research sample

My future field assistant using the Hushpuckney Shale as a pillow. I got this sample (the shale not the cat) during a week of fieldwork in Kansas/Missouri. During the Late Pennsylvanian Ice Age, the Midcontinent of North America was beneath a tropical, epeiric sea. Cyclothems, repeating series of transgressive and regressive marine to non-marine sediments, recorded glacio-eustatic changes in sea level. This black shale forms the core of a Kansas-style cyclothem, which as sea level rose, typically sequence from a low stand erosional surface, sandstone, transgressive limestone, and gray shale to core black shale. As sea level fell, the black shale grades back into gray shale topped by a regressive limestone and back to sandstone or pelite. The basin scale process formed meter high, continuous beds! The thickness and geometry of the beds hint at basin geometry and timing of ice sheet growth and decay. As a baby, chemistry oriented paleoclimatologist, I was in it for the well preserved carbonate fossils to correlate a modeled sea level curve with oxygen isotope data. My friend and mentor was in it for the oxygen isotopes from PO4 in conodont apatite. My project was a piece of her masters thesis. At the road cuts where we sampled, the limestones were full of low energy environment fossils (eg articulated crinoid stems) to higher energy death assemblages of brachiopods forming a 10 cm layer.


Cash is even grosser than you knew: Dangerous bacteria survive on paper money study finds

  • Bacteria love money, according to a new study, recently published in the journal Frontiers in Microbiology.
  • To test their theory, researchers scraped samples from Hong Kong bank notes and grew them in a lab to test them for their bacterial presence.
  • And what did they find? Bank notes were found to have more kinds of bacteria on them than people’s hands, the air you breathe in the metro, drinking water and even marine sediment.
  • In other words, money is a bacteria party, and everyone is invited.
  • That would include potentially deadly types of bacteria like E. coli and the bacteria that causes cholera, plus — perhaps more distressingly — antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria, sometimes known as superbugs. Read more (5/19/17)

follow @the-future-now

On this day in 1969, with 600 million people watching on TV, an American crew landed on the Moon. The Apollo 11 mission had three crew members: Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins. Collins piloted the craft that would return them to Earth, while the others became the first two people ever to walk the Moon’s surface.

Eventually, a total of six Apollo missions would land men on the Moon, the last arriving in December 1972. The missions brought the U.S. national glory– and more importantly, scientific results. Over the course of six moon landings, astronauts conducted invaluable geologic research. Using lunar sample collection bags, they eventually amassed more than 842 pounds (382 kilograms)[1] of Moon rocks, which are studied by lunar scientists to this day. These rocks were the key to demonstrating that the Moon formed from debris created when a Mars-sized object impacted Earth 4.5 billion years ago.

Photo: NASA

mayhemxtwins  asked:

Hi, I was just wondering if you have any tips on describing dreadlocks in a fantasy world where the word dreadlocks wouldn't exist? I will only use such a description on black characters.

Describing Dreadlocks in Fantasy

You could always call it locked hair. 

From there, try looking at pictures and coming up with words to describe them for readers. Are the dreads thick, thin, long, short? Compressed, dense? You could also mention a resemblance to plaits or braids (though note dreadlocks are different; do some research)

Here’s a sample description from one of Mod Shira’s books: A Harvest of Ripe Figs (Mangoverse)

He was tall, and broad, and very fat, and he seemed nonthreatening and kind. Shulamit studied his appearance, trying to parse his ethnicity. His skin was the same medium brown as her own and that of her people, but his hair was thick and coarse and pulled into the rough locks that looked like braids but weren’t, like the people to the south whose skin was darker.

~Mod Colette

This Could Be the Start of a Plant-less Relationship

Originally posted by jonesinforbones

For my Summer of Soulmates || 200 Follower Celebration :D

Request #1

This Could Be the Start of a Plant-less Relationship

Requested by: @thevalesofanduin
Fandom: Star Trek (AOS)
Relationship: Leonard McCoy x Reader
Soulmate AU: #12 – the one where you have their first words spoken to you
Sentence Prompts: #26 - “So MacGyvering this out of my tuckus right now.” and #50 - “Sorry! I didn’t mean to touch your butt.”
Set the Scene Prompt: n/a
Other Notes: n/a

A/N: After nearly a month, I finally have the first fic of the celebration done!!! *tosses confetti and blows a party horn* This one is for the ever lovely Laura (@thevalesofanduin), who requested one involving the ‘Fleet’s top doc, Leonard McCoy! Now when I posted the information for the celebration, I made a note saying that for certain AUs, the sentence prompts wouldn’t necessarily be the Soulmate tell. As a quick spoiler, I couldn’t quite pass up the opportunity to use these as the tell ;) And as a bonus fun fact - #50 turned out to be a rather popular sentence request lol

Anyways, you can find the masterlist for this celebration here!

Other than that, enjoy! ♥

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Common Effects of Torture

I’m going to start with an important and underappreciated point: the effects of torture are hard to research.

For a mixture of reasons, including shame and fear of reprisals, many people are uncomfortable admitting that they were tortured. Fewer still have the opportunity or are willing to participate in research. Sample sizes in studies are often ridiculously small, so small that it can be difficult to reach any conclusions.

On top of that, picking a control group can be difficult. If the majority of torture victims are depressed does comparing them to a health or depressed population make more sense? If the majority of torture victims suffered serious head injuries should they be compared to people with mild brain damage?

The research is hard. We’re only just beginning to get a clear picture of the short and long term effects of torture, on individuals and communities. Sometimes clear evidence just isn’t there.

Sometimes, for some techniques, it is. So long as you don’t call it ‘torture’. Information on sleep deprivation, sensory deprivation, starvation, dehydration and extreme temperatures are all available.

What this means is that treatment is often a hit and miss affair. Studies trying to find better ways to treat torture victims often can’t find enough volunteers to get meaningful results.

All of that said, here is a non-exhaustive list of some of the things a character who has survived torture and physically healed might experience.



Suicidal thoughts


Persistent memory problems

Difficulty learning new skills

Difficulty relating to others

Chronic pain

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder 



Long term Personality Change

Social Isolation

Panic attacks 

Much of the research on treating torture survivors focuses on PTSD which appears to be a more common response for torture than for other traumatising events.

It’s worth mentioning that although clear evidence on torturers is even more difficult to come by there’s a growing body of evidence suggesting that torturers are often traumatised by carrying out torture.

Anecdotal evidence suggests torturers develop many of the same psychological symptoms as their victims, including PTSD, depression, addiction, social isolation and long term personality changes.

[Sources, ‘Mental health interventions and priorities for research for adult survivors of torture and systematic violence: a review of the literature’ Torture Journal vol 26 iss 1 2016 W M Weiss et al

‘Why Torture Doesn’t Work: The Neuroscience of Interrogation’ Harvard University Press S O’Mara

‘Dysfunctional Pain Modulation in Torture Survivors: The Mediating Effect of PTSD’ The Journal of Pain vo 18 2017 R Defrin et al

‘Testimonial Therapy: Impact on social participation and emotional wellbeing among Indian survivors of torture and organized violence’ Torture Journal vol 25 iss 2 2015 M M Jorgensen et al]


Imagine you're a scientist in an exoplanet colony... (1 of 2)

Imagine you’re a scientist in an exoplanet colony. You always dreamed of having children someday; you yearn for it, the feeling of life blossoming within you. But pregnancies must be approved by the high council, and resources are very scarce.

Resources are so scarce, in fact, that every scientist on the planet has been scrambling lately to discover alternative sources of food. The next supply shipment from Earth won’t come for years.

A shuttle mission discovers plant life on a nearby moon. Your research department studies the samples brought back- some wilting vines and green gourds- and discovers the vegetables are edible. They quickly become known as “moon melons”, though you always want to point out they aren’t really true melons.

Unfortunately, the seeds simply will not grow in the colony greenhouses. They need iron-rich soil, like what’s on their native moon.

You offer a radical idea: plant them in a human uterus to take advantage of the iron-rich menstrual lining. But your superiors scoff in disgust.

A few of your coworkers still support your idea though, but they can’t imagine where they’d find a willing person for the experiment. You just grin at them and say you’ll do it… for science of course.

A few days after the implantation procedure, you’re pleased as punch when a scan reveals that all four seeds have taken root in you and started budding leaves already. You can’t stop smiling all day, and you almost feel like you have that “pregnancy glow”.

You keep the secret tightly from your superiors at work and any friends outside your close coworkers, but you finally spill the beans to your wife after two weeks because she’d noticed your stomach starting to round.

Your wife finds it hot as hell and loves rubbing your tummy as you snuggle in bed. Maybe, you hope, if your experiment is a success, the council might approve you to have children.

It’s three weeks in when a supervisor at work notices your lab coat isn’t fitting you the way it used to. He’s about to report you for an unauthorized pregnancy, but then you show him the latest scan, the grainy picture showing four long oval moon melons growing within your womb.

I want everyone to know that in freshman year of college, I was handed this 10+ page sample research paper on a destiel fanfic in my writing class for discussion and apparently the last person who read this disagreed with the author

A Writing Help Masterpost Made From Other Masterposts

So, in celebration of reaching 100 followers (actually by the time I posted this, I had 123) I decided to make what I can only call a “Roundup of Writing”. Anyway, hope you all enjoy! 

I copy and pasted all of these links from masterposts that I have reblogged so if you click the from link it should take you to the whole masterpost :) {basically, i tried to keep as much credit as possible}

Lets get to it, shall we?


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Study shows Native Americans are not inherently in tune with nature

Tucson, AZ – A new study by researchers at the University of Arizona confirms that Native Americans do not have a genetic predisposition to riding horses bareback, maintaining a strong affinity to nature and, occasionally, singing to the blue corn moon.

“We were surprised with the results,” said John Smith, assistant professor in School of Health and Other Stuff at the University of Arizona. “We could not establish significant correlations between Native DNA and horse husbandry, Native DNA and attitudes toward nature, or Native DNA and spontaneous conversations with natural elements.”

The study compared 148 blood samples across the blood quantum spectrum, from 100% Native to 25%. The Native blood was mixed with a chemical compound to measure the blood’s “naturalness,” and the results were even with those administered to a control group of Euro-American blood samples that included those of Irish-decent.

Additionally, John Winthrop from the Department of Sociology interviewed 35 Natives who maintained a blood quantum of 100%, 35 at 50%, and 35 at 25%. The participants were taken to a stable to ride a wild horse bareback.

“The working hypothesis was that the Natives with a stronger blood quantum would be able to communicate with the wild horse and convince it to let the Native ride him. Out of nearly 100 trials only three Natives successfully mounted the horse. Of these, only one was full-blooded Native. The rest chased the animal around the corral.”  He continued, “The same tests were administered to a sample of Euro-American stock and yielded five successful mounts.”

In controlled laboratory conditions, the three separate groups of Natives were isolated in rooms where litter was thrown about the floor. Researchers took saliva samples before and after the Natives were exposed to litter and no significant longing for times past or tearful regret of former ways of life showed up in the results. 

“The results disprove years of mythology of Native Americans,” Smith said. “Perhaps nature isn’t their church, and the earth is not their religion. We are going to have to rethink how we use dream catchers and fake eagle feathers in the future.”

The study was published this month in the British health journal, The Lancet.  


Living Tissue Emerges From 3-D Printer

Harvard bioengineers say they have taken a big step toward using 3-D printers to make living tissue. They’ve made a machine with multiple printer heads that each extrudes a different biological building block to make complex tissue and blood vessels.

Their work represents a significant advance toward producing living medical models upon which drugs could be tested for safety and effectiveness.

It also advances the ball in the direction of an even bigger goal. Such a machine and the techniques being refined by researchers offer a glimpse of the early steps in a sci-fi healthcare scenario: One day surgeons might feed detailed CT scans of human body parts into a 3-D printer, manipulate them with design software, and produce healthy replacements for diseased or injured tissues or organs.

Read more below and click the gifs for explanations. 

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UCLA physicists discover apparent departure from the laws of thermodynamics

According to the basic laws of thermodynamics, if you leave a warm apple pie in a winter window eventually the pie would cool down to the same temperature as the surrounding air.

For chemists and physicists, cooling samples of charged particles, also called ions, makes them easier to control and study. So they use a similar approach – called buffer gas cooling – to lower the temperature of ions by trapping them and then immersing them in clouds of cold atoms. Collisions with the atoms cool the originally hot ions by transferring energy from the ions to the atoms – much the same way a warm pie is cooled next to the cold window, said Eric Hudson, associate professor of physics at UCLA.

But new research by Hudson and his team, published in the journal Nature Communications, demonstrates that ions never truly cool to the temperature of the surrounding gas. Also, very surprisingly, they discovered that under certain conditions, two final temperatures exist, and the temperature that the ions choose depends on their starting temperature.

“This apparent departure from the familiar laws of thermodynamics is akin to our warm apple pie either cooling as expected or spontaneously bursting into flames, depending on the pie’s exact temperature when it is placed in the window,” said Hudson, the senior author of the study.

The UCLA researchers have, for the first time, placed fundamental limits on the use of buffer gas cooling in “ion traps.” To perform their experiment, the researchers prepared a microscopic sample of laser cooled ions of the chemical element barium and immersed them in clouds of roughly 3 million laser-cooled calcium atoms. The researchers make molecules extremely cold under highly controlled conditions to reveal the quantum mechanical properties that are normally hidden.

The ions were trapped in an apparatus that levitates charged particles by using electric fields that oscillate millions of times per second, confining the ions to a region smaller than the width of a human hair. Both the atomic and ionic samples were brought to ultra-cold temperatures –just one-thousandth of a degree above absolute zero – via a technique in which the momentum of light in a laser is used to slow particle motion.

After allowing collisions between the atoms and ions to occur and the system to reach its final temperature, the physicists removed the calcium atoms and measured the temperature of the barium ions. The results, which show the existence of multiple final temperatures based on ion number and initial temperature, suggest that subtle non-equilibrium physics is at play.

The researchers trace these strange features to the heating and cooling rates which exist in the system – the peculiar temperature dependence of the interaction among multiple ions in an ion trap. Both simulation and theory support their experimental findings, and paint the buffer-gas cooling process as a fundamentally nuanced, non-equilibrium process rather than the straightforward equilibrium process it was originally understood to be.

Lead author Steven Schowalter, a graduate student researcher in Hudson’s laboratory and now a staff scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, said, “Our results demonstrate that you can’t just throw any buffer gas into your device – no matter how cold it is – and expect it to work as an effective coolant.”

Buffer gas cooling is crucial in fields ranging from forensics to the production of antimatter. Hudson’s research group has discovered important nuances that revise the current understanding of the cooling process, explain the difficulties encountered in previous cooling experiments and show a new path forward for creating ultra-cold ion samples. With this framework the researchers showed how troublesome effects can be overcome and even exploited to study the mechanisms at play in molecular motors and single-atom heat engines in a precisely controlled manner.

“Of course, this work does not violate the laws of thermodynamics, but it does demonstrate there are still some interesting, potentially useful things to learn about buffer gas cooling,” said John Gillaspy, a physics division program director at the National Science Foundation, which funds the research. “This is the sort of fundamental research that can really guide a wide range of more applied research efforts, helping other scientists and engineers to avoid going down dead-end paths and illuminating more fruitful directions they might take instead.”

Blue-sky bifurcation of ion energies and the limits of neutral-gas sympathetic cooling of trapped ions
Nature Communications 7, Article number: 12448 (2016)


Dear Mr. Trump,

Last night during the debate the conversation of vaccinations was brought up, specifically with you and Dr. Carson weighing in on the discussion. Before I go on, I want to sincerely applaud you for seeing the necessity of vaccinations. However, there are a few points I would like to clarify. Now I am no pediatric neurosurgeon like Dr. Carson, but I am on the road to get my PhD in Clinical Psychology. But possibly more important is the fact that I can and do read scientific research when forming opinions on scientific topics, one being the relationship between vaccines and Autism. Last night, you made it very clear that you believe that vaccinations cause Autism; an opinion that appears to be formed by personal experience or things you have seen. Although Dr. Carson tried to explain to you that the research does not show that, I understand he only had 1 minute and 30 seconds to speak, so let me break it down for you:

  • In 1998 Dr. Andrew Wakefield published a study that claimed there was a link between the MMR vaccine and autism. Of note, his sample size for this study was 12. Anyone who conducts research knows that a sample size that small does not have a lot of power and lacks generalizability, unless you are researching an area that is extremely rare.
  • Dr. Wakefield later lost his license to practice due to misconduct related to the “evidence” he gathered. Further, the paper was later completely retracted and Dr. Wakefield was found guilty of ethical violations, due to the fact that the data was made up, the support for the connection was insufficient, and the paper was published due to financial interests, rather than the interest of good research.
  • Since this study was published in 1998, numerous other studies were conducted on a total of over 14 million children and not a single one found the link between the MMR vaccine and autism.
  • Mr. Trump, I am assuming you are an intelligent man and, therefore, you can put two and two together to realize that there has only been one study that has linked Autism to vaccines, and said study was fraud.

Well, what about the personal things you have seen or the fact that Autism has become an “epidemic”, as you called it, and 25-30 years ago we didn’t see Autism at the rates we do now? Let me help you out on that one too:

  • You mentioned that you had a friend whose baby went to get his 2 year old vaccinations. A week later he had a fever and now is Autistic. The irony is, research has indicated a link between fevers and Autism; however, the link is the opposite of what you have seen. Multiple studies are now describing the “fever effect” which means that when a child with Autism has a fever, the symptoms of Autism actually subside or are not as prominent. 
  • Further, one reason this child may have “suddenly become Autistic” is the fact that many pediatricians in the United States screen for Autism and 18 months and 24 month well visits. It is possible that a screener was given at his 24 well month visit and he was identified as high risk, further testing was conducted, and a diagnosis was made. Although the average age of Autism diagnosis in the United States is around 4 years old, symptoms often start to show and diagnoses can be made around 18 months to 2 years. So it is possible that the diagnosis just happen to align with the time he got his vaccinations because that is when symptoms start to occur and children start to be identified. 
  • Well what about the increase in autism; an “epidemic” as you call it? First and foremost, there has been an increase in the diagnosis of these disorders, which is different than an increase in the prevalence of the disorders. Think about it this way, the MMR vaccine became available in 1971. Infantile autism was not even a recognized disorder in the DSM until 1980 (35 years ago), with Autistic Disorder appearing in the DSM in 1987 (28 years ago). Further, autism as most people know it today was not described until 1994 (21 years ago). Looking at those numbers alone, no wonder we didn’t see the current number of cases of Autism 25-30 years ago. Over the past 20 years we have seen a rise in the increase of diagnosis of Autism, but that does not mean it wasn’t present before then, we just didn’t have the research or a name for the disorder.
  • Further, the disorders that the MMR vaccine apparently “cause” weren’t even around until 9 years after the vaccine became available, with the disorders as we know them now, coming along much later. However, if the MMR vaccine really causes neurological disorders, we would have seen a rise in these disorders starting in the 1970s, when the vaccine first came out, even if there was not necessarily a name at the time, not the 1990s and 2000s (around and after the time Dr. Wakefield’s paper was published). 
  • Over the past 20 years, research has advanced dramatically. Instead of blaming vaccines for the increase in diagnosis, how about we consider the fact that we now have a name for these disorders, and more research and information about them, as well as more accurate measurement tools to diagnose the disorders, thus causing the increase in diagnosis.

So Mr. Trump, you may believe that vaccines cause Autism, but scientific research would have to disagree. You say that Autism is an epidemic, but know what else will be? Measles, mumps, and rubella, if children are not vaccinated as they should be. I personally would rather have an epidemic of a neurological disorder, that can improve with therapy and in which many people can go on and graduate high school, college, sustain a job, get married, etc., than have an epidemic of a deadly disease that may take these innocent children’s lives away before they ever have those opportunities.


A woman who knows how to science.

Marine Cerasus: The Beginning

Jotaro meets his first mermaid during a routine expedition to collect water samples from research area 4, off the coast of Miami. Well, ‘mermaid’ as in one of those creatures from myth one hears about as a kid, but he actually meets a merman. Merbeing.

A rather sassy merbeing.

The MerKak AU is now starting in fanfic form, found here! I’ll be happy to accept prompts or questions about this AU~