Simply because everyone is still freaking out about the stupid dress. This video does a really great job of explaining why people perceive the dress as different colors. And yeah, it’s actually black and blue. I know, I’m upset too.
There is a GIGANTIC debate going on over twitter about this dress. Half of the people talking about it see it as Gold and White, while the other half see it as Blue and Black. My mom explained to me that it has something to do with a person’s retina, but I don’t remember everything she said.
Glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness, usually stems from elevated eye pressure, which in turn damages and destroys specialized neurons in the eye known as retinal ganglion cells. To better understand these cellular changes and how they influence the progression and severity of glaucoma, researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Shiley Eye Institute turned to a mouse model of the disease. Their study, published Feb. 10 in The Journal of Neuroscience, reveals how some types of retinal ganglion cells alter their structures within seven days of elevated eye pressure, while others do not.
“Understanding the timing and pattern of cellular changes leading to retinal ganglion cell death in glaucoma should facilitate the development of tools to detect and slow or stop those cellular changes, and ultimately preserve vision,” said Andrew D. Huberman, PhD, assistant professor of neurosciences, neurobiology and ophthalmology. Huberman co-authored the study with Rana N. El-Danaf, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher in his lab.
Retinal ganglion cells are specialized neurons that send visual information from the eye’s retina to the brain. Increased pressure within the eye can contribute to retinal ganglion cell damage, leading to glaucoma. Even with pressure-lowering drugs, these cells eventually die, leading to vision loss.
In this study, Huberman and El-Danaf used a mouse model engineered to express a green fluorescent protein in specific retinal ganglion cells subtypes. This tool allowed them to examine four subtypes of retinal ganglion cells. The different cell types differ by the location in the eye to which they send the majority of their dendrites (cellular branches). Within seven days of elevated eye pressure, all retinal ganglion cells that send most or all of their dendrites to a region of the eye known as the OFF sublamina underwent significant rearrangements, such as reductions in number and length of dendritic branches. Retinal ganglion cells with connections in the ON part of the retina did not.
“We are very excited about this discovery,” Huberman said. “One of the major challenges to the detection and treatment of glaucoma is that you have to lose a lot of cells or eye pressure has to go way up before you know you have the disease. These results tell us we should design visual field tests that specifically probe the function of certain retinal cells. In collaboration with the other researcher members of the Glaucoma Research Foundation Catalyst for a Cure, we are doing just that and we are confident these results will positively impact human patients in the near-future.”
Pictured: Example of retinal ganglion cells with dendrites in the retina of a healthy eye.
With 576-megapixel resolution, our eyes are incredible cameras, capturing 72-times more high-definition detail than the iPhone 6. To do this, our retinas are packed with many different cell types that help transmit light information to the brain. We know very little, however, about how these cells interconnect, so researchers have turned to mapping and tracing how one cell connects with another…and you can help. A team of scientists at MIT has developed an online game called EyeWire that allows anyone to figure out how cells connect in the retina with real science implications. This image was generated from players correctly tracing connections from one cell to the next, generating a complete connectivity map for these seven cells.
Image by Amy Robinson, Alex Norton, Sebastian Seung, William Silversmith, Jinseop Kim, Kisuk Lee, Aleks Zlasteski, Matt Green, Matthew Balkam, Rachel Prentki, Marissa Sorek, Celia David, Devon Jones, and Doug Bland.
Online gamers helped researchers map neuron connections involved in detecting direction of moving objects.
A vast project to map neural connections in the mouse retina may have answered the long-standing question of how the eyes detect motion. With the help of volunteers who played an online brain-mapping game, researchers showed that pairs of neurons positioned along a given direction together cause a third neuron to fire in response to images moving in the same direction.
It is sometimes said that we see with the brain rather than the eyes, but this is not entirely true. People can only make sense of visual information once it has been interpreted by the brain, but some of this information is processed partly by neurons in the retina. In particular, 50 years ago researchers discovered that the mammalian retina is sensitive to the direction and speed of moving images. This showed that motion perception begins in the retina, but researchers struggled to explain how.
Any science textbook will tell you we can’t see infrared light. Like X-rays and radio waves, infrared light waves are outside the visual spectrum. But an international team of researchers co-led by scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has found that under certain conditions, the retina can sense infrared light after all.
Using cells from the retinas of mice and people, and powerful lasers that emit pulses of infrared light, the researchers found that when laser light pulses rapidly, light-sensing cells in the retina sometimes get a double hit of infrared energy. When that happens, the eye is able to detect light that falls outside the visible spectrum.
"We’re using what we learned in these experiments to try to develop a new tool that would allow physicians to not only examine the eye but also to stimulate specific parts of the retina to determine whether it’s functioning properly," said senior investigator Vladimir J. Kefalov, PhD, associate professor of ophthalmology and visual sciences at Washington University. "We hope that ultimately this discovery will have some very practical applications."
The eye can detect light at wavelengths in the visual spectrum. Other wavelengths, such as infrared and ultraviolet, are supposed to be invisible to the human eye, but Washington University scientists have found that under certain conditions, it’s possible for us to see otherwise invisible infrared light. Credit: Sara Dickherber
Zebrafish embryos are transparent, making them ideal for studying the formation of complicated cell tissue such as the eyes and the brain. Researchers are currently using a ‘spectrum of fates’ approach in order to learn more about the development of the retina – optical tissue which lines the inside of eyes and communicates with the brain. This technique uses specifically tuned fluorescent proteins to colour-code different cell types. The fluorescent proteins are injected into the yolk of an early-stage zebrafish embryo, where they will track the five major retinal cell types, causing them to fluoresce in a specific colour. Taking images of the retina during its development (pictured) allows the structural formation to be studied in real time – cells can be followed from birth, and around any paths they take before settling into place. Studies like this will improve our understanding of how biological structures initiate and grow.
Here a mouse retina is seen en face with these “J” retinal ganglion cells marked by the expression of one fluorescent protein. The millions of other entangled neurons are not marked and thus are invisible in this image. Image obtained with a confocal scanning microscope and pseudocolored.
Seeing – recognising – acting. These three words describe how a sensory input can lead to a targeted movement. However, very little is known about how and where the brain converts external inputs into behavioural responses. Now, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology in Martinsried have been able to shed light on important neural circuitry involved in the prey capture behaviour exhibited by young zebrafish. The findings show that neurons in the retina of the eye already filter out prey objects from other environmental signals. The cells then forward this information to an area of the brain, which, up to now, had no identifiable role. The corresponding swimming movements are then initiated here.
It’s not easy to catch a ball. The ball must first be recognised and tracked by the eyes. At the same time, the body’s own movements must be coordinated in such a way that the hands hang on to the ball at the right time and in the right place. For animals, such coordination of visual inputs and their own movements is critical to their survival: it is only in this way that they can recognise, track and catch prey. For many animals, fundamental prey capture behaviour is therefore innate. Up until now, scientists could not explain how and where the brain recognises and classifies an object and initiates the corresponding movement pattern.
Prey causes the fish brain to light up
As soon as they are hatched, zebrafish larvae can already hunt single-celled organisms such as paramecia. The brain of the tiny fish is able to recognise the single-celled organism as a target, calculate its location and steer its body towards the prey using characteristic tail movements. This innate prey capture behaviour can also be triggered in the laboratory using small, moving dots. Scientists can thus present potential “prey” on a miniature screen and study the subsequent processes in the fish brain – as zebrafish larvae are almost transparent. As a result of genetic modifications, the neurons in the fish brain that are active at a given moment light up in the transparent brain. Processes in the fish brain can therefore be observed using a microscope while the animals recognise and classify their prey and swim towards them.
To understand the neural circuits of the prey capture behaviour, the neurobiologists initially concentrated on the recognition of prey objects. “First of all, we looked at the connections between the retina and the brain,” says Julia Semmelhack, describing her work. Neurons in the zebrafish retina project into 10 areas in the brain known as AF regions; however, very little is known about the role of these regions. The scientists in Martinsried were able to show that the neurons in one of these 10 AF regions always became active when the dots shown fitted the brain’s template of an optimal prey object. Larger or smaller dots had no effect. The AF7 brain region lit up only in the presence of virtual dots that were the “right” size (and in the case of actual paramecia).
A brain region reveals itself
Further investigation showed that the neurons in the retina filter out potential prey objects from the environment. The information is only sent to the AF7 region if a dot is the “right” one. From there, the hunting impulse is then sent to other visual regions and to the areas controlling movement. When the scientists cut the AF7 connections, the fish responded only to a very limited extent to the dots representing the prey.
The AF7 region is therefore essential for classifying visual stimuli as prey and for triggering the associated hunting behaviour. “We have shown how a visual signal from the retina, travelling via the AF7 region, leads to certain behaviour,” says a delighted Herwig Baier, who, together with his department at the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, is studying how sensory inputs from the brain are converted into behavioural responses. A major first step has been taken. The neurobiologists now want to find out how the information in the AF7 region is translated into the various swimming movements.
Age, genetics, or sheer bad luck can land you among the 285 million people worldwide who are visually impaired. Among older adults in the Western world, the leading cause of blindness is degeneration of the photoreceptors in the eye—as in macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa.
Forming the top layer of the retina, photoreceptors are the screen on which the movie of your life plays. This thin, precious layer of cells detects light and converts it into electrical impulses that the visual system can understand. When the photoreceptors die, vision dies with them.
So far, stem cell therapy—so promising in theory—has failed to deliver any cures. Yet hope is taking clearer and clearer shape, in the form of tiny photovoltaic tiles that could do for vision what cochlear implants have done for hearing.
Speaking last week at the AAAS Annual Meeting in San Jose, Daniel Palanker of Stanford University explained the new prosthetic vision technology, successfully tested on rats.
First, tiny arrays of infrared-sensitive tiles—each just a millimeter across but bearing thousands of electrodes—are injected into the retina. Then, a pair of special glasses beams an infrared view of the world into your eye. Much as solar panels do, the tiles “see” the infrared light, converting it into electrical impulses that travel via existing neural pathways into the brain. Voila: Vision restored.
Unlike other prosthetic retinas, no power source is needed inside the eye—the infrared light from the glasses supplies all the energy. Why infrared? To work well, this light must be fiercely bright, 1,000 times normal. Blasting even an impaired eye with visible light this intense would be, well, blinding. Infrared light, however, is invisible to normal human photoreceptors.
The “installation” of the tiles is relatively non-invasive, in part because the tiles only need to be placed in a small region of the retina called the fovea, where photoreceptors are densely packed. “We live in a world of illusions,” says Palanker, “many of them created by the brain.” By constant jittering and shifting, our eyes keep the fovea darting this way and that, creating the illusion of a full-field view.
Human trials are scheduled to begin soon. Ultimately, by shrinking the size of the pixels on the tiles, Palanker expects the system could achieve visual acuities up to 20/100—not quite perfect, but a far sight better than blind.
The aging process affects everything from cardiovascular function to memory to sexuality. Most worrisome for many, however, is the potential loss of eyesight due to retinal degeneration.
New progress towards a prosthetic retina could help alleviate conditions that result from problems with this vital part of the eye. An encouraging new study published in Nano Letters describes a revolutionary novel device, tested on animal-derived retinal models, that has the potential to treat a number of eye diseases. The proof-of-concept artificial retina was developed by an international team led by Prof. Yael Hanein of Tel Aviv University’s School of Electrical Engineering and head of TAU’s Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology and including researchers from TAU, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and Newcastle University.
Lilach Bareket, Nir Waiskopf, David Rand, Gur Lubin, Moshe David-Pur, Jacob Ben-Dov, Soumyendu Roy, Cyril Eleftheriou, Evelyne Sernagor, Ori Cheshnovsky, Uri Banin, Yael Hanein. Semiconductor Nanorod–Carbon Nanotube Biomimetic Films for Wire-Free Photostimulation of Blind Retinas. Nano Letters, 2014; 14 (11): 6685 DOI: 10.1021/nl5034304
We report the development of a semiconductor nanorod-carbon nanotube based platform for wire-free, light induced retina stimulation. A plasma polymerized acrylic acid midlayer was used to achieve covalent conjugation of semiconductor nanorods directly onto neuro-adhesive, three-dimensional carbon nanotube surfaces. Photocurrent, photovoltage, and fluorescence lifetime measurements validate efficient charge transfer between the nanorods and the carbon nanotube films. Successful stimulation of a light-insensitive chick retina suggests the potential use of this novel platform in future artificial retina applications.
I highly recommend the 5k Retina iMac. It’s eye porn. If you’re thinking about upgrading your setup I suggest you start here. And if you absolutely hate Mac OS, you could always run boot camp and have your Windows experience too. #battleberzerkerBalto #comics #patreon #digital#ink #digital#color #imac#5k#retina