research resources

anonymous asked:

Well thank you and theowldetective for getting our hopes up for nothing.

That seems pretty unfair. I put the idea for Netflix out there on a whim, as a hail mary pass at saving this show (along with others) have literally been working by the hour since the news dropped to do what we can to save this show, in any way we can. We’ve researched every resource, created a website, started multiple petitions and campaigns, connected with media outlets and put everything we have into this. The first three nights i didn’t even sleep trying to find a way. There hasn’t been an hour of our lives (again, along with others) that hasn’t somehow been dedicated to this movement. 

Then a few days ago, MJ said himself they were talking to different prospects at the moment. That was from him, and we relayed the message. And all isn’t lost even if Netflix doesn’t work out. 

For you to put false hope on us is really misdirected. You don’t think our hopes are up? Look at what we have done to try and make this happen. 

Things You Do Not Have to Be In Order to Be a Witch

-Pagan. You can be a witch and be Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, Hindu or any other religion that does not use the label “pagan” for itself.

-Wiccan. Witchcraft is a secular practice. Wicca is a religion that involves the practice of witchcraft sometimes.

-Religious/spiritual. You can be an atheist witch.

-Female. Men and nonbinary people can be witches.

-White. A person of any ethnicity or race can practice witchcraft and be a witch.

-Straight. Anyone of any sexual orientation (gay, lesbian, bi, pan, ace, poly, multi, omni…) can be a witch.

-Cis. Trans and nonbinary people can be witches.

-A hardcore environmentalist. Respect for nature is certainly never a bad thing, but you don’t have to chain yourself to a tree or live in a building run entirely on solar power or eat only organic food to call yourself a witch.

-Vegetarian/vegan. Witches can eat meat and animal products. Remember, witchcraft is a secular practice. There is no dogma.

-Full of love and light. Witches who do not follow a religion or moral code that says otherwise may curse as they see fit.

-Dark and scary. Some witches do not want to curse anyone, and that is also fine. Make healing potions and yummy smelling tinctures to your heart’s content.

-Fictional. Witches are real, and they don’t all dress, act or believe in any particular way. All witches are valid.

The absolute best way to learn how to write characters who are different from you

Write them. Do your research first, but write them in a test story, perhaps, or a short one, or something that isn’t a big project. Whether it be someone who’s nonbinary, who’s autistic, who’s been abused, any of the things outside of your experience can typically be portrayed well.

BUT.

Big but. 

Long before publishing or finalizing or what have you, have people of this group read it. Find people who are likely more in touch with the idea, such as people who are/have the thing, or who work with it in some capacity or so on

And LISTEN to what they have to say.

You don’t have to like their criticism. They can be flat out wrong about some of it. But, if they tell you that, in their experience, dyslexia isn’t like that (or any other example) or that it felt really hurtful to them personally, then take it into account and change if it’s necessary.

If you’re willing to listen, then it’s not that hard. If you’re willing to make mistakes and blunders and be corrected for them, then it’s not that hard. 

Seriously. Seek them out on the internet. You’ll find people. Hell, even post it as a fanfic to feel out your understanding of the thing. 

Keep trying and keep developing as a writer, and you’ll get there, and be thankful you opened yourself up to criticism.

My Writing Masterlist

  Okay, since a lot of people are asking for tips to write good plots and shit, I’ve decided that was time for me to post my writing masterlist. Honestly, I barely use it anymore because I recorded all of the tips on my mind from using it so much.
  It’s succinct, basic and all you need to fix the problems that most of writers have, had or will have while writing. Most of it I took from here and added my own tips and shit that I know from experience. Hope you find it useful!


SCENARIOS:

- Do not repeat the same scenarios very much, and if necessary, talk / look at the room in different ways.

- DESCRIBE, DESCRIBE, DESCRIBE. The details are important to transport the reader to the scene. PLUS: please, details. (Exemple: you are in a forest. What kinds of trees are around you? Are they tall? Thick? Does the character recognize them?)

- Make use of all human senses - touch, taste, hearing, sight, smell. USE THEM.

- Do my scenarios have duality- sometimes, an ambiguous nature? (For example, my character may love the church where she was married, have fond memories of it, and still feel the sense of betrayal because her marriage has become ugly.

- Tell what your character feels about the room around him. This is important.


CHARACTERS:

- Are all the characters present? (Would it be better if my character had a mentor, best friend, romantic partner, etc …?)

- Do not overdo the amount. Use the characters you have. The excess will only create confusion in the reader’s head.

- If your character changes attitude during the story, SHOW THAT TRANSITION. Do not make them homophobic one day, and the next, the supporter of LGBT + causes, for example. If that happens, the impression you will leave is that your text is inconsistent and there is only one name for it: sloppy writing.

- CREATE FAULTS, PROBLEMS, MORAL CONFLICTS TO YOUR CHARACTER. This is life and if conflicts do not exist in your book, the characters will not give the idea of being true and deeply complex, as human beings really are.

- Create manias, addictions, be they verbal and / or attitudes. Does your character have the habit of saying “type” or “right” all the time? Does he wake up and always brush his teeth before and after breakfast? SPECIFY. This will help in creating a reality around the character.

Careful, this is very important (and basic).

- KNOW YOUR DAMN CHARACTER!!!! If he has addictions, you have to know beforehand. If he is agitated, calm, angry, patient, talkative, antisocial … you have to know.

- Make your characters different. Yes, that sounds like an obvious thing, but it’s not. Make them easily identified by their ways.

- DESCRIBE, DESCRIBE, DESCRIBE # 2. Physical type, hair, eyes, nose, thickness of the mouth, neck, fingers and hips are key points in describing a character. (Plus: I always describe hands because I like hands and I think they are a window to the soul. You can say a lot by people’s hands.)


MORAL CONFLICTS:

- Is it universal enough for readers to find interesting? Note that a conflict becomes much more interesting to a reader if it is something that he must deal with in his own life.

- Is the resolution of the conflict satisfactory? Do not make the conflict settle with the old “Then I Woke Up” chat. This is poor and sloppy writing. The climax of the story is gone and the reader loses interest. Be complex.

- Do you have minor conflicts? Most stories require more than one conflict. For example, a protagonist will often have an internal conflict as well as an external conflict. He may also have a love interest. He may have conflicts with nature, with God, and with his companions. So, as an author, you must create a series of conflicts and decide how each grows and is resolved.

- Show the personal growth your characters go through to solve the problem.

- How motivated are my characters to solve their conflicts? Characters that will go to extremes are needed. We have radicals in life, so we’ll have radicals in the story.

-My protagonist has an identity conflict? At the heart of every great story is a character who sees himself as something - charming, heroic, wise - while others around him perceive him as something else - socially desirous, inept, foolish.


YOUR WRITING WAY:

- Is your tone appropriate for the tale? For example, let’s say you want to invest a little humor into your story. You start with a joke. Do you keep the tone throughout the rest of the tale, perhaps plunging the mood inside, scene after scene?

- Do each of your characters speak with their own voices? You will need to do a dialog check for each character before you finish.

- Do you have an omniscient narrator? Keep the writing style the same throughout the whole story then.

- Do you dig deep into your protagonist’s POV so the reader can follow your thoughts and emotions? If not, is there a good reason why you neglected to do it?

- IMPORTANT: Is there any music in your writing? Do you want it to be? Ernest Hemingway once said that “all great novels are really just poetry.” With that in mind, listen to the sounds of your words. Consider modifying them as needed to adjust the meter and emphasis you need. Change until you like to read your text aloud.

- Do you use powerful metaphors or similes to add beauty and resonance to your work? (If not, you’re in trouble. Your competition will.)


RANDOM OTHERS (BASIC)

- Is the basic idea of your story unique and powerful? (For example, if you enter a story about a young man fighting space pirates, it probably will not do well - unless you come up with some New technology or angle that puts you above all other space-pirate tales.)

- Do you establish your characters quickly? We should probably know who the story is in one or two scenes, and we should probably be introduced in a way that tells us something important about the characters.

-  Talk about where your character is in all the scenes. Do not skip it just because you already mentioned the place.

- My story intensifies through the following scenes, with conflicts that widen and deepen?

- Does my story go well? Do I have a climax that really is exciting? Is the result different from what the audience expects?

- Your story has an open or closed end. Decide, then you must work so that all events lead to that final moment if it is opened. If it is closed, you have more freedom to finish well after the book’s climax.

I like what transhorsegrumpstalefriend added to this post when so I’ve included it below:

This post in SI (metric):
Body heat: 42 degrees Celsius.
Cold water: 4.5 degrees Celsius.
Hot air: 150 degrees Celsius.
High altitude: 4.6km (4600m)
Starvation: 45 days (3.888x10^6 s)
Diving deep: 86m
Lack of oxygen: 11min (660 s)
Blood loss: 40%.
Dehydration: 7 days. (605000 s)

Just for those who might not live in the US and hence don’t know US customary units.

Thank you @transhorsegrumpstalefriend!!

Effective Animal Behavior Research

“Educate yourself!” A phrase we eagerly throw around when someone we deem ignorant is saying something we disagree with. And it’s true, some people really need to educate themselves, in particular people who have taken it upon themselves to educate others. 

But how do you educate yourself? I’ve seen the self-education a lot of people come up with… and it’s not pretty. I don’t think anything infuriates an educator more than writing something informative based on science and facts, only to have someone contradict them with isolated-incident anecdotal “evidence”, as if that means all their research and science is wrong on that basis. It’s a bit like saying, “well I’m still alive, so clearly death is a myth.” 

That is not someone who has educated themselves, but rather someone who has never evaluated anything critically, from all possible angles, before coming to an informed conclusion. 

So, again… how do you educate yourself? 

Read. But don’t read indiscriminately. Use discernment. Be critical. Don’t just look at the best seller list, or Oprah’s Book of the Month. Take a look at 1) what topic the book is discussing and 2) who is writing about it. 

Before you even start reading the book, ask yourself: 

  1. Who is the author? 
  2. What are their qualifications to write on this subject? 
  3. Is this an anecdotal book or a scientific book? 
  4. How old is this book? 
  5. What do the author’s peers have to say about this book? 


For example, I picked up the book “Animal Cognition: The Mental Lives of Animals” by Clive D.L. Wynne. I then turned to the back to read the summary. 

“Can ravens count? How do pigeons find their way home? Can chimpanzees use language in a human-like fashion? These are the kinds of questions that occupy scientists interested in understanding animal minds. […] presents a fascinating account of animal intelligence and abilities, covering a wide range of key topics from language and communication to sensation and problem-solving. […] Clive Wynne reviews research on species ranging from fire ants to dolphins […] complex reasoning (do cats understand that objects hidden from view still continue to exist?), balanced by a critical stance towards some of the wilder claims found in the popular media.” 

Now, what does it say about the author? 

“Clive D.L. Wynne is an Associate Professor in Psychology, University of Florida, and studies cognition in species from pigeons to marsupials. He worked previously at universities in Australia, the USA and in Germany, and was educated at University College London and the University of Edinburgh. He is the author of numerous scholarly papers on animal learning and cognition, and is the editor of a book on models of animal behavior, Models of Action: Mechanisms for Adaptive Behavior.” 

So, the author is a professor of psychology who has made numerous contributions to the scholarly world, and the book is handling a topic he is familiar with and has professional experience with. That’s already a good start. The publishing date is 2001, which is somewhat older, so the reader should be critical of the studies being referred to and make sure they are still considered valid. 

The book contains several reviews from his peers—other professors and researchers from various universities—who agree that this book is an excellent source of information, which further indicates the author has a lot to offer on this subject. 

With this information in mind, you can start reading, and as you read, continue to ask yourself the following questions: 

  1. How old is the study they are referring to? Is it still considered a valid source? 
  2. Are they even referring to any valid studies?  
  3. Are they using science and logic to make their argument, or relying on emotional manipulation? 


Use critical thinking while reading. Don’t look for reasons to disagree or agree with the author, but simply pause and ask yourself, “is this a logical conclusion? Does this make sense?” To the best of your ability, try to put aside personal feelings on the subject, whether it’s about the author or about the subject matter. 

When reading a book like this, I take notes. I make note of undeniable truths as they come, and I make note of the author’s personal musings and hypotheses. I also make note of my own personal musings based solely on the information provided. 

Toward the end of the book, I look to see if I reached the same conclusion the author did, and if not, I ask myself why that is the case, and, if necessary, go back and re-read certain aspects that may have confused me, or that I simply may have misunderstood within the context of the book. 

So, now I’ve read an educational book on a subject. I’ve worked through it, and fully understand the logic and science behind it. Am I done now? No. Now it’s time to move on to the next book, the next study, the next journal, and then another, and then another. 

Also, I can’t just read books on animal cognition and call it a day. There are other book focuses that are closely affiliated that have to be studied as well: physiological behavior, ethics, animal science, and animal communication. 

A book on “The Biology of Animal Stress” may have a stronger focus on overall animal welfare, and a book on “Animal Play” or “Principles of Animal Communication” may focus on overall body language and inter-species norms, but they all come together to create one big picture.

Educating yourself is a never-ending process. There will always be a new study to read, and a new theory to work through, and they may end up disproving something we previously regarded as fact. 

Anatomy and physiology changes as animals evolve, and animal behavioral norms change as they adapt to an ever-changing domesticated life. We must always be willing to put aside what we once embraced, and acknowledge the truth. 

 That, is how you educate yourself, and it’s how you educate others.

Research Tips

Researching is easy. It’s also incredibly difficult. Fortunately, there are a few tricks you can use to find better resources. 

1. Use Google to Your Advantage

Having good Google-fu means knowing how to narrow down your search to find the best resources possible. Fortunately, Google gives you a lot of tools to use to help narrow down your searches. 

First of all, trimming your search down to ONLY .edu or .org resources can be very helpful. (A lot of “.com” sites are purely for profit, and may not have the best information. And “.edu” sites are usually from universities.) 

To do this, simply include this before your search - 

You can also use this to search specific websites for information. For example:

PDFs are also great resources for information - even better, they’re easy to print off, which can be especially helpful if you’re searching for worksheets. You can specifically search for PDFs by including this before your search:

Quotation marks denote specific phrases - “keyword” so always use this if you’re searching for something very specific. And on that note…

2. Be Specific

If you just search for “Roman Buildings” you’re going to get a wide, wide range of results. If you search “Roman Architecture” that will narrow things down. If you search “Ancient Roman Architecture” it will narrow it down even further. And the ultimate would be something like, “5th Century BCE Roman Architecture,” though something that precise may be unnecessary if you just want a general idea.

3. Lists, Lists, Lists!

If you’re searching for anything that may have multiple categories, preface your search with “list of…” 9 times out of 10 there will be a Wikipedia page for it, which will give you direct access to a TON of information. 

Bingo Bango. And on THAT note…

4. Learn How Wikipedia Works

If you see a page that’s almost what you want, but not quite, scroll down to the See Also section. Click around until you find what you need. 

5. Scholar.Google.Com

Great for if you’re searching for higher end resources. 

8

A tip for people who either get a really good idea in their head for writing and then only end up writing one sentence to a page

I used to really struggle with this so I thought it would be good to post ways of getting through the first page.

I will go through the different kinds of ways this can effect people.

First things first. The first ten pages are the most tricky in my opinion, because you have no idea how to begin. Or it is the other way round. You can write the first ten pages easy but then struggle to think what to write afterwards.

Honestly, the best way to get over this kind of problem is planning. I AM NOT TALKING ABOUT PROCRASTINATION PLANNING. I have found that knowing who you characters really are and really knowing your plot line means that you could practically write a story you know so well you could type it (or write it) in your sleep. Above is a PowerPoint presentation of character development help, and it has helped me so much with character development. It explains the five Ps and has a mind map with all the things you actually need to plan. Our might what to do it when you has time on your hands because it take s me between an hour to a hour and 45 minutes but I am telling you, it is so helpful.

The second thing you can do is plan out your plot ON PAPER. I can’t stress this enough. It is often the case that your plot is quite mixed chronologically wise so it is vital that you write it down to disintangle your thoughts.

Another thing I know people struggle with is what is known as your inner crtic. Your inner crtic is that voice inside your head telling you that what you are writing is not good enough and holds us back, limiting us. Most people have an inner crtic.  They usasally are an echo of what other people have said that have been perticularlly hurtful. The best way to deal with this is befriend your inner crtic, as no one can get rid of it as it is so desperate to be heard, but you can change what it is saying. The best thing you can do is notice what your inner critic is saying and then nutralise it with an alternertive truth. For example if your inner critic is saying ‘this is too hard’ say outloud ‘I can do this’. If you do this on a regular bases your crtic will become your ally and you will start hearing it encourage you to write

The final problem that people have is just simply coming up with an idea. The best way to with this is to start small. Start by using the ever so cliche 5Ws. They are well known because THEY WORK:

When is your story set? Is it in a different world? A different era? What challenges will they face depending on the era e.g. if it set in the 1920s, then they may have trouble being taken seriously if your character/s is/are female.

Who is your story about? (This for me is the most important. Again, use the presentaion above. You use have good characters, you will find they come to life in your head, and they come to make their own plots, and where there is good characters, good plots and stories follow.) Also, remember that character development is very important. How do they change and grow from their adventures? Do they become a better person? Do they get a redemption arc?

Why is your person doing what they are doing/going on this journey? What are their motives? This is also good for chracther development.

Where is your story set? This is very similer to the When? question. Is your story set in the rolling hills of England? The beautiful beaches of California? Or maybe in a entirely different planet. It’s entirely up to you, that is the best thing about writing your own book. You control what happens to the chracthers, storyline and how it ends. This is your adventure.

What is going to happen in your story? This is the one that is most challenging for people. This is why we deal with this question LAST, so you have a basic idea who your characters are, when the story is set? If you still have not a clue what the story is going to be about, use the beginning, middle and end stragey. Every good story needs a good beginning middle and end. Try writing a list of the key events that happen in your story and puting them in order.

Once you have your plan, set a goal to how much you are going to write a day. Remember that 500 words = approximately 1 page. I know some full time writers who aim for 10,000 words a day, but remember they have it as a full time job, so if you are just starting as a part time writing and have a different job, then you might what to aim for 1 - 2 pages a day. You can even write half a page if you feel like that is a real strench. As long as your writing, it doesn’t matter how long it takes you to write the story, do it your own time. Best selling author Chris d’Lacey (the Fire series - I highly recommend reading it) took almost 15 years to write the first novel in the series, The Fire Within. Take your time and don’t rush. Also remember it is quality not quanity, 39 Steps by John Buchan (Again - highly recommend it) is only 108 pages long and it has become an absolute classic. DISCLAIMER: I was given this presentation 3 years ago by a friend before I even knew Tumblr existed - if someone knew it’s source that would be great so I can tag them.

Writing Research: American Revolution

The American Revolution was a political upheaval that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy, overthrew the authority of Great Britain, and founded the United States of America.

Starting in 1765, members of American colonial society rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them without any representatives in the government, and resisted renewed British attempts to collect duties on goods such as sugar and molasses that for many years had gone uncollected through widespread smuggling by colonists. During the following decade, protests by colonists—known as Patriots—continued to escalate, as in the Boston Tea Party in 1773 during which patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea from the East India Company. The British responded by imposing punitive laws—the Coercive Acts—on Massachusetts in 1774 until the tea had been paid for, following which Patriots in the other colonies rallied behind Massachusetts. In late 1774 the Patriots set up their own alternative government to better coordinate their resistance efforts against Britain, while other colonists, known as Loyalists, preferred to remain subjects of the British Crown.

Tensions escalated to the outbreak of fighting between Patriot militia and British regulars at Lexington and Concord in April 1775, after which the Patriot Suffolk Resolves effectively replaced the Royal government of Massachusetts, and confined the British to control of the city of Boston. The conflict then evolved into a global war, during which the Patriots (and later their French, Spanish and Dutch allies) fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783). Patriots in each of the thirteen colonies formed a Provincial Congress that assumed power from the old colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism. Claiming King George III’s rule to be tyrannical and infringing the colonists’ “rights as Englishmen”, the Continental Congress declared the colonies free and independent states in July 1776. The Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, and proclaimed that all men are created equal. Congress rejected British proposals requiring allegiance to the monarchy and abandonment of independence. [1]

Names

  • ModernMom - Popular Baby Names in the 1700s
  • British Baby Names - Curiosities of the Seventeenth Century
  • Medieval Naming Guides - Early 17th Century English Names
  • Internet Archive - Early census making in Massachusetts, 1643-1765, with a reproduction of the lost census of 1765 (recently found) and documents relating thereto;
  • Olive Tree Genealogy - Irish Passenger Lists: 1765, no ship name, arriving from Ireland in Boston, Massachusetts
  • Trail Of Our Ancestors - Names of German Pioneers to Pennsylvania: 
    Passenger Ships’ Lists, 1750
  • USGenWeb Archives -  Names of Pioneers from the Palatinate Germany to Pennsylvania, 1754
  • RootsWeb’s Guide - Given Names in Early America
  • GIGA - Name Chronological List, 1760 - 1779

Society & Life

  • History.com - The American Revolution Begins: April 19, 1775
  • History.com - American Revolution
  • History Channel - American Revolution History (Video)
  • PBS - Liberty! The American Revolution
  • PBS - Africans in American: The Revolutionary War, Part 2
  • The History Place - American Revolution
  • The History Place - Prelude to Revolution, 1763 to 1775
  • The History Place - The American War for Independence: 1775 to 1776 Conflict and Revolution
  • University of Houston - Overview of the American Revolution
  • Library of Congress - The American Revolution
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica - American Revolution
  • U.S. National Park Service - The American Revolution
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - The American Revolution, 1763-1783
  • America’s Library - Revolutionary Period, 1764-1789
  • Coastal Heritage Society - American Revolution
  • About.com - American Revolution
  • United States Department of State - 1776-1783: American Revolution Timeline
  • United States Military Academy - American Revolution
  • British Library - The American Revolution from 1763 - 1787
  • National Endowment for the Humanities - Voices of the American Revolution
  • University of Groningen - Was the American Revolution a Revolution?
  • Independence Hall Association - Revolutionary War Timeline
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - Reasons behind the Revolutionary War
  • Social Studies For Kids - Causes of the Revolutionary War
  • Mount Vernon -  Ten Facts about Washington and the Revolutionary War
  • Cracked - 5 Myths About the Revolutionary War Everyone Believes
  • Journal of the American Revolution - 7 Myths about the Boston Tea Party
  • University of Notre Dame - Revisiting America’s Revolutionary Myths and Realities
  • History Net - Debunking Boston Tea Party Myths
  • Smithsonian - Myths of the American Revolution
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill - The Colored Patriots of the American Revolution
  • The Washington Post - The American Revolution Was Not A Whites-only War
  • University of Houston - Slavery, the American Revolution, and the Constitution
  • Colonial Williamsburg -  African Americans During The American Revolution: Teacher Reference Sheet (PDF)
  • Rutgers University - African Americans in the Revolution
  • Ducksters - American Revolution: African Americans
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - African Americans and the Revolution
  • University of California, Irvine - African American Soldiers and the American Revolution
  • Colorado College - Blacks and the American Revolution
  • History Net - Black History
  • Wikipedia - African Americans in the Revolutionary War
  • National Endowment for the Humanities - The Native Americans’ Role in the American Revolution: Choosing Sides
  • Independence Hall Association -  Revolutionary Limits: Native Americans
  • History Wiz -  Native Americans and the American Revolution
  • ABC-CLIO - American Revolution, Native American Participation
  • University of Houston - Native Americans and the American Revolution
  • Prezi - Contributions of African Americans, Native Americans and Women during the American Revolution (Video)
  • PBS - Liberty! The American Revolution: Daily Life in the Colonies
  • Ducksters - Daily Life During the Revolution War
  • Independence Hall Association - The Revolution on the Home Front
  • Library of Congress - Revolutionary War: The Home Front
  • American History - Colonial Daily Life During the American Revolution
  • New York University Libraries - The American Revolution: An Everyday Life Perspective
  • ABC‑CLIO - Daily Life During the American Revolution
  • ABBE Regional Library System - The Lives of Children During The Revolutionary War (PDF)
  • Wikipedia - Children of the American Revolution
  • U.S. National Park Service - Children’s Rights and the American Revolution
  • Teachinghistory.org - Colonial Teenagers
  • The Santa Fe New Mexican Newspaper -  Fighting Spirit: Teenagers in the American Revolution
  • Google Books - The Brave Women and Children of the American Revolution
  • U.S. National Park Service -  Patriot Families’ Role in Effecting American Independence and the American Revolution’s Effect on their Family Life (PDF)
  • U.S. National Park Service -  Life during the Colonial Period and the American Revolution
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - Assessing Change: Women’s Lives in the American Revolutionary Era
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - Lucy Knox on the home front during the Revolutionary War, 1777
  • American Revolution - Women in the Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Women in the American Revolution
  • Journal of the American Revolution - 10 Amazing Women of the Revolutionary War
  • History of Massachusetts - The Roles of Women in the American Revolutionary War
  • Women History Blog - Women’s Role in the American Revolution
  • Social Studies - Roles of Women in the American Revolution and the Civil War
  • Independence Hall Association - Revolutionary Changes and Limitations: Women
  • Annenberg Media - Women of the American Revolution (PDF)
  • About.com - Women and the American Revolution
  • The Examiner - The Role of Women in the American Revolution
  • Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media - Women and the Revolution
  • Prezi - Women’s Roles During the American Revolution Outlined by Hannah Schierl (Video)
  • United States Army - Women in the Army
  • Atlanta Blackstar - 5 Extraordinary Black Women Who Played Major Roles In The American Revolution
  • Women History Blog - Women’s Rights After the American Revolution
  • Journal of the American Revolution - Top 10 Marriages Gone Bad
  • National Women’s History Museum - American Revolution
  • American In Class - Civilians in the American Revolution
  • National Humanities Center - Religion and the American Revolution
  • New York University Libraries -  The American Revolution: Religion
  • Library of Congress - Religion and the American Revolution
  • U.S. National Park Service - Religion and the American Revolution
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - Religion and the American Revolution
  • Social Studies For Kids - Religion and the Church in the 13 American Colonies
  • Social Studies For Kids - Education in the 13 American Colonies
  • New York University Libraries - The American Revolution: Education
  • Oregon State University - Education in the Revolutionary Era
  • Prezi - Education During the Revolution Period (Video)
  • Wikipedia - Education in the Thirteen Colonies
  • Chesapeake College - Early National Education
  • Mackinac Center for Public Policy - Early Colonial Period to the American Revolution
  • Noah Webster House - Life in 1770s Connecticut
  • Rutgers University - The American Revolution in New Jersey 
  • Wikipedia - New Jersey in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - South Carolina in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Pennsylvania in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Virginia in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Maryland in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Georgia in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Massachusetts in the American Revolution
  • United States History - Massachusetts and the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Connecticut in the American Revolution
  • Connecticut History - Revolutionary War, 1775-1783
  • United States History - Delaware and the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - New Hampshire in the American Revolution
  • United States History - New Hampshire and the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - North Carolina in the American Revolution
  • United States History - North Carolina and the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Rhode Island in the American Revolution
  • United States History - Rhode Island and the American Revolution
  • Internet Archive - New York City during the American Revolution
  • Early America - New York City During the First Year of the Revolution
  • AM New York Newspaper - NYC Has A Lot More Revolutionary War History Than You Might Think
  • Wikipedia - Germans in the American Revolution
  • McGill University - Why Canada Did Not Join the American Revolution
  • Canadian War Museum - The American Revolution, 1775-1783
  • History Net - Invasion of Canada During the American Revolutionary War
  • Biography - Famous People in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - George Washington in the American Revolution
  • Ducksters - American Revolution: Life as a Revolutionary War Soldier
  • Independence Hall Association - The War Experience: Soldiers, Officers, and Civilians
  • The Countryman Press - Soldier of the American Revolution
  • PBS - Liberty! American Revolution: Military Perspectives
  • Prezi - Daily Life of an American Soldier During The Revolutionary War (Video)
  • Independence Hall Association - American Revolution: Selections from the Diary of Private Joseph Plumb Martin
  • JSTOR Database - Journal of a British Officer During the American Revolution 
  • U.S. National Park Service - Privateers in the American Revolution
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - What did the people of Great Britain think of men like George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson during the American Revolution?
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - What was popular British opinion of the American Revolution?
  • Reddit: Ask - British Redditors, how were you taught the American Revolution?
  • Study - British Loyalists vs. American Patriots During the American Revolution (Video)
  • Ducksters - American Revolution: Patriots and Loyalists
  • Independence Hall Association - Loyalists, Fence-sitters, and Patriots
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History -  A patriot’s letter to his loyalist father, 1778
  • Wikipedia - American Revolution: Patriot
  • Wikipedia - Patriots in the American Revolution
  • Independence Hall Association - The Boston Patriots
  • Wikipedia - American Revolution: Loyalist
  • United States History - The Loyalists
  • Wikipedia - Loyalists in the American Revolution
  • University of Groningen - Loyalists During the American Revolution
  • Women History Blog - Loyalist Women of the American Revolution
  • PBS - After the Revolution: A Midwife’s Tale
  • Journal of the American Revolution - Top 10 Facts About British Soldiers
  • History.com - Tea Act: American Revolution
  • National Endowment for the Humanities - After the American Revolution: Free African Americans in the North
  • West Virginia Division Culture and History - Revolutionary War and Its Aftermath
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - American Revolution- Part 6: A Troubled Aftermath
  • Brown University - The American Revolution and its Aftermath
  • About.com - The Effects of the American Revolutionary War on Britain
  • Prezi - The American Revolution and its Aftermath (Video)
  • NPR (National Public Radio) - What Happened To British Loyalists After The Revolutionary War?
  • The Atlantic - What If America Had Lost the Revolutionary War?
  • Teachinghistory.org - What If…? Reexamining the American Revolution
  • The Huffington Post - What If We’d Lost the American Revolution?
  • How Stuff Works - What if America had lost the Revolution?

Commerce

  • JSTOR Database - Prices and Inflation During the American Revolution, Pennsylvania, 1770-1790
  • The Food Timeline -  Colonial America & Fare
  • Wikipedia - Financial Costs of the American Revolutionary War
  • British Library - The American Revolution: The Costs of Empire - The Seven Years’ War and the Stamp Act Crisis
  • Smithsonian Center for Education and Museum Studies - Revolutionary Money
  • Independence Hall Association - Following the Money
  • Ludwig von Mises Institute - Inflation and the American Revolution

Entertainment & Food

  • Massachusetts Historical Society - Newspapers from 1765 
  • Mount Vernon - Reporting the Revolutionary War
  • Journal of the American Revolution - Top 10 Revolutionary War Newspapers
  • Assumption College - Newspapers in Revolutionary Era America & The Problems of Patriot and Loyalist Printers
  • Wikipedia - American Literature: Revolutionary Period
  • The Examiner - Literature of the American Revolution
  • New York University Libraries - The American Revolution: Music
  • University of Houston - Music and the American Revolution
  • PBS - Liberty! American Revolution - Revolutionary War Music
  • Independence Hall Association - Songs of the Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Songs of the American Revolutionary War
  • Smithsonian Folkways - American Revolutionary War Songs to Cultivate the Sensations of Freedom
  • Smithsonian - The Food the Fueled the American Revolution
  • National Museum of American History - What did soldiers eat during the Revolutionary War?
  • Wikipedia - Cuisine of the Thirteen Colonies
  • American Revolution for Kids - Revolutionary Recipes
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Colonial Foodways
  • Independence Hall Association - Firecake Recipe
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Drinking in Colonial America
  • Serious Eats - 5 Colonial-Era Drinks You Should Know
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Dessert: A Look into the World of the 18th-century Confectioner!
  • Social Studies For Kids - Food in the 13 American Colonies
  • Wikipedia - 1760 in Poetry
  • Wikipedia - 1765 in Poetry
  • Prezi - Leisure Activities and Sports During the American Revolution (Video)
  • Journal of Sport History - Sports and Games of the American Revolution (PDF)
  • National Museum of American History - What did Revolutionary War soldiers have in their pockets?
  • Journal of the American Revolution - The Role of Dancing
  • Encyclopedia Virginia - Dance During the Colonial Period

Hygiene, Health & Medicine

  • New York University Libraries - Health and Medicine in Revolutionary America
  • United States Department of the Air Force - Military Medicine During the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
  • Tredyffrin Easttown Historical Society - Medicine in the Revolutionary War
  • Prezi - Health and Dental Care During the American Revolution (Video)
  • The Dallas Morning News -  Medical Care in the American Revolution
  • PBS - Liberty! American Revolution - Medicine
  • Office of Medical History - Medical Men in the American Revolution
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - Medical Men in the American Revolution 1775-1783
  • JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association - Naval and Maritime Medicine During the American Revolution
  • MedPage Today - George Washington, Smallpox, and the American Revolution
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information -  Drug Therapy in Colonial and Revolutionary America
  • Minnesota Wellness Publications -  The Revolutionary War: The History of Medicine
  • American Revolution - George Washington: A Dental Victim
  • Mount Vernon - The Trouble with Teeth
  • Project Gutenberg - Drug Supplies in the American Revolution
  • Colonial Williamsburg - To Bathe or Not to Bathe: Coming Clean in Colonial America
  • Revolutionary War Museum - Medicine and Hygiene
  • Independence Hall Association - Surgeons and Butchers
  • eHow - About Hygiene in Colonial Times
  • Legacy - Life and Death in The Liberty Era 1750-1800
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - Revolutionary Fever: Disease and War in the Lower South, 1776–1783
  • Wikipedia - Disease in Colonial America
  • Army Heritage Center - A Deadly Scourge: Smallpox During the Revolutionary War
  • PBS - The 9 Deadly Diseases That Plagued George Washington
  • Mental Floss - Biological Warfare in the American Revolution?
  • Prezi -  Health Care And Hospitals During The American Revolution (Video)
  • Wikipedia - Physicians in the American Revolution
  • Journal of the American Revolution - Surgery
  • Campbell University - The Colonial Family In America
  • Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation - Colonial Medicine (PDF)
  • WebMD - Warm Up to Ginger
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Apothecary
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Th Art and Mystery of Apothecary
  • ehow - What Tools Did Apothecary Use in Colonial Times?
  • Williamsburg Tours - 18th Century Medical Practices in Colonial Williamsburg, VA.
  • ehow - How Did Colonial Doctors Work?
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Eighteenth-Century Medical Myths

Fashion

  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - Outfitting an American Revolutionary Soldier 
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Introduction to Eighteenth-Century Clothing
  • American Revolution - Clothing 1770 - 1800
  • History of American Wars - Revolutionary War Uniforms
  • Ducksters - American Revolution: Soldiers Uniforms and Gear
  • American Revolution - The Revolution And The New Republic, 1775-1800: Colonial Clothing
  • Massachusetts Department of Higher Education - Men’s Clothing from the 1770s
  • Massachusetts Department of Higher Education - Women’s Clothing from the 1770s
  • Massachusetts Department of Higher Education - Girl’s Clothing from the 1770s
  • ehow - Makeup & Hairsyles of the 1700s
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Stuff and Nonsense: Myths That Should by Now Be History
  • Wikipedia - 1775-95 in Western Fashion

Dialogue

  • Ducksters - American Revolution: Glossary and Terms
  • Colonial Quills - The Art of the Olde-Fashioned Insults
  • History of Redding - Exploring Period Vocabulary & Slang
  • Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation - Military Slang of the Revolutionary War Era
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Puttin’ on the Dog: Adventures in the Idioms of Our Mother Tongue
  • Shmoop - The American Revolution Terms
  • HyperVocal - 38 Vulgar Terms From the 19th-Century Urban Dictionary

Justice & Crime

  • Wikipedia - Prisoners of War in the American Revolutionary War
  • Mount Vernon - Prisoners of War
  • Wikipedia - Militia Generals in the American Revolution
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Colonial Crimes and Punishments
  • History.com - Redcoats kill sleeping Americans in Paoli Massacre: September 20, 1777
  • H‑Net: Humanities and Social Sciences Online - The Fate of Britain’s Convicts after the American Revolution
  • Early American Crime -  An Exploration of Crime, Criminals, And Punishments From America’s Past
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Cruel and Unusual: Prisons and Prison Reform
  • Slate - Did the Brits Burn Churches?
  • Encyclopedia Virginia - Convict Labor During the Colonial Period
  • Wikipedia - Laws Leading to the American Revolution
  • Sam Houston State University - Military Punishments in the Continental Army
  • History.com - Pennsylvania militiamen senselessly murder Patriot allies: March 8, 1782
  • Mount Vernon - American Spies of the Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Boston Massacre
  • National Archives and Records Administration -  The Declaration of Independence: A Transcription
  • Wikipedia - United States Declaration of Independence
  • Independence Hall Association - Declaration of Independence
  • University of Groningen -  The Final Text of the Declaration of Independence July 4 1776
  • Library of Congress - Declaration of Independence
  • History.com -  Declaration of Independence: American Revolution
  • Independence Hall Association - When Does the Revolution End?
  • Study - Effects of the American Revolution: Lesson & Quiz
  • Net Industries - The Early Years of American Law - Colonial Freedom, Britain’s Push For Greater Control, A New Start, A New Criminal Court System
  • Journal of the American Revolution - 10 Facts About Prisoners of War
Research Skills for Spoonies

A little while back, I got a message from @aspoonfullofhumor asking me to share my research tips. I’ve brainstormed and outlined a lot on this topic, and a single post ballooned into a series of posts. I hope they are helpful.

First of all, a disclaimer, these are strategies that I have found helpful. That doesn’t mean they will work for everyone. Additionally, I recognize that some of these things reflect privilege, both in terms of education and in terms of having an able mind. (I do have some brain fog, but I also have significant periods of very short mental focus.) I hope that sharing this can level a little bit of the privilege gap in terms of education, but I still recognize that the strategies won’t be accessible to everyone.

I’m not going to talk much about the academic research process. There are plenty of other resources online about that topic, and some of my readers will already know this material from school, as well. Instead, I want to talk about the interwoven skills of information gathering, information synthesis, and problem-solving as they apply to chronic illness and disability in particular. What I will talk about is a less formal, more personal, method of research. But I want to be clear that traditional academic research can be helpful, too.

Some Core Ideas

  • Aim to build large knowledge bases.
    • When you are living with a chronic illness or disability, you want to build the knowledge and tools for long-term success. This isn’t a research paper for history class. It’s not a matter of finding three reputable sources and turning it in.
    • When you have a lot of knowledge at your fingertips, you are better problem solver. You find connections more easily, discover things you never knew to look for, and form questions you never knew to ask.
    • As you knowledge base grows, adding new knowledge to it and answering new questions becomes progressively easier. It’s an investment that pays off in the long run.
    • You already have a lot of knowledge. You don’t have to grow this knowledge base from scratch. Your firsthand experiences are extremely valuable, and you should aim to supplement and integrate them with external sources.
  • Synthesis is often more important than simple facts.
    • Finding connections between facts and experiences is how you come to new ideas. Even though a creative idea may seem like a logical jump, it is almost always preceded by a lot of organized information.
    • You can use tools to help you develop your synthesis skills. Make outlines, draw mind maps, write ideas on notecards and arrange them on your desk, put bookmarks or post-its in your books, or write your ideas in an essay or blog post. Experiment with different techniques to find what works best for you.

Future installments will cover: (links will be added as posts are published.)

  • Specific tips for using the Internet effectively to find information.
  • Problem-solving skills, for when you have a concrete challenge to tackle.
  • Navigating science and science journalism.

Hey everyone! Q here to lay on some vast knowledge about the Mythical realm Asgard. Under the cut you will find the Calendar, Holidays, Times, and things that will be important to ANYONE writing or maybe even just reading threads with people from this realm. 

Keep reading

Some resources for that research/term paper 

So this post happened in the process of my writing a post about tips for writing an essay/research/term paper, so I thought I’d give it its own separate post.

When I first started at my university (and I did two years at a community college, then transferred), I loved my library, but it was scary to me at first. Also I didn’t want to leave my apartment. And, let’s face it, I was a tad lazy in the research department my first semester. BUT I knew that my grades were all up to me at this point, and I needed to get more familiar with my library, so here are my tips for utilizing your college library’s resources:

  • For the love of God, ACTUALLY use your library!! Since I hate hate hated going into the library my first semester at college (it was scary!!), I found as many of my sources as I could online through the university’s online library database search thingy (it has a name but it’s probably different for each university), since it could search basically every educational database online and get me journal articles that are MUCH EASIER to read than some random book that may or may not have what you need for your paper.
  • Reserve books!! You should be able to, if you do find a book, reserve it ONLINE so you can just WALK IN to the circulation desk at your convenience (some may have a pick-up-by date idk) and pick it up without having to search through the stacks and hope some random student didn’t pick it up and put it back on a different shelf. 
  • Use the Interlibrary Loan (ILL) System!! MAKE USE OF THE INTERLIBRARY LOAN. If your university library doesn’t have the book you’ve been looking for but another one in the country does, they will send it to your library (obviously this is me talking about libraries in the US, idk about UK or anywhere else sorry!!) For this one, you definitely want to have done your research well ahead of the deadline, because it can take a couple weeks to get it in. I personally haven’t had to use the ILL, (bc I normally did journal articles), but I’ve never heard any complaints other than the amount of time. So don’t wait till the last minute for ILL requests!!

Those are just a few suggestions for research options. I was almost always lazy and would look for articles online, and maybe throw in a few books. It was better for me to have the library pull them until I got familiar with where everything was. Sometimes professors offer up other source ideas as well when they give instructions for the paper, or they may have additional requirements. One of mine would only let us have one online source, but journal articles didn’t count as long as they were available in PDF format (score!).

Let me know if this helped you in any way, or if you’ve used other options at your library!

Researching Native American Cultures

thementalwayfarer said: Hello! I plan to include different mythological creatures in my story, but I’m stuck on including thunderbirds indirectly in my story. I can’t find a solid source of how they are viewed by the Oglala Lakota (religiously or otherwise; physical or intangible, etc.). Could someone give me a starting point? I ask this because I would like to have my Oglala Lakota character descended from one, but I don’t want to cause any sort of offense with both my character AND their forced inclusion. Thank you!

little-fuzzy-dude said: The main character for an apocalyptic novel I’m planning is Navajo. She comes from the Navajo Nation, and therefore would have a strong background in the traditions of the Navajo people. However, as a white teenager from the suburbs, I have little first hand knowledge of the Navajo, nor do I have the resources to be able to find out about the culture first-hand. I have been researching, but I’m not sure what sources to trust. Would it be possible for you to point me in the right direction?

Books-wise, look up ethnographies on the people you’re researching. These are very dense anthropological documents that took note of as many things as possible about the society, from the start of assimilation to modern times, and often detail absolutely everything about the culture, from spirituality to food to sacred objects; if they’re modern, they can also include how the population relates to the state, activism, internal politics, and what modern technology they’ve incorporated. You might need to look up several, seeing as not all were respectful of the culture or detailed enough, but when you’re looking to research a very specific people like that then there are usually books that exist. Large, well-known tribes have dozens. 

If you’re going historical, my personal preference is students of Franz Boas; he was a little preservation happy, but he genuinely loved the cultures he studied and was incredibly respectful, which he passed on to his (dozens of) students. Regardless of period, avoid historical revisionists or those who subscribe to the theory of cultural evolutionism like the plague I cannot stress this enough. They will be extremely disrespectful. Ways to spot them: using words like “savage”, trying to establish that Natives had less complex societies than “civilized” Europeans, and generally trying to set the Western world at the “top” of cultural refinement. 

The best ethnographies have Native authors or contributors listed somewhere, but watch that they’re actually still living in the tribe, especially if you’re going to historical sources; contributors should be bridges between the tribe and the anthropologist, them still identifying as part of their tribe but willing to help the outside world understand their culture. 

University libraries are your friends. You can walk in there without having an account at the library (most of the time), and many universities have their system searchable without a university card. The only thing you’re blocked from (in my old university anyway) is articles or the on-site computers. Just look up the system database where you have internet, write the code/name of the book down down, and go hunting. You can’t check it out without a student card, but you can read it in the library. If you don’t have a local university (or yours doesn’t have any ethnographies), you can look up one of the larger ones and see their collection, then try to find the books elsewhere.

If you’re lucky, the ethnography in question is available online for free or in google books with the right keywords. If you’re not, you might have to wrangle things but it should be possible. You could ask anthropology professors to look up data for you— many are happy to spread knowledge in their spare time, even if you’re not a student at their university (Although, as always, watch out for historical revisionists/those who dismiss your desire to learn about Natives on their own terms). Professors (and some students) are often very willing to help you out, especially if they have ties to the Native community. 

Unfortunately, ethnographies are often made by university presses, aren’t printed often, and are expensive, so I wouldn’t encourage buying one unless you were really planning on relying on it for a long period of time. As I alluded to above, many are available for free (I have been lucky enough to find full text with no paywall, but I was looking for very old books).

The best option is finding out if you can contact the tribe, somehow, and ask them about themselves. Many tribes/nations have websites, which could have contact information and what types of queries they accept. There is always a chance they will not respond (as a general rule, ask if you can ask before you actually ask unless they explicitly say “this is okay to ask” somewhere, and proceed to ask how/who you should ask if you get a “yes you can ask”), but it would be getting the information directly from the source without traveling.

There might be some local Aboriginal centres that could help you, as well; resources centres are often a little more open to educating others depending on their purpose (check if they’re community only or open to the public, first!) and they usually have resources on a fair number of tribes in one location. Of course, if you live pretty far away from the tribe in question they might not have information right there, but they could either help you get it or you might find a different tribe to use.

Only approach a tribe on their terms, which means going into spaces they’ve opened to the public and asking there. Do not try to break into a closed off tribe; they’re closed off for a reason. Speak with activists/public figures but respect their time.

I would honestly start with ethnographies (and browsing tribal sites) first, just so you can get a sense of the culture and not make a large blunder at first reach out. Once you’ve gotten a general feel for the culture before asking the tribe, you’re less likely to come across as somebody fetishizing or trying to appropriate. It really helps when you can speak of specifics at least a little.

Hope this helps! If any Lakota or Navajo followers have any input, feel free to chime in.

~Mod Lesya

0asissss  asked:

Do you have any resources for writing about war? Alternate history, oppressive government, dystopian society. MC is the leader of a rebel group that starts a revolution and expands into one of two sides fighting a war. Fighting is nationwide but MC and his small group fight at home. I have a ton of worldbuilding to do but I know I need help writing about war. Everything about it, from fighting to ranks/chain of command to staying realistic to its effects on people. Anything you have will help!!

@0asissss

Oh boy, did you come to the right place!

Personally, when it comes to writing, my favorite thing in the world to do is research. Good resources for the actually writing about war are few and far between, so I think your best bet would be to research some big wars and war heroes. Maybe pick up some historical fiction from authors like Tim O’Brien. If you’re really into history, check out some news articles from the World Wars from both sides, or the Vietnam War. When writing about a topic such as war, it is essential that you do your research. 

Most of the resources I give you will be America-centric because that’s what I grew up learning about, and that’s also what I know best. These types of articles will be different for different countries.

I have bolded what I think is most helpful.

Writing About War

Write A War Story
How to Write a War or Battle Scene in Your Novel

War Itself

What causes war?
Rules of warfare [1]
Types of combat
Modern technology in combat
Revolution

Effects of War

Mental illness
How it affects the folks at home [WWII][Vietnam]

War Protests

Vietnam war protests

War and the Media

Propaganda
The television and war

Rebel Groups

Sans Culottes
[Fiction] Les Amis de L’ABC
Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity (URNG) 
26th of July Movement
Irish Republican Army (IRA)

Military

Ranking in the United States
Ranks vs. Rates
Fitness requirements [Army][Navy][Air Force][Marine Corps][SEAL]
Army vs. Navy vs. Air Force 

Doing research on the Guatemalan Civil War as a whole I think will really help you. It is fairly recent (ended in 1996), so you will be able to find a lot of online sources and articles. 

TL;DR Research Tim O’Brien’s writing as well as the Guatemalan Civil War

xx Sarah

Another great research resource is the magazine collection at University of Central Lancashire in Preston.  I studied there and having access to pretty much all the issues of the magazine like The Face and i-D was amazing.  We have some scans of articles relating to themes of the show on display in Gallery 2.

i-D, April 1991

07-11-2015 –

Completing some quick research about sleep paralysis based on this post for a role play I’m doing with a buddy of mine. It’s hard to find projects when school is out, so it’s nice when I get the opportunity to learn something new. 

3

Mostly gone, but not forgotten is the card catalogue. Although the Peabody Institute uses an online database for library materials the card catalogue in the research room next to the archives still serves a purpose. For many years the librarians would look through the local papers and type out on index cards the names, places and events that took place in Peabody. There is a wealth of genealogy information in these drawers along with forgotten history about Peabody.

Interviewing POC for Research

Anonymous asked: I know I have to talk to people for research, but I’m not sure how to go about it or when to do it. Before starting? After finishing a rough draft? I’m an amateur writer and I feel like I don’t have the authority to organize an interview or something.

Don’t feel like you’re too amateur to organize an interview. If you’re serious about writing something or someone accurately and respectfully, an interview is the way to go. Also, there’s several different mediums if you’re too nervous for a face-to-face interview or the person(s) you’d like to interview is far away. There’s always phone, email, chat, Skype, and so on.

Hopefully these tips will be of use:

  • Prepare and Research: Try not to come into the interview totally ignorant on the subject matter you’re interviewing the person about. Read up from accurate and first-hand sources on the topics you’ll interview on. It should also give you material for the interview and open up the interviewee’s personal thoughts on the subject. For example, “I’ve read a lot about Black Americans having to have "the talk” about racism and how the world perceives them and what they have to do to stay safe. If there was such conversations in your family, what was the nature of it?“
  • Stay Focused: This relates to the first suggestion. Come in with focused material and if possible, like-wise topics near each other so one subject bleeds into the next. This will also help follow the interviewee’s natural thought progression.
  • Ask Specific, yet open-ended questions: Yes or no questions will give you a yes or no answer. Which, in the long run, probably isn’t much info and may require a series of follow-up questions. Unless you have those planned out already, if possible, ask focused questions that invite more thought. It’s the difference between "Do you like x?” and “Please tell me how you feel about x." 
  • Don’t push: If someone is clearly uncomfortable answering one or more of your questions or don’t provide a confident answer, apologize then move onto something else. You can make a note on the question to evaluate what exactly might’ve made that person uncomfortable or unable to answer. Was it just a personal thing? Was it just too personal in general? A touchy subject matter? Tough subjects are hard to talk about sometimes and almost always feel personal (such as racism) but reconsider if you’ll ask such a question in a future or how important the information is.
  • Don’t overwhelm: Bring a list rolling to the floor of questions and inquiries and the interviewee may begin to feel exhausted and dissected. Remember that they’re not just an info machine but that you’re talking with a human taking the time to help you, so respect their and your time. That means consider the tips above (being concise, not pushing for answers, and doing your research prior) and while not rushing through the interviewing, not being long-winded either.

If you do have a lot you wish to ask that research by other means hasn’t provided, consider if you’re able to interview more than one person. This loosens the load from one person’s shoulders and also can provide some other perspectives on the subject matter.

Now, when you do the interviewing is up to you; just remember to have done as much research as you could dependent of the interview before making arrangements.

So there’s my suggestions. I hope these are helpful to you or anyone else who may be interviewing people, particularly People of Color, about their life and experiences.

~Mod Colette

Research Guides and Writing With Colour

In response to: On Asking WWC Questions Without Prior Research

@bubblerobot asked: Please instead of posting stuff regarding how not to ask you stuff, give us a few ideas instead! This is a great recourse blog but honestly some of use have no idea how to start and the asks don’t give us enough room to shove our entire novels at you. Don’t say research on our own. You are part of the research process! I’m on this blog as research and sometimes you have really great stuff that get me thinking. We are looking for a direction to research towards!

You mean, like this?

“Browse TV Tropes for the ethnicity in question. Look at Death Tropes. Look up “Native” or “Asian” or “Black”. See what comes up first. Look at related tropes, which are basically always provided. Search for the thinkpieces written by other writers of colour. Google “[ethnicity] representation” and find people of that ethnicity speaking of that ethnicity.”

Or this?

Braving Native American Diversity

Or this?

Researching PoC and Supporting Writers of Colour

Or these?

Writer Reference, Writer Resources

Or our whole Navigation page?

We have given you plenty. I’m going to take the time to remind you we are volunteers, who are only a very small section of our respective populations. 

I get it’s hard to research. I have spent a decade learning how to find the required sources for marginalized groups. And that’s only a handful of groups. I’m working on it, but I am well aware it is a learned skill. I am well aware that some people struggle to research, and some people don’t know how, which is why I provided ideas where to start in my post.

Do not, under any circumstance, say we haven’t provided ideas on how to research. It’s one thing if we haven’t written about it. It’s another to blatantly ignore what is already there.

We understand we are part of the research process, and we try to make sure to give all of you tools on how to effectively help yourselves.

If you think this research is akin to looking up how much blood is in a human body, where you can read a few things and be done with it, think again. As I said, I have spent a decade of self study and two years of academia in culture research to be as good as I have. Any less time and I would not even think of touching some groups, and I don’t think of touching certain groups until I have spent years educating myself.

Yes, years. This is a long haul game. Proper representation of any marginalized group cannot be attempted until you know enough about the group to unlearn parts of your own biases. Until you actively become an advocate for these groups. You cannot write about horror without being horrified yourself, and what we have experienced with our misrepresentation is horror. 

Writing about marginalized groups means the research process never ends. It means you are constantly trying to keep up with what their lived experience is, and was, and will be. You cannot just think you are done. You cannot just think that you know “enough”.

If you’re looking for a quick and easy answer that will make your writing be held up in praise as Representation Done Right, move along. If you aren’t willing to look beyond WWC, beyond the start and end of a single project, beyond praise and recognition, why are you even attempting? Because you want to fix the problems you’ve heard about? None of this is an easy fix.

As I said, we are not checklists. We are not cliff notes. We are tomes, and WWC is working very hard to provide an index to the volumes. But like a librarian is not expected to know every book in the library, we cannot rattle every volume off the top of our heads.

General questions help no one. Educate yourself and prove you want to be an ally to us. We are not your sociology project, your token, or your search engine.

We are people.

And we refuse to be flattened to nothing more than words on a page.

~ Mod Lesya