – the Queen also became her Godmother.

Sarah visited the Queen in 1867 with her daughter then returned to Lagos and had two more children. Later, upon Sarah’s death the Queen wrote in her diary: “Saw poor Victoria Davies, my black godchild, who learnt this morning of the death of her dear mother”. So proud was Queen Victoria of Sarah’s daughter, that when she passed her music examination, teachers and children had one day holiday. Throughout her life Sarah had a long lasting cough that was caused by the climate change between Africa and Britain. In 1880, suffering from tuberculosis, she went to convalesce in Madeira off of the coast of West Africa. She died, around the age of 40, in 1880 and was buried in Funchal, Madiera.

Her daughter Victoria was given an annuity by the Queen and she continued to visit the royal household throughout her life. In his journal Captain Forbes gave an account of his mission with relation to Miss Bonetta.

“I have only to add a few particulars about my extraordinary present The African child”. In a former portion of this journal I have mentioned the Okeadon war; one of the captives of this dreadful slave-hunt was this interesting girl.

It is usual to reserve the best born for the high behest of royalty and the immolation on the tombs of the diseased nobility. For one of these ends she had been detained at court for two years: proving, by her not having been sold to slave dealer, that she was of a good family.

So extraordinary a present would have been at least burden, had I not the conviction that, in consideration of the nature of the service I had performed, the government would consider her as the property of the crown.

To refuse, would have been to have signed her death warrant which, probably, would have been carried into execution forthwith. Immediately on arriving…

Of her own history she was only a confused idea. Her parents were decapitated; her brother and sisters she knows not what their fate might have been .

For her age supposed to be eight years. She is a perfect genius; she now speaks English well, and has a great talent for music. She has won the affections, with but few exceptions, of all who have known her, she is far in advance of any white child of her age, in aptness of learning, and strength of mind and affection.”

anonymous asked:

What is taboo actually about? I've seen so much about it but I don't really know what happens in it

Ah anon, Taboo is amazing. So it takes place in the mid-1800’s before the instalment of the police in London. James K Delaney, who is believed to have died off the coast of Africa, returns after his father dies to claim the dowry that is his (i.e. A very important piece of land known as Nootka Sound). The East India Trading Company was trying to do a deal with James’ father for the land because its extremely valuable for trading purposes and they want it before America gets it. James knows all this and refuses to deal with them. Chaos insues. (I don’t wanna give too much away).

If you’re in the US the series is available on the FX app to watch. You just have to sign in with your cable provider. If you’re not in the US I’m not sure how to access reruns.

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•Can someone be happy with me that I finally got these and that my mother will be returning back to South Africa from Singapore with Muji stationary for me💖💖😭🦄🙏🏽🌸!!!!. Highkey happy because the stigma of having muji pens on studyblr (which aren’t here in SA) has stressed me out for a year 😭💔•

Martin Delany - Black Nationalism
May 6, 1812 – January 24, 1885

Wikipedia
Martin Robison Delany was an African-American abolitionist, journalist, physician, and writer, arguably the first proponent of black nationalism; Martin Delany is considered to be the grandfather of Black nationalism. He was also one of the first three blacks admitted to Harvard Medical School. Trained as an assistant and a physician, he treated patients during the cholera epidemics of 1833 and 1854 in Pittsburgh, when many doctors and residents fled the city. He worked alongside Frederick Douglass to publish the North Star. Active in recruiting blacks for the United States Colored Troops, he was commissioned as a major, the first African-American field officer in the United States Army during the American Civil War.

After the Civil War, he worked for the Freedmen’s Bureau in the South, settling in South Carolina, where he became politically active. He ran unsuccessfully for Lieutenant Governor and was appointed a Trial Judge. Later he switched his party loyalty and worked for the campaign of Democrat Wade Hampton III, who won the 1876 election for governor.

In 1859 and 1862, as a response to Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Delany published parts of Blake: Or The Huts of America in serialized form. His novel portrayed an insurrectionist’s travels through slave communities. He believed that Stowe had portrayed slaves as too passive, although he praised her highlighting the cruelty of Southern slave owners. Modern scholars have praised Delany’s novel as an accurate interpretation of black culture. The first half of Part One was serialized in The Anglo-African Magazine, January to July 1859. The rest of Part One was included in serial form in the Weekly Anglo African Magazine from 1861-1862. This was the first novel by a black man to be published in the United States.[citation needed]

Early life and education
Delany was born free in Charles Town, West Virginia (then part of Virginia, a slave state) to Pati and Samuel Delaney. Although his father Samuel was enslaved, his mother was a free woman, and Martin took her status under slave law. Both sets of Martin Delany’s grandparents were African. Delaney’s paternal grandparents were of Gola ethnicity (from modern-day Liberia), taken captive during warfare and brought as slaves to the Virginia colony. Family oral history said that the grandfather was a chieftain, escaped to Canada for a period, and died resisting slavery abuses.

Pati’s parents were born in the Niger Valley, west Africa, and were of Mandinka ethnicity. Her father was said to have been a prince named Shango, captured with his betrothed Graci and brought to America as slaves. After some time, they were given their freedom in Virginia, perhaps based on their noble birth. Shango returned to Africa. Graci stayed in America with their only daughter Pati. When Delany was just a few years old, attempts were made to enslave him and a sibling. Their mother Pati carried her two youngest children 20 miles to the courthouse in Winchester to argue successfully for her family’s freedom based on her own free birth.

As he was growing up, Delany and his siblings learned to read and write using The New York Primer and Spelling Book, given to them by a peddler. Virginia prohibited education of black people. When the book was discovered in September 1822, Pati took her children out of Virginia to Chambersburg in the free state of Pennsylvania to ensure their continued freedom. They had to leave their father Samuel, but a year later he bought his freedom and rejoined the family in Chambersburg.

In Chambersburg, the young Delany continued learning. Occasionally he left school to work when his family could not afford for his education to continue. In 1831, at the age of 19, he journeyed west to the growing city of Pittsburgh, where he became a barber and laborer. Having heard stories about his parents’ ancestors, he wanted to visit Africa, which he considered his spiritual home. Martin Delaney and 3 other people were accepted into Harvard Medical School but, white students had a petition so the African Americans were not accepted into the school.

Photo:  Wikipedia