Replication is the immune system of science, identifying false discoveries by testing whether other scientists can repeat them. Without replication, we have no way of knowing which discoveries are genuine and which are caused by technical error, researcher bias, fraud, or the play of chance. And if we don’t know which results are reliable, how can we generate meaningful theories? Unfortunately, as we saw earlier, the process of replication—so intrinsic to the scientific method—is largely ignored or distorted in psychology.
This includes neuroscience…