research on women and gender

6

We are looking forward to Katy Collier visiting Stamps School this week as a Roman J. Witt Visiting Artist 

Lecture and color woodcut demo
Tuesday, September 20 1:45pm - 4:30pm, Printmedia Studio, Room 2143

Individual critiques with students
Thursday, September 22 1:45pm - 4:30pm, Printmedia Studio, Room 2143

Men sometimes scoff that if young women let such nebulous factors deter them from careers in physics or computer science, the women are exercising their own free choice, and if girls were tough enough, such exaggerated stereotypes and feelings of discomfort wouldn’t discourage them.

Yet I wonder how many young men would choose to major in computer science if they suspected they might need to carry out their coding while sitting in a pink cubicle decorated with posters of “Sex and the City,” with copies of Vogue and Cosmo scattered around the lunchroom. In fact, Dr. Cheryan’s research shows that young men tend not to major in English for the same reasons women don’t pick computer science: They compare their notions of who they are to their stereotypes of English majors and decide they won’t fit in.
Even if women did uptalk more than men, we’ve all heard enough uptalk to know that its rising intonation doesn’t indicate a question. No one’s actually confused. So why should anyone have a problem with it? The thing is, this pastime of critiquing women’s speech is not limited to American English speakers. It’s easy to find these attitudes in any culture that devalues femininity and women. In Belfast English, stereotypical women’s speech falls at the end of a sentence, while men’s speech rises before it plateaus—basically, the men are uptalking. And yet Belfast women’s speech is still perceived as more expressive or emotional, showing that it’s not about their actual intonation at all: It’s about whose mouth the speech is coming from. (In fact, vocal fry leads to a lower-pitched voice, essentially the opposite of uptalk, and yet somehow that’s bad when young women do it too.)

And that’s definitely not the only study, and it’s not just gender. It’s race, it’s class, it’s sexuality, it’s geographic location, it’s many other factors. But linguists have never been able to show anything intrinsically good or bad, authoritative or unconfident, desirable or grating about any kind of pitch, inflection, or vocal quality. Instead, we ascribe those qualities to speech based on who’s articulating it. Think Black English sounds uneducated? That’s probably because you have some racist notions about black people. Does a Southern accent sound unintelligent to you? Their vowels aren’t to blame—it’s our stereotypes about people from the South. Think that uptalk makes women sound less authoritative? Maybe that’s because women are constantly robbed of agency and authority, and we view anything they do or say as less powerful.
It’s gender discrimination that makes me crazy. When women are treated in a way that is not beneficial to their existence. And it happens in the workforce, it happens in politics — only 19 percent of the Congress are women — and in medical research and treatment. Most of the research on women’s heart disease, specifically, has been done for the last 50 years on men. Even in the laboratory, they use male mice instead of female mice. The female mice, I was told, ‘we don’t study them because they’re too complex — they have hormones, you know.’ So yeah, that’s exactly the reason you should study female mice! To help female humans. This makes me insane.
—  Barbra Streisand
youtube

The Brain Scoop:
Periods + Fieldwork

Wherein I answer one of my FAQs: what are some practical ways scientists manage menstruation while conducting fieldwork, oftentimes in remote locations, and for long periods (PUN) of time?! The information in this video comes from the first-hand experience of researchers, hikers, campers, explorers, wanderlust seekers, and yes, yours truly. We learned the hard way, so you don’t have to.

Happy exploring! 

NOTES FROM THE EPICENTER: SEPHORA ACCELERATE

Sephora is teaming up with socially minded beauty entrepreneurs to make the world a more beautiful place.

At Sephora, changing the lives of women one lipstick tube at a time is all in a day’s work. But that’s not the extent of our empowerment efforts—not even a little bit. Through Sephora Accelerate, our newly launched program, we’re uniting with women entrepreneurs to help foster their businesses and the social impacts tied to their innovative ideas. From a makeup line that helps fund cancer treatments with every purchase to skincare that enriches the lives of women in Ghana, Sephora Accelerate has found real-life women making real-world change. The Sephora Glossy picked the brain of Sephora’s Head of Social Impact, Corrie Conrad, to get insight on why it’s important to foster women in business, how big names in the biz are getting involved, and how beauty can be used to make a difference. JESSICA VELEZ

How did Sephora Accelerate come to be, and what’s the overall goal for the program?

“With our Sephora Stands social impact programs, we seek to use the strengths of Sephora for even greater good in our world. One of the first things that struck me upon joining Sephora last year was our unique history of working with entrepreneurs. We have a strength there.

“In the late ’90s, when Sephora got its start in the US, many of the big beauty brands known at the time didn’t want to be sold in Sephora. Our innovative teams sought out new brands—often start-ups that no one had yet heard of—and worked with the entrepreneurs to grow those businesses. It helped them and it helped us. The model worked.

“With Sephora Accelerate, we aim to use that strength for even greater good by focusing specifically on female founders leading early-stage beauty businesses with a social impact. The goal of Sephora Accelerate is to build an ecosystem of support for more than 50 female founders of beauty businesses with a social impact by 2020. We’re dedicated to building a community of innovative female founders designing the future of beauty.”

Why does the program focus primarily on women?

“Prior to Sephora, I was working in tech, where women are very under-represented in leadership and at all other levels. That’s not the case here at Sephora, and it was a refreshing change. However, I soon realized it wasn’t the case across the beauty industry. Even in beauty, where most of the clients are women, female founders are still underrepresented. We have a unique opportunity to draw from our history of working with entrepreneurs to build a supportive community that can help change that by inspiring confidence and fearlessness among female founders.”

What’s the biggest struggle beauty entrepreneurs face, and how does Sephora Accelerate counter it?

“There’s been some great research done on the gender inequality—there are more men than women who are entrepreneurs. It’s hard to be an entrepreneur no matter what (I know, I’m married to one!), but the data shows it’s even harder for women entrepreneurs.

“Some of this could be due to what some researchers have called a ‘confidence gap,’ where studies have shown that women and men with similar qualifications will have very different levels of confidence in their abilities. The men will tend to be much more confident in their abilities than the women will be in theirs, even though they have comparable experience. Additionally, access to networks, mentorship, and funding all rise to the top as struggles that are even harder for women, since most of the existing channels are male dominated. Imagine pitching a beauty business idea to a panel of male venture capitalists who have never even been in a Sephora.

“To address these challenges, Sephora Accelerate is working to inspire confidence and build a community of support for female founders through hands-on learning, mentorship, and access to funding.”

Sephora Accelerate is under a bigger initiative called Sephora Stands. What’s your role with Sephora Stands, and what do you love about it?

“That’s right! Sephora Stands is the umbrella for all of our social impact work, including Sephora Accelerate. Specifically, through Sephora Stands, we aim to use the strengths of Sephora for even greater good by supporting women entrepreneurs, our communities, and our employees.

“I’m the Head of Social Impact for Sephora and I lead Sephora Stands. Right now, what I’m really enjoying is seeing the vision become a reality as all of our Sephora Stands programs are really getting going this year. I also love hearing the personal stories of how our work is helping people and touching lives both within and beyond Sephora. Several of our entrepreneurs shared that Sephora Accelerate is life-changing for them, and with our Classes for Confidence, we’re regularly hearing from colleagues in our stores that ‘This is why we do what we do.’ To me this reflects that using our strengths for great good not only helps others, but is also very motivating and inspiring internally.”

What were you pleasantly surprised to see unfold with this first Sephora Accelerate program?

“One of my hopes for the Sephora Accelerate boot camp was that it would mark the beginning of a special community. Each of these women is a founder and leader. They are visionaries and doers. They know best the many challenges they each face as entrepreneurs, and sometimes those challenges may seem insurmountable. I wanted them to know they were not alone, and to see them emerge with greater confidence in their own abilities. Over the course of the week, I was thrilled to see that community forming and confidence growing. It takes a lot of courage to be open and vulnerable, and these women are the bravest.”

The entrepreneurs each have their own social impact. How are they using beauty to make the world a better place?

“I truly believe we can change the world for the better through our work. We can build a supportive community for incredible entrepreneurs seeking to use their company’s strengths for even greater good. We can create a world where women lead as many businesses as men, where supply chains are transparent and all people earn a living wage, and where our planet is protected for future generations. Our Sephora Accelerate cohort of entrepreneurs shares this vision, and yes, each of their businesses has its own social impact.

 “Eu’Genia Shea (@EuGenia_Shea) makes high-quality shea-based products with at least 95% pure shea content. Its fully transparent supply chain empowers women and their families in Ghana.

GlossGenius (@glossgenius) is an innovative digital personal assistant for independent beauticians. Its mission is to empower the next generation of independent entrepreneurs in the beauty industry with powerful business management, client engagement, and marketing tools.

Laxmi (@ByLaxmi) is a luxury skincare brand dedicated to prioritizing humanity. They formulate with pure, rare, and effective botanicals that work on your skin, and provide work for women around the world to end global poverty.

Myavana (@MyavanaHair) is a data-driven social platform that offers personalized hair analysis, consultations, and product recommendations. Its social impact mission is to advance women in STEM fields through beauty with its STEM Hair Care Academy.

One Love Organics (@OneLoveOrganics) creates certified organic and environmentally friendly skincare of the highest quality. It manufactures its own products and is one of only 10 ECOCERT-licensed manufacturers for natural and organic cosmetics in the US.

Sahajan (@SahajanSkincare) creates ayurvedic-inspired, organic skincare—marrying the ancient traditions of Ayurveda with modern science. It’s exploring ways to promote wellness and mindfulness through Return to Ritual events. 

Stylerz (@StylerzMX) allows you to discover top beauty salons, spas, and barbers in Mexico, so you can book an appointment when and where you want from your smartphone or PC. It provides free courses to salon owners to learn the basics of digital marketing tools and works with salons to donate hair to cancer organizations.

Thrive Causemetics (@ThriveCause) is beauty with a purpose, creating high-performance, vegan luxury cosmetics. For every product purchased, one is donated to a woman going through cancer treatment.”

How do the entrepreneurs embody fearlessness, a trait that’s part of the Sephora ethos?

“I’m inspired by each of these women. They each have an incredible story of courage as they stepped out to create their companies. As we sat around a table and shared some of our personal journey stories, I was struck by the common theme of perseverance in the face of adversity. These women have grit, determination, and passion. They may not always feel fearless, but they take bold steps forward in the face of their fears.”

What happens during the boot camp part of the program?

“During the boot camp we held a series of sessions, panels, and hands-on workshops. The cohort of entrepreneurs learned from Sephora’s experts, and we brought in OpenIDEO, the social innovation team at IDEO, to help design the boot camp content.

“One of my favorite parts of the week was having Pamela Baxter, former President and CEO of Dior and LVMH Perfumes and Cosmetics, as our expert in residence. The cohort lived together in a historic San Francisco mansion for the week, and Pamela stayed there with us. It was a blast.

“To see more of the fun from that week, check out our @SephoraStands Twitter and Instagram feeds, and follow the entrepreneurs, too!”

What comes after that?

“For the next few months the Sephora Accelerate cohort of entrepreneurs will have monthly check-ins with their mentors and a series of virtual sessions leading up to the Demo Day, which happens at the end of August. For Demo Day, all the entrepreneurs will return to San Francisco and present their progress to Sephora leadership for feedback.”

LEARN MORE ABOUT SEPHORA ACCELERATE >

To Learn More About Trans

(As part of our trans visibilty day series, we invite our trans friends and followers to submit your stories @AGoodEqualTime) 

In the course of the last few articles we have been talking about trans personalities. We could also have mentioned Renee Richards, famous tennis player, and heroine of an autobiographical film called The choice; or Lynn Conway,  American computer scientist, electrical engineer, inventor, and transgender activist. And a lot of people forget, but it was a drag queen’s stiletto thrown at a cop that started the Stonewall riots and gave birth to the modern SWAT Team.

We have stated in our previous articles that trans aren’t new, it’s time now to turn back time and take a look to the trans people who made History.

  • Charles d'Éon de Beaumont, usually known as the Chevalier d'Éon, was a French diplomat, spy, freemason and soldier at French King Louis the 15th’s court. He  had androgynous physical characteristics and appeared publicly as a man and pursued masculine occupations for 49 years, while he successfully infiltrated the court of Empress Elizabeth of Russia by presenting as a woman. For 33 years, from 1777, d'Éon dressed as a woman, claiming to be assigned female at birth. Even though Doctors who examined d'Éon’s body after his death stated that he was in fact male, he remains in the public minds as an ambiguous character.
  • Born in Spain in 1592, Catalina de Erauso was daughter and sister of soldiers from the city of San Sebastián in Spain. Dressed as a man, calling herself “Francisco de Loyola”, she reached Spanish America and enlisted as a soldier in Chile under the name Alonso Díaz Ramírez de Guzmán. She served under several captains in the Arauco War, including her own brother, who never recognized her. In 1626, Catalina de Erauso was seen by Pope Urban VIII, who granted her a special dispensation to that would allow her to continue to live her life as a man, and to wear men’s clothing.
  • Lili Elbe, born in 1882 was the first ever intersex person to receive gender reassignment surgery in 1930. Her biopic, in which she’s portrayed by Eddie Redmayne, will be released in November 2015.


Because a little bit of reading never killed anyone, here’s a list of books:

First of all, here’s a selection of non-fictional books, most of them beeing academic research:

  • Gender Outlaw: On Men, Women and the Rest of Us, Kate Bornstein (1994)
  • Normal Life: Administrative Violence, Critical Trans Politics and the Limits of Law, Dean Spade (2011)
  • Redefining Realness, Janet Mock (2014)
  • Third Sex and Human Rights, Rajesh Talwar (1999)
  • Trans Liberation: Beyond Pink or Blue, Leslie Feinberg (1999)
  • Transgender History, Susan Stryker (2008)
  • Transgender Liberation: A Movement Whose Time Has Come, Leslie Feinberg (1992)
  • Transgender Rights, Paisley Currah, Richard M. Juang, and Shannon Minter (2006)
  • Transgender Warriors : Making History from Joan of Arc to Dennis Rodman, Leslie Feinberg (1996)

In French

  • Ni d’Ève ni d’Adam, Défaire la différence des sexes, Marie-Joseph Bertini et Daniel Bougnoux (2006)
  • La Transidentité : Des changements individuels au débat de société, Arnaud Alessandrin (2011)
  • La transidentité, de l’espace médiatique à l’espace public, Karine Espineira (2008)
  • LG… B… T… I… ? Identités émergentes, Karine Espineira et Arnaud Alessandrin (2013)
  • Psychologie(s) des transsexuels et des transgenres, Françoise Sironi (2011)

Fiction and poetry
Young adult/Children’s

  • 10,000 Dresses, Marcus Ewert (2008)
  • The Adventures of Tulip, Birthday Wish Fairy, S. Bear Bergman and Suzy Malik (2012)
  • Almost Perfect, Brian Katcher (2009) 2011 Stonewall Book Award from the American Library Association
  • Beautiful Music for Ugly Children, Kirstin Cronn-Mills (2012) 2014 Stonewall Book Award winner
  • Being Emily, Rachel Gold (2012)
  • Freakboy, Kristin Elizabeth Clark (2013)
  • I Am Jazz, Jazz Jennings & Jessica Herthel (2014)
  • Just Girls, Rachel Gold (2014)
  • Luna, Julie Anne Peters (2004)
  • My Princess Boy, Cheryl Kilodavis and Suzanne DeSimone (2009)
  • Parrotfish, Ellen Wittlinger (2011)
  • Roving Pack, Sassafrass Lowrey (2012)

In French

  • Les Petites Déesses, Francesca Lia Block, (1999)
  • Hâvre de paix, Fujino Chiya, Thierry Magnier (2006)
  • L’Âge d’ange, Anne Percin (2008)
  • La face cachée de Luna, Julie-Anne Peters (2005)
  • Le garçon bientôt oublié, Jean-Noël Sciarini (2010)

Fictions

  • Breakfast on Pluto, Patrick McCabe (1998)
  • The Butterfly and the Flame, Dana De Young (2005)
  • The Collection: Short Fiction from the Transgender Vanguard (anthology), Tom Léger and Riley MacLeod (editors) (2012)
  • Holding Still For As Long As Possible, Zoe Whittall (2009)
  • I Am J, Cris Beam (2011)
  • Kafka on the Shore, Haruki Murakami (2002)
  • Maxine Wore Black, Nora Olsen (2014)
  • Myra Breckinridge, Gore Vidal (1968)
  • Nevada, Imogen Binnie (2013)
  • Orlando: A Biography, Virginia Woolf (1928)
  • Run, Clarissa, Run, Rachel Eliason (2012)
  • A Safe Girl to Love, Casey Plett (2014)
  • Stone Butch Blues, Leslie Feinberg (1993) - Won the Lambda Literary Award and the 1994 American Library Association Gay & Lesbian Book Award
  • Trans-Sister Radio, Chris Bohjalian (2000)

Poetry

  • Troubling the Line: Trans and Genderqueer Poetry and Poetics, T.C. Tolbert & Trace Peterson (editors) (2013)


And finally, you can also take a look at the trans associations:

International

Europe

United Kingdom

Taiwan

Australia

United States

A Stereotypical American Day [Infographic]

New data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics on how Americans spend their time has backed up classic gender stereotypes. The research reveals that American women spend more time cleaning, shopping  and caring for other household members than their male counterparts. The nation’s men spend more time enjoying leisure and sport activities as well as eating and drinking.

What teachers do in response to what are evaluated as maladaptive behaviors can reinforce appropriate roles that differ for boys and girls. Erden and Wolfgang (2003), for instance, studied pre-kindergarten and first grade teachers’ beliefs about appropriate disciplinary practices. The authors assert that teachers play a significant role in the socialization of children, especially with regard to discipline. The authors developed an instrument, the Beliefs About Discipline Inventory (BADI) and used it in their study. It was based on several discipline philosophies. The results of this study showed that for the same infractions teachers used the rules and consequences philosophy when disciplining boys while using the confronting – contracting philosophy when dealing with girls. The rules and consequences philosophy is a controlling process where the teacher uses the class rules to control the class. The rules are taught by the teacher and expected to be followed by the student with positive rewards for those students who obey. The confronting – contracting philosophy has the teacher confronting the misbehaving student to identify the “bad” behavior and then developing a plan on how the student will correct his/her misdeeds. The outcome of the study demonstrated yet another example on how schools socialize students according to gender by disciplining girls through reason while disciplining boys through a cause and effect method.
— 

Diane Schwendenman B.S., M.S., M.S., Gender Role Expectations of Classroom Teachers, 2012

TLDR: Boys are often rewarded for good behavior through Rules and Consequences philosophy, while girls are expected to correct their bad behavior without reward through confronting-contracting philosophy. This leads to bigger problems in the future. This may explain why so many men often feel that they need praise, admiration, and recognition for good behavior while women are often just expected to be good and well behaved. These methods cripple young boys also, considering the fact that they aren’t raised with the expectation to be good no matter what. If these young boys are growing up to be men who expect reward for being good, it keeps them from being polite functioning citizens in society, and it dominoes into a bigger issue, which includes harm to women. 

What the fuck, Australia? Another man killing yet another woman.

What the fuck, Australia? Another day, another woman killed by a man. According to advocacy group Destroy the Joint, as of March 17th, before Masa Vukotic’s death on Tuesday, 22 women had been killed in Australia in the first 11 weeks of 2015. Two every week, and double the average from the past few years. Seriously, what the fuck?

Inevitably, when a woman is killed in our streets, close to home, we talk about women’s safety. Over and over again. Of course safety is important, and must always be a consideration, but where is the discussion about men’s violence and why these deaths are so common? Almost exclusively, when a woman is killed it is by a man. And while killings that are perpetrated by men in our streets in seemingly random attacks grab the attention, overwhelmingly, women are killed by men that they know. They are often a family member or an intimate partner; a man who at some stage has told the woman he has just killed that he loved her.

Why aren’t we talking about this as the national emergency that it most certainly is? Why the hell aren’t we talking about the violence against women epidemic that we currently find ourselves in? Is it because female deaths don’t matter as much as men’s? In 2014, NSW introduced legislation practically overnight following the deaths of two men in Sydney. Sweeping changes were made to liquor laws and sentencing for those found guilty of ‘one punch’ attacks was increased dramatically. Where is the political will, at a national level, to address women’s deaths in the same fashion?

We are in a fortunate position at the moment, particularly in Victoria, where domestic violence is on the public agenda. We have our first minister for the prevention of family violence and there is also a royal commission in to this problem. But still, within all of this, a discussion on men’s violence is largely missing. Today, we’re still talking about why a young woman was walking on her own through a park, or whether it’s safe for a woman to run on her own, or why a woman doesn’t leave a violent relationship. Why aren’t we seriously asking ourselves why men in our community are committing such horrible acts of violence against women?

As a society, we must take responsibility for the culture we have created where to be a man often means to be violent. Where if, as a man, you are disrespected or ignored, you use your masculine power to reassert control and reclaim dominance. Where, if you are viewed to be weak, you are less of a man, and the target of ridicule. We must acknowledge that we all contribute to this in our definitions of manliness and our expectations of men. How many times have you heard someone tell a young boy to ‘man up’, to ‘be a man’, or ‘don’t be a pussy’? Countless times I’m sure. But there is not doubt that every one of these seemingly benign statements contributes to broader culture of violent masculinity.

Every time we hear in the news that a Muslim man has assaulted a woman, or a group of Indian men have raped a girl, we, as the dominant group in Australia point the finger at those cultures as having a problem with women. What’s ignored is that we in Australia also have a culture, and it too is killing women.

These acts of violence, no matter how random or how deliberate, exist within a culture of violence and inequality, where women are largely seen as less valuable and less important. All over the world, research tells us that men’s violence against women is caused by gender inequality; the higher the inequality, the more prevalent and more extreme the violence. Not because of alcohol, not because of mental illness, not because of a ‘bad apple’, but because societies all around the world see women as inferior.

In writing this, I anticipate the usual, ‘but not all men’, or ‘how dare you tarnish us all with the same brush’. If your first thoughts in reading this are along those lines, you are part of the problem. To borrow a phrase someone (apologies, I can’t remember where I saw it), if you’re getting angry about being ‘tarnished’ by this, you’re getting angry about the wrong thing.

Where is your, and where is our collective anger about the women being killed in their homes and in their streets every week? Get over being so sensitive. While of course, the overwhelming majority of men choose not to use violence, men’s violence against women, and also other men, is one of the biggest issues our society faces at the moment. I know that terrorism always scores political points, and should not be ignored, but you only have to look at some basic stats to see that men’s violence is doing the far more damage to our homes, our families, and our communities.

If you are a man who cares about this, speak up about it, and don’t get defensive. We need to shift the focus from what women are doing, to what men are doing, and we need to acknowledge that while this issue effects everyone, it is primarily men who are violent. Understand that these acts of violence don’t exist in a bubble, but within a larger society that often encourages, condones, or excuses violence. This has to stop.

Unfortunately, men will often only listen when other men speak up about this issue. While we as men don’t have all the answers, we definitely can have a lot of influence. We need to harness this power and use it for good, to promote gender equity, to denounce violence, and to challenge traditional notions of masculinity.

To borrow yet another phrase, if you are a man who cares about this problem, and you do have the ear of other men, tell them to listen to women. We need to create a space for women’s voices to be heard, so that young men respect women, will listen to women, and will see them as their equals. Only then will this epidemic of men’s violence against women begin to shift.

Narcissism and Gender Roles

In a recent meta-review of the scientific literature, one group of researchers published their findings on narcissism in men and women, and how gender roles might have an influence. What exactly did they find? Apparently, men are significantly more narcissist than women, as measured by the Narcissist Personality Inventory (NPI). The NPI is the most commonly used way to measure narcissism in psychology and is based upon a simple questionnaire. Furthermore, the NPI also measures what scientists call the three “facets” of narcissism: Exploitative/Entitlement (E/E), which is demanding behavior/arrogance; Leadership/Authority (L/A), the desire for power; and Grandiose/Exhibitionist (G/E), which describes superiority, self-absorption, and wanting to be the center of attention.

Which of these facets might be the driving factor behind increased narcissism in males? That turned out be to E/E, meaning men are more likely than woman to exploit others and feel specially entitled to privileges. In second place was L/A, meaning men also exhibit more assertiveness and motivation to lead. Bringing up the rear, was G/E. In fact, men and women were almost equally likely to endorse grandiosity/exhibitionism.

Another interesting finding they present is that there has been no narrowing of the gender gap in narcissism with recent generations. This counters the argument that recent generations are more narcissist than past ones, based on the theory that women have increased the gender gap in narcissism over time because of changing gender roles.

Speaking of gender roles, now it’s time for the so what part! What does the data mean? Well, the authors start by saying the data validates one model of social theory called the “Biosocial Construction Model”. Basically, this social theory model says “gender differences in personality should arise from gender role beliefs and expectations”, their examples being that men are more proactive and self-regulating, while women are more communal. The authors also theorize that differences in the NPI facet of entitlement might be due to the fact that the workforce places more men in leadership roles that have higher social status and greater resources, especially given that the majority of cultures they studied were patriarchal.

At the same time, increased narcissism and entitlement among men can also put them at a disadvantage sometimes. For example, they cite studies showing individuals that score high on the E/E section “tend to be antisocial and display counterproductive behaviors at work/school”. Of course, my summary here is but a tiny snapshot of what they found (it’s a very long paper), so I highly encourage you to read it (if possible, I think it’ll require institutional access)!

Last, there are always limitations to any study. For this one, the authors emphasize that while the average male is more narcissist than the average female, the within-group trait differences for men and women (man vs man, women vs women) are usually much larger. Furthermore, their analysis was limited to ages 8-55 and so the data does not truly represent the entirety of the human lifespan. Nonetheless, these authors bring up some very interesting points, ones that we should all think about from time to time as members of the human society.

A lack of confidence is a huge reason why most women undervalue themselves in salary negotiations. At the same time, a reluctance to ask for more money may also be based on a keen understanding of the social realities for women who do ask.

For instance, observers who watched videos of men and women in mock job interviews not only perceived the women who asked for more to be ‘less nice’ and 'more demanding,’ but also said they’d be significantly less willing to work with a female candidate who attempted to negotiate her salary than with one who did not. It’s worth noting that while the men in this study penalized female candidates who asked, women penalized both male and female candidates who attempted to negotiate.
—  Valerie Young, Ed.D., The Secret Thoughts of Successful Women
My issues with Sarkeesian's "Tropes vs. Women" videos against video games:
  • Confirmation bias
  • Cherry picking
  • Shows clips/scenes/characters out of context
  • Misrepresents/lies about storylines in games
  • Refuses to give female characters the credit they are due for their strengths and other positive features, diminishing women’s roles
  • questionable legality/ethics of fundraising
  • questionable legality/ethics of footage shown
  • lack of acknowledgement of violence against men
  • contradiction: gamer/not a gamer
  • labels game developers as misogynists
  • accuses gamers of being brainwashed

There are a lot of great responses on Youtube to these videos.  I don’t necessarily agree with or care for everything I’ve heard against the videos (It is NEVER OK to send threatening messages to someone, no matter how much you disagree with what they say), and I just wanted to gather my thoughts here.  I noticed that a lot of the things listed above are parallel to my issues with feminism in general.

“Just 30% of the world’s researchers are women. While a growing number of women are enrolling in university, many opt out at the highest levels required for a research career. But a closer look at the data reveals some surprising exceptions. For example, in Bolivia, women account for 63% researchers, compared to France with a rate of 26% or Ethiopia at 8%.

 

Women in Science, a new interactive tool, presents the latest available data for countries at all stages of development.” - Unesco Institute for Statistics

Women in the sciences report small but constant microaggressions from oblivious male colleagues. A former biology graduate student told me that a male postdoc in her lab said that her ponytail was “too flouncy for cancer research.” When she pressed him on what he meant, he smiled and said she didn’t belong. The paleoanthropology grad student mentioned that on a research trip, a male professor split up students by gender. “Women are good at sewing, and we want people with precise hands at this site,” he said. And a chemistry grad student recounted how after her organic chemistry class received their molecular model kits, her male professor warned the class that women would have to practice more, since men are better at 3-D reasoning. “From what I can tell, there are many people who mean well, but don’t understand the perspective of a [woman],” an electrical engineering graduate student told me. “[They] don’t know how their actions, although intended as jokes or a harmless comment, affect the recipients and bystanders.”