Mary Jackson

(1921–2005) Mathematician and engineer

Mary Jackson was a human computer at Langley Research Center, as part of the West Area Computers. She then became the first black woman engineer at NASA at its founding in 1958. After 34 years at NASA, she asked for a demotion in order to serve as a Federal Equal Opportunity Specialist with NASA. She was also a Girl Scout leader for more than thirty years. She retired in 1985.

Number 182 in an ongoing series celebrating remarkable women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

MCU Winter Soldier’s Arm

So, it’s at three in the morning that, after seeing a gif, I begin having revelations/disturbing thoughts/deep contemplations about the bionics and biology of the Winter Soldier’s arm. And, of course, at three in the morning, that’s when I start assembling pictures and diagrams. 

Here’s a normal shoulder, and then the Winter Soldier’s. What gets me is that it’s not just a plug-in prosthesis that joins neatly up with his shoulder joint and the bone structures there. 

As seen here, all of these muscles: 

are what you need to actually move an arm and shoulder. With structures even as far down and centralized as the pecs, the muscles there bunch up in the shoulder region. As seen on the Winter Soldier, all of the places where his upper chest/pectoral, and shoulder muscles should be bunched up are (whether partially grafted with or entirely) metal. 

Here, (on my phone) I drew out how more natural muscle patterns would be going without the interruption of the prosthetic. And here’s what looks to be going on: 

At the seam of the prosthetic, we can see a glimpse of material that seems to extend down, following the basic lines of where musculature would need to be to support movement- which leads me to believe that at least in the front, that metal had to be extended (or at least extended by way of more flexible wiring to at least graft and connect to existing muscles and nerves) down through his entire pectoral muscles. Sure, his entire pec might not have to have been recreated/replaced by metal and wiring, but I’m getting the feeling that the lighter colored metallic structure at the seam continues farther down into his chest in order to connect to existing muscles and nerves. Depending on how far down they had to take things, they may or may not have had to anchor the pec and under arm metal structures to his ribcage. 

Now, onto the back. 

The scapula and other skeletal structures in the shoulder area are all pretty necessary for movement, and although Bucky only seemed to lose below the upper bicep after the fall, the scapula alone couldn’t support the weight and power of his new arm. So, I’m guessing that they left both the scapula and collarbone, but would have needed to reinforce both bone structures with metal (this includes shoulder joint and socket, if they were still intact enough); and all of that, they’d need to anchor to his spine/rib cage to keep the weight balanced and make sure the muscles and cartilage didn’t rip and tear with the weight of the arm during standing and fighting and such. 

As for what they’d do about the muscles needed for arm movement in the back, I don’t have a clue- for weight and efficiency’s sake, they probably would have done their best to preserve and connect existing nerves and musculature on his back to the arm, after reinforcing bone structures. Given that the muscles in the back and shoulder connect to the spine and neck, that would be a whole lot of metal to try and anchor down if they replaced everything back there with straight up metal (as opposed to connecting wiring and such to the muscles already there). 

So, whether or not this taught anyone new, I feel it’s certainly an interesting line of thinking, to consider just how far and how deep the socket, reinforcement, and overall prosthetic goes into the musculoskeletal structures of his chest, torso, and back. As for the wiring required to get the level of responsiveness and finesse that his arm has, I can’t begin to imagine how they had to integrate their technology into his nervous system- that might be a post for another day, and possibly by someone who has more than a basic understanding of anatomy (that’s what degrees are for!). Are there any more lessons to this? Well, I’m a biology geek and a Marvel geek, for one, and once more, we can reinforce that Hydra is fucking terrifying and horrible organization- albeit, one with surgeons that had remarkably, ridiculously, spectacularly advanced technology and understandings of bionics even in the 40s. 

Thinking back, Windows XP is probably one of the most remarkable technological feats in the history of computing just by the intuitive way it brought people into the PC world.

I mean, no doubt that it stood on the shoulders of giants, but I still find it incredible how versatile and flexible it was. You would see it at work and school and then you’d come home and it’d be the same thing at home, only it wasn’t because you’d have it setup just the way you’d like it. And because it blurred a lot of lines you found that you had more business options from home but more comfort and familiarity at work. Installing new software was made easier and encouraged. You’d fill your hard drive with music and videos (most likely your Linkin Park, System of a Down, Maroon 5 and Family Guy clips from tumblr early 2000s and P!atD, Paramore, Fall Out Boy, MCR and [adult swim] clips a little later on. All of which you got from P2P software) and it was probably the first real time you made good use of that broadband connection.

XP saw the birth of Firefox, Chrome and YouTube, the rise and fall of MySpace and then Facebook stealing its thunder. Hotmail, MSN Messenger and Yahoo! music. It was supported for years because it was so well made that it became ubiquitous and the first necessary step to making computers and programs. Even the newest products still make allowances for it, even though it’s been discontinued. The world still uses XP in many places even into 2017 and despite the fact that Microsoft have released (and in some cases also discontinued!) 4 more versions of Windows, XP still persists.

Windows XP is a marvel and I hope it gets properly remembered for giving the world easy access to computers far more than its predecessors.

Also its name is an obnoxious emoticon.


With 2016 winding down, I thought I would look ahead to 2017. Here are four books from the first half of next year that I’m eager to get my hands on. Are any of these on your TBR pile? What ones do you think should be on mine? Let us know!

Exo (Exo #1) by Fonda Lee
Release date: 31 January 2017

It’s been a century of peace since Earth became a colony of an alien race with far reaches into the galaxy. Some die-hard extremists still oppose alien rule on Earth, but Donovan Reyes isn’t one of them. His dad holds the prestigious position of Prime Liaison in the collaborationist government, and Donovan’s high social standing along with his exocel (a remarkable alien technology fused to his body) guarantee him a bright future in the security forces. That is, until a routine patrol goes awry and Donovan’s abducted by the human revolutionary group Sapience, determined to end alien control.

When Sapience realizes whose son Donovan is, they think they’ve found the ultimate bargaining chip . But the Prime Liaison doesn’t negotiate with terrorists, not even for his own son. Left in the hands of terrorists who have more uses for him dead than alive, the fate of Earth rests on Donovan’s survival. Because if Sapience kills him, it could spark another intergalactic war. And Earth didn’t win the last one …

The Hate U Give by A.C. Thomas
Balzer + Bray/Harper Collins
Release date: 28 February 2017

Inspired by the Black Lives Matter movement, Angie Thomas’s searing debut about an ordinary girl in extraordinary circumstances addresses issues of racism and police violence with intelligence, heart, and unflinching honesty.Sixteen-year-old Starr Carter moves between two worlds: the poor neighborhood where she lives and the fancy suburban prep school she attends. The uneasy balance between these worlds is shattered when Starr witnesses the fatal shooting of her childhood best friend Khalil at the hands of a police officer. Khalil was unarmed.

Soon afterward, his death is a national headline. Some are calling him a thug, maybe even a drug dealer and a gangbanger. Protesters are taking to the streets in Khalil’s name. Some cops and the local drug lord try to intimidate Starr and her family. What everyone wants to know is: what really went down that night? And the only person alive who can answer that is Starr.

But what Starr does—or does not—say could upend her community. It could also endanger her life.

The Inexplicable Logic of My Life by Benjamin Alire Sáenz
Clarion Books
Release date: 7 March 2017

From the multi-award-winning author of Aristotle and Dante Discover the Secrets of the Universe comes a gorgeous new story about love, identity, and families lost and found.

Sal used to know his place with his adoptive gay father, their loving Mexican-American family, and his best friend, Samantha. But it’s senior year, and suddenly Sal is throwing punches, questioning everything, and realizing he no longer knows himself. If Sal’s not who he thought he was, who is he? This humor-infused, warmly humane look at universal questions of belonging is a triumph.

Want by Cindy Pon
Simon Pulse
Release date: 13 June 2017

Jason Zhou survives in a divided society where the elite use their wealth to buy longer lives. The rich wear special suits, protecting them from the pollution and viruses that plague the city, while those without suffer illness and early deaths. Frustrated by his city’s corruption and still grieving the loss of his mother who died as a result of it, Zhou is determined to change things, no matter the cost.

With the help of his friends, Zhou infiltrates the lives of the wealthy in hopes of destroying the international Jin Corporation from within. Jin Corp not only manufactures the special suits the rich rely on, but they may also be manufacturing the pollution that makes them necessary.

Yet the deeper Zhou delves into this new world of excess and wealth, the more muddled his plans become. And against his better judgment, Zhou finds himself falling for Daiyu, the daughter of Jin Corp’s CEO. Can Zhou save his city without compromising who he is, or destroying his own heart?

Sally Ride

(1951–2012) Physicist and astronaut

Sally Ride earned her PhD in physics with her thesis on X-rays in astrophysics. She was the third woman in space and the first American woman in space. As of 2016, she remains the youngest American astronaut to complete a mission to space. She is also the first known member of the LGBTQ community to travel into space.

Number 146 in an ongoing series celebrating remarkable women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

The impact of video relay services, or VRS, has been titanic for businesses owned and operated by the deaf. VRS has grown into a half-billion-dollar-a-year industry as more and more deaf Americans gain access to speedy mobile data and sophisticated phones. It’s changed forever not only the way that Mozzeria, a pizzeria in San Francisco, California, and other deaf-run restaurants do business, but how the deaf navigate a world made for the hearing. In fact, VRS ranks among the biggest-ever leaps in deaf communication with the hearing. And it’s all free, thanks to you.

VIDEO: A Remarkable Technology Helps a Deaf-Run Pizzeria Thrive


When the Med Bay door slid open, Dr. Chakwas was busying herself with putting her supplies away with utmost organization and tidiness. She glanced up in Kaidan’s direction as he approached, and an affable smile crept across her lips. She straightened to give him her full attention.

“Hello, Major. What can I do for you?”

“I was told that Shepard was in here.” Kaidan responded, his gaze quickly darting around the room.

“She’s gone to rest in her cabin for now. No need to worry, just a few scratches and a headache. She’ll be back to work in a few hours, I presume.” She shook her head and began cleaning up her work station once more.

“Alright,” he responded as he idly rubbed the back of his neck, wondering if he should check up on Shepard or start working on reports while she rested. He wanted to see for himself that she was well, but he didn’t want to disturb her or make her uncomfortable. He wasn’t entirely sure where the line was now that they were serving together again on the Normandy. It was as he lingered there, head dipped in thought that he noticed something on the floor. A folded note had fallen on the opposite side of the examination table from where Dr. Chakwas was dutifully packing things away.

The Major stepped forward and picked it up, flipping it over in his fingers. He saw that the paper was worn and wrinkled, torn on some of the edges where it had been folded and unfolded several times. It struck him as strange to find such a thing in a galaxy filled with remarkable technology, but he held it in his palm, outstretched towards the doctor. “Is this yours?”

Keep reading

Thanjavur Santhanakrishna Kanaka

(born 1932) Neurosurgeon

T. S. Kanaka was Asia’s first female neurosurgeon. She is the first neurosurgeon in India to perform chronic electrode implants in the brain—having performed deep brain stimulation as early as in 1975. Kanaka served in the Indian Army as a commissioned officer, as professor at multiple medical colleges, and she set a world record for greatest number of blood donations (which has since been broken). She retired in 1990, but continues to act as a surgical consultant.

Number 220 in an ongoing series celebrating remarkable women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

I Never Forgot You *Bucky Barnes x Reader* (7/?)

Originally posted by blackinjustice

Summary: With the wedding just a few months away, the panic of it all rises up, the only way Bucky can get through it is by taking down HYDRA bases to pass the time; as yourself plans everything to the nine. Bucky remembering everything everyday, he soon recalls a time in the Forties where you were to have a child, you remember not ever carrying a child. With Technology and HYDRA information, its time to hunt down your child and figure out what happened to them, only darkness is unfolded because it wasn’t just Bucky who under went HYDRA torture methods. 
Warnings: Swearing, violence & Probably a lot more. Implied smut later (not full on, I am not comfortable writing that)
Admins Note: I had someone ask for a part 4 with the wedding but I’ve been reeling over the second part to the imagine I did (Part one) (Part two) where you are pregnant with Buck’s child whilst he is away. 

SO this part involves a NEW character called: Narcisa Malone. She basically owns the organisation called W.A.R.S (Warners. Association. Research of Science), they basically deal with genetic splicing, and mutations like the Maximoff twins. They are under the thumb of HYDRA being forced to work for them, in creating the perfect soldiers. Naricasa looked after James as he grew up, so this is about her finding out that HYDRA allowed him to be captured.

I Never Forgot You Part One
I Never Forgot You Part Two
I Never Forgot You Part Three  
I Never Forgot You Part Four
I Never Forgot You Part Five
I Never Forgot You Part Six 

Avengers Base (Narcisa P.O.V)

“Doctor Malone?” A shocked soft voice sounded from down the hall, Narcisa glanced to her left to see Doctor Bruce Banner walking towards her, glasses upon his face and lab coat covering his usual attire. He had a small smile set upon his youngish face, he looked a little stressed due to the grey hairs lingering upon his dark locks, understandable for what happened to him and what continues to do so. She gracefully smiled, taking his hand in her soft feminine one, her three team members stood behind with smiles upon their own faces also.

Doctor Banner, lovely to see you again” Narcisa states formerly “these are my team members; Doctor Amber Cameron, Doctor Sam Williams and Doctor Jamie Davis… although since working for me has become a tech guru, remarkable with technology” Bruce nods at each of them, turning back to her with a small frown but smile still set on his face.

Not that I don’t love seeing you but what are you doing here? At the Avengers Base?” he asked, she chuckled lightly at him, smoothing her hair slightly.
“Well as you know I set up W.A.R.S” he nodded at her “part of that organisation is working for the government, as much as I love you, Banner, I have to make sure the correct work is going on here; since what happened with Ultron, Tony is not in their good books” she explained.

 He looked at her in silence for a moment before nodding, agreeing that seemed reasonable “I was at the meeting, they were planning on sending others but it had been a while since we had talked, I volunteered myself to look around” he gestured for the small group to follow. 

So, how’s the research coming along? Last I saw of you, you had a Noble Peace Prize and were going to cure all illnesses, what happened?” he asked entering the lab he works in alongside Tony Stark, I chanced a glance at my team who were waiting for me to answer his questions.

It takes time curing the world, Bruce” she smiles slightly “Saving the world is completely different to curing it, it takes a lot of people and a lot of money, I am surprised we are even getting this far” he nods in respect and shows a few of the things they are working, she didn’t really care for it, she had one reason to be here and it wasn’t to look at safety precautions for the HULK. 

Narcisa?” Tony asked when entering the room “what the hell are you doing here? Not that I don’t love looking at you” he continued, she chuckled, he hasn’t changed and he looks exactly like his father; Howard Stark. 

I am here to make sure you and the others aren’t creating death robots” he nods with a slight chuckle “anything to proclaim? Anything that shouldn’t be here but is?” she asked, crossing her arms over her chest, he shrugged and shook his head. 

“Doctor Malone” Narcisa froze in her spot and turned her head to see Agent Blok, he grinned as he walked forwards, she gave him a deep glare but let out a sigh; having someone who could possibly kill the Avengers was a good thing “the organisation told me you left, they sent me to make sure you returned safely” he tells her, eyeing Bruce and Tony, they looked at him with raised eyebrows “Agent Blok” he extended his hand “pleasure to meet such famous faces as yourselves, Stark and Banner” they shake his head back with smiles. 

That’s extremely kind of them to send you” Narcisa said through her teeth at him, he smiled back, black jacket unzipped to show a black tee and the usual get-up that should show warning signs of ‘This Man Is With HYDRA’ but they didn’t even blink twice at him “we are just discussing their work, since I was sent to look over everything, considering everything that happened” he nodded once.

(Readers - Normal P.O.V)

You walked through the halls of the Avengers Base with Steve and Bucky, looking for Tony and Bruce, you all needed to discuss the progression of James being here and how to move forward with his life here. Bucky held your hand as you slowly walked alongside the two super-soldiers, Steve has had the most contact with James, Bucky tries to stay away as much as he can and everyone still distrusted you to be near him; they think you would explode and say something to James, so it’s best for you to stay away till they think he can handle any news. 

You entered the lab, a small group of what looked like Scientist stood talking to Bruce and Tony; women dressed in a tailored blazer and pants and short brown hair laughed at something Tony had said. A man stood beside her, tall, taller than Bucky around the same height as Thor, a white beard and hair, very brute looking with his build. 

Bucky stopped in his tracks, his eyes widen at the sight of the man stood next to the unfamiliar women, he knew this man instantly; Agent Blok. Had HYDRA found him? Did they send Blok to collect him?

“Steve, Bucky, (Y/N)” Bruce called you over, you pulled Bucky towards, he was a little nervous as he stared right at Agent Blok who did so much as glance at Bucky. Agent Blok was the only one to never fear the Winter Soldier, he didn’t care about Bucky, he just got his work done; he remembered Blok telling him that he wasn’t scared, that his stare never made him fear him, only pity him because of how much he lacks in emotion. 

This is Doctor Narcisa Malone, probably the best Scientist ever, she works with DNA and stuff, trying to solve terminal illnesses” you raised your eyebrows and shake her hand, Narcisa tilted her head and smiled back, looking at you as though she had seen something very familiar about you. She shakes Steve hand with a smile, doing the same to Bucky, really looking at him as Bucky stared at Agent Blok. 

“This is Agent-” Narcisa was cut off by Bucky, he muttered the name and everyone looked at him, Steve looked between the two men as Agent Blok looked back at Bucky for the longest time since he entered.

“Good to see you again, Soldier,” Blok said stiffly, it clicked as everyone realised where Bucky could have possibly seen Agent Blok before, HYDRA! 
I was sort of his handler” Agent Blok explained, everyone was silent as they looked at each other, not really knowing what this may mean. 

“Wait” Tony snapped before anyone can talk “you are working for HYDRA? Narcisa Malone, the strongest, proudest and brilliant women ever, is working for HYDRA?” he asked slightly confused on how this could happen to her. 

You think I like working for a terrorist organisation?” she asked flatly “My whole team have families that are being watched by HYDRA assassins, waiting till I step out of line and they order the kill, okay? I have lives to keep safe but thanks for the compliment” Narcisa smiles towards the end.

“Not very strong if you can’t keep HYDRA at bay” (Y/N) admits looking at Narcisa, holding Bucky’s hand tighter.

We work with what we have” Narcisa smiles sarcastically back “plus, I am not keeping myself safe by working alongside HYDRA, I am keeping my son safe as long as I work and keep working till I have finished… he will always be safe and not taken from me” you remain silent at the women before you, she is willingly working for HYDRA to keep her own son safe? That’s kind of beautiful. 

“Narcisa, we can help you,” Steve tells her, she raises her eyebrows and nods slightly “all you have to do is tell us what you know, we can stop them, keep everyone safe,” he tells her firmly believing his own words.

“I really wish I could believe those words out of your mouth” Narcisa tells him “I’ve always hated superhero’s, especially ones with uncreative names, such as yourself” She tells him honestly, he snaps his mouth shut “actually, right now you are slightly my enemy, you have taken something that belongs to me!” she tells them, meeting Tony’s eyes.

James Malone is not HYDRA property but Warners Association Research of Science property” Tony sighs, he had read the name ‘Malone’ beside James’s name but didn’t think anything of it, figuring they gave him the last name so he wouldn’t know he was related to Bucky at all “right, you and Barnes here would know him as James Barnes, your biological son. You took him when he isn’t entirely yours to take” You frown at the women, Bucky does too, letting go of your hand and looking at Steve plus Tony. 

He’s our son, you can’t just take him because he belongs to you or whatever, we are his parents” You plead to her, your voice was meant to be strong and commanding but it was far from that.

You birthed him, that’s all you done” Narcisa tells you “I saved him, raised him as my own and kept him safe for all these years, you don’t have any right other than you brought him in this world, sorry” Narcisa shrugs, you blinked back the angry tears, everyone was silent as you just glared at Narcisa 

Tony, you know as well as anyone here that I have permission to take my son back,  he does not pose threat to you or anyone here; allow me to take him home” Tony sighed, he knew the position he was in, he was under law to give back James but this was his friends child. 

“You can’t do this” Bucky chimed, once Tony sighed and muttered an apology to you and Bucky, telling Steve to go and get James ready to leave with Narcisa. 

“In fact she can” Agent Blok tells him “HYDRA do not own James, he’s his own person, has and always will be” Bucky frowned at him, eyes full of fire “When he was born, yes he was with HYDRA, like myself and then Narcisa got him and traded his freedom for her work” Agent Blok explained, Bucky looked at Narcisa, he wanted to hate this woman but she did something he could only dream for. 

She has been risking her life, her work for his son, he couldn’t help but admire the women before him and get a sense of familiarity from her but he shrugged it off due to the stress of the moment.

“He’s safer here away from HYDRA” You mutter, trying to plead Tony into stopping this, Narcisa rolled her eyes gently; she knew that maybe being more empathetic for you would be right but James would always be safe with her “if he is not working for HYDRA why was he there? Waiting for the Avengers?” you asked in a frantic.

“I had no idea they told him to stay behind” Narcisa sighed “he volunteered to look after Doctor Aristov for me, my work is important and he knows it, they stupidly told him that the Winter Soldier would be there. If he hadn’t been told they would be in a safe house right now” Narcisa sighed “he’s been trying to prove himself, to prove he is better than the original, trust me if it was my way he would be nowhere near myself or anyone for that matter” Narcisa sighed, you couldn’t help but see her dilemma, you felt sympathy despite what is happening; you were so close to him and now again… he was being taken away. 

“He’s not leaving here” Bucky speaks firmly, everyone looks at him, he’s looking between; Narcisa, Tony and Blok, ready to prove his point if any step forward to stop him. 
“We’re leaving here with my son” Narcisa tells him “you have no right to demand he stays here, no right at all, you can’t just show up and take someone because you found out through chance he is your son” he frowned looking at her, you also do too, the anger boiling up inside of you “he’s smart, he loves to learn and he’s the sweetest person I have ever met, he looks out for his friends and he would kill for them. He’s never raised a gun and shot someone, he hates killing people, he has emotional problems but everyone does” it was silent between everyone “he hates carrots but loves other orange coloured foods, he actually resents himself for not liking carrots, he says orange food is sunshine food; he has been saying that since he was seven” she let out a long sigh “now tell me, what do you see when you look at James? You see yourself? You are wrong, he is not like you, he’s better than you!”. 

Steve enters with James, Natasha and Sam, his face lightens when he see’s Narcisa and pulls himself from Steve’s grip to Narcisa; passing you but he stops and looks between everyone.
“What’s going on?” he asked, you had one chance to tell him, to tell him the truth and not care for the consequences. 

(Part 7!!! Part 8 is going to involve a small fight, plus James may be told who his parents are, if you have anything that YOU want to happen in this then please let me know. Also Daisy Johnson has a cameo in the next part, Reader gets her and it’s really epic. Daisy from Agents of SHIELD is in this because someone suggested she has romantic connections with James, so that may happen, or it may just feature her in this no idea yet - Rosalee)

Florence Violet McKenzie

(1890–1982) Electrical engineer

Florence Violet McKenzie was the first female electrical engineer in Australia. Her focus was wireless radio and she was the first Australian woman to have an amateur radio operator’s license. She was a lifelong advocate for women’s technical education and founded the Women’s Emergency Signalling Corps in 1939 so women volunteers could replace men in civilian communications when they joined the armed forces during World War II.

Number 183 in an ongoing series celebrating remarkable women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

Elsie Maud Wakefield

(1886–1972) Mycologist and plant pathologist

Elsie Wakefield earned a first-class degree in botany from Somerville College, Oxford. Her study of fungi included British and tropical species. In 1929 she was elected president of the British Mycological Society. She published many papers and two popular field guides to large fungi. She was awarded the OBE for her work.

Number 217 in an ongoing series celebrating remarkable women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.


(c.360-415) Astronomer and mathematician

Hypatia was one of the first women to study mathematics and astronomy. She rose to become the head of the Neo-Platonic school in Alexandria. She was murdered by Christian zealots who essentially objected to her voicing opinions on a conflict between church and state. Nothing from her extensive body of written work is known to survive. She is the inventor of the hydrometer, still used today as a device to measure specific gravity in liquids.

This is number 30 in an ongoing series celebrating remarkable women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

Aglaonice of Thessaly    Ἀγλαονίκη

(circa 200 BCE) Astronomer

Aglaonice (or Aganice) of Thessaly is mentioned by Plutarch as one of the first woman astronomers in ancient Greece. She was regarded by some as a sorceress for her ability to make the Moon disappear from the sky, which has been taken to mean she was able to predict the time and place in the sky a lunar eclipse would occur. One Greek proverb translates, in part: As the moon obeys Aglaonice, idiomatically implying that something is certain. A crater on Venus is named Aglaonice in her honor.

Number 246 in an ongoing series celebrating remarkable women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

Dana Scully

(born 1964) Physician and FBI Special Agent

Dana Scully earned a BA in physics from the University of Maryland, and went on to earn a medical degree at Stanford University. While there she was recruited by the FBI as a forensics pathologist and criminal investigator. Her public success with the bureau led to a significant increase in the number of young women choosing careers in the STEM fields—a phenomenon known in the academic arena as the Scully Effect.

Number 231 in an ongoing series celebrating remarkable women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. 

April Fool. Dana Scully may be a fictional character from the television program The X-Files, but the Scully Effect is a real phenomenon. The character demonstrably inspired many young women to pursue careers in science, medicine, and law enforcement.

Jackie Yi-Ru Ying

(born 1966) Nanotechnologist

Jackie Yi-Ru Ying is executive director of the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology in Singapore. She was previously professor of Chemical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the youngest person ever to have earned the distinction of full professor at that institution.

Number 168 in an ongoing series celebrating remarkable women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

Kamala Sohonie

(1912–1998) Biochemist

Kamala Sohonie was the first Indian woman to get a PhD in a scientific discipline. She struggled repeatedly against gender-based discrimination to earn her degrees, finally earning her PhD from Cambridge University in the U.K. She returned to India in 1939 and was appointed as Professor and Head of Biochemistry department at Lady Hardinge Medical College in New Delhi.

Number 245 in an ongoing series celebrating remarkable women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

Fanny Bullock Workman

(1859–1925) Geographer and cartographer

Fanny Bullock Workman was a geographer, cartographer, travel writer, and one of the very first female professional mountaineers. She set several women’s altitude records, co-wrote eight travel books, and was a champion of women’s rights and women’s suffrage. The onset of the first World War led to her retirement as an explorer, and she began a series of popular lectures—becoming one of the first female members of the Royal Geographical Society.

Number 232 in an ongoing series celebrating remarkable women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

Angela Merkel

(born 1954) Chemist and Chancellor of Germany

Angela Merkel earned her doctoral degree in physical chemistry with her thesis on quantum chemistry. She performed research at the German Academy of Sciences from 1978 to 1990, at which time she engaged in the democracy movement following the fall of the Berlin wall. She rose within her party and in government, eventually rising to leader of the German government in 2005.

Number 219 in an ongoing series celebrating remarkable women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

Hayat Sindi  حياة سندي

(born 1967) Biochemist and medical researcher

Hayat bint Sulaiman bin Hassan Sindi earned her doctoral degree in biochemistry from Cambridge University in the United Kingdom, becoming the first woman from any Arab state to earn that degree at any institution. She is currently a visiting scholar at Harvard University in the United States, but she returns to Saudi Arabia often, where she serves as one of the first women ever appointed to Majlis Ash-Shura, the Saudi Consultative Assembly.

Number 227 in an ongoing series celebrating remarkable women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.