relocation camp

Writing Research - World War Two

World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war. It is generally considered to have lasted from 1939 to 1945, although some conflicts in Asia that are commonly viewed as becoming part of the world war had begun earlier than 1939. It involved the vast majority of the world’s nations —including all of the great powers —eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis.

It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million people, from more than 30 different countries. In a state of “total war”, the major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the first use of nuclear weapons in combat, it resulted in an estimated 50 million to 85 million fatalities. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history. [1]

Names

  • Social Security - Top Names of the 1940s
  • British Baby Names - Top 100 Names in England and Wales in 1944
  • Essential Baby - Top 100 Australian Baby Names in 1940
  • Baby Med - Top German Baby Names in 1940s
  • About.com - Japanese Baby Names for 1915 - 2000
  • Popular Japanese Names in 1945 - 1949 (In Japanese - Use Google Translator)

Society & Life

  • Wikipedia - Conscription in the United States: World War II
  • History.com - United States Imposes the Draft
  • The National WWII Museum - The Draft and WWII
  • Swarthmore College - Military Classifications For Draftees
  • The Art of Manliness - World War II Fitness Test
  • World War Two Gyrene - Recruit Training in World War II
  • The New York Times - The Old Army, It Turns Out, Was the Fitter One
  • National Park Service - The War Relocation Camp of World War II
  • History.com - The U.S. Home Front During World War II
  • History Learning Site - Britain’s Home Front in World War Two
  • Wikipedia - Japan’s Home Front During World War II 
  • Wikipedia - Germany’s Home Front During World War II
  • Canadian War Museum - Life on the Homefront
  • Canadian War Museum - Women and the War on the Home Front
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - How was it that Sweden managed to stay neutral during WW2?
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - What was going on in Ireland during World War II?
  • Canadian War Museum - Canada and the Second World War
  • Mount Allison University - Canada’s Role in WWII
  • Wessels Living history Farm - The Home Front in Rural America During World War II
  • Living Family History - Living in the 1940s (Australia)
  • BBC - WW2 People’s War: My Memories of My Childhood in South London
  • BBC - WW2 People’s War: Growing Up in London 1939-45
  • Time Witness - Memories Project: Stories from the 1940’s
  • BBC - The Blitz
  • History.com - Worst air raid on London
  • EyeWitness to History - The London Blitz, 1940
  • LIFE Magazine - World War II: London in Color (Photos)
  • Local Histories - Life in Britain in The Second World War
  • Telegraph - WW2: Former Evacuees Look Back
  • British Council - A 1940s Childhood in Wartime
  • The Wartime Memories Project - Evacuees
  • My Learning - Children’s Experience during WWII
  • Imperial Wartime Museum - Children During the Second World War
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - It’s 1940, a lovely day in England and I want to write to my German cousin. Was that possible? What was international communication between the civilian populace of warring WWII powers like?
  • The New Yorker - The New Yorker in the Forties
  • The Atlantic - World War II: The Battle of Britain
  • The Guardian - Children of the Wartime Evacuation
  • NY Daily News - 1940 New York census records are now searchable by name
  • New York Historical Society - WWII & NYC
  • About.com - World War II In Brooklyn: Places to Visit
  • New York Historical Society - New York during WWII (Photos)
  • Wikipedia - History of New York City, 1946-77
  • Business Insider - Take A Tour Of Manhattan In The 1940s (Photos)
  • Madison Magazine - Ida’s Wyman’s Photography Documents Life in the 1940s and ‘50s
  • Growing up in Inwood, New York City in the 1940’s and 1950’s
  • Reminisce Magazine - Brooklyn Stoop Served as Sisters’ Stage
  • NY Times - Working-Class New York Life and Labor Since World War II
  • Wessels Living History Farm - Rural Life in the 1940s
  • Historic Color Photos of U.S. Life in the 1940s (Photos)
  • Wessels Living History Farm - WWII Causes a Revolution in Farming
  • Partners in Winning the War: American Women in World War II
  • World War II: Women and the War
  • Building Bombs & Planes
  • Women in World War Two
  • Wikipedia - Canadian Women in the Second World War
  • Canadian War Museum - The Canadian Women’s Army Corps, 1941 - 1946
  • About.com - Canadian Women in World War II
  • Veterans Affairs Canada - The Second World War: Canadian War Brides
  • Global News - Looking back at the role women from western Canada played in World War II
  • Canadian Red Cross - History of Women in the Red Cross
  • Women Under Fire in World War Two
  • How did women fulfill their romantic/sexual needs during WWI/II?
  • Women at War
  • Life During World War II
  • Everyday Life During World War II
  • World War 2 - Growing Up in Wartime
  • Wartime Homes
  • World War 2 - Blackout Time
  • What was it like for children?
  • The Huffington Post - Memories Of 1940s Childhood
  • The Life of a Teenage Before and After World War II (PDF)
  • School and War Work
  • I’m a 13-15 year old in 1939 USA. What is youth culture like during this time?
  • A Black Nurse, a German Soldier and an Unlikely WWII Romance
  • What was it like to be in the Forces?
  • World War II - A Soldier’s Daily Life
  • My Army Service in World War II
  • WWII: A Soldier’s View
  • Loose Lips Sink Ships
  • Eye Witness To World War Two
  • World War II First Person Accounts, Letters Home, Diaries, & Journals
  • Pictures of African Americans During World War II (Photos)
  • Daily Life of the Average African American in the 1940’s
  • Veterans Affairs Canada - Second World War: Black Canadians In Uniform
  • The Memory Project - Black Canadian Veterans of the Second World War
  • University of Washington - Japanese Canadians During World War II
  • Vancouver Public Library - Chinese-Canadians in World War II (1939-1945)
  • Canada at War - Video & Footage: World War II
  • Canadian War Museum - Canadian Newspapers and the Second World War
  • Veterans Affairs Canada - Second World War: Diaries, Letters, And Stories
  • Library and Archives Canada - Canada and the First World War: War Diaries
  • Veterans Affairs Canada - Second World War: My Grandmother’s Wartime Diary
  • The Canadian Letters and Images Project - WWII
  • McGill University Library Digital Collections - Canadian War Posters Collection
  • World War II Military (Photos)
  • World War II Records
  • World War 2: A Day in the Life of a German Soldier
  • The Life During World War II
  • Nazi Germany
  • The Role of Women in Nazi Germany
  • Diary of Second World War German Teenager
  • Germany During World War II: A Child’s Experience (PDF)
  • Reminiscences of a German World War II Veteran
  • What kind of physical training would a German soldier in WWII have to do?
  • Jewish Life in Europe Before the Holocaust
  • The National WWII Museum - WWII and Holocaust Bibliography
  • Blacks During the Holocaust
  • Conditions for Polish Jews During WWII
  • Understanding the Treatment of Jews during World War II
  • There’s a lot of close-to-combat photographs from WWII, but I don’t often hear much about the photographers. Were WWII war photographers armed? Were they subject to neutrality/immunity/respect? Were they deployed with soldiers as part of the army?
  • World War II Weapons
  • List of World War II Weapons
  • Canada at War - WWII: Weapons & Arms
  • Small Arms Pt. II - The World War Two Era
  • Technology During World War II
  • WWII Military Ranks
  • WWII Japanese Soldier Diary
  • World War II Japanese Military Training
  • Canadian War Museum - The Second World War: Information, Propaganda, Censorship and the Newspapers
  • When was the last shot of World War 2 fired?
  • Post-War American Life: Culture of the late 1940s & 1950s
  • Library of Congress - Postwar United States, 1945 - 1968
  • American History: Life in the US After World War Two
  • Student Pulse - America in the Post War Period
  • PBS - Women and Work After World War II
  • PBS - New York After WWII
  • BBC - Life in Britain after WW2 (Video)
  • The Atlantic - World War II: After the War
  • Digital History - Overview of the Post-War Era
  • Mount Holyoke College - Background of Post-WWII German History
  • Youtube - Germany After WW2 | A Defeated People | Documentary on Germany in the Immediate Aftermath of WW2 (Video)
  • Der Spiegel Magazine - Out of the Ashes: A New Look at German’s Postwar Reconstruction

Commerce

  • The Cost of Living in 1940
  • Prices and Wages in 1930 - 1939
  • The People History - Food, Groceries and Toiletries in the 1930s: Prices
  • The People History - Clothes in the 1930s: Prices
  • Library at University of Missouri - 1940-1949 Prices and Wages
  • The People History - Food, Groceries and Toiletries in the 1940s Prices
  • The People History - Clothes in the 1940s Prices
  • Datafiles of Historical Prices and Wages
  • Curbed NY - What Would $50 In 1940 Rent A New Yorker Today?

Entertainment & Food

  • What did people eat in the Second World War?
  • Why was food rationed?
  • Rationing
  • World Ward II - Food and Shopping
  • Food on the Front Home
  • Wartime Recipes
  • What Did Children Eat During World War 2? (PDF)
  • World War Two Recipes
  • History Cookbook - World War 2 Recipes
  • The 1940’s Experiment: 100+ Wartime Recipes
  • Retro-Housewife: In the 1940s Kitchen: 1940s Recipes
  • A 1940s Menu: Food in the 1940s
  • Food Timeline: 1936 to 1940
  • Vintage Food Advertisement of the 1940s
  • World War II: Rest and Relaxation (Photos)
  • Chocolate! The Wars Secret Weapon - America in WWII Magazine
  • Chocolate - Energizing Soldiers 
  • U.S. Coffee Rationing
  • The American Scholar: Rum and Coca-Cola
  • Wartime Canada - Food on the Home Front during the Second World War
  • Alberta Online Encyclopedia - World War II: Homefront in Alberta: Rationing
  • Wartime Canada - Recipe Ideas from BC Electric
  • Pop Culture Goes to War in the 1940s
  • WWII Guide: Wartime Hollywood
  • Rationing and Scrap Drives in Rural America
  • Baseball and World War II
  • Baseball Goes To War: The National Pastime in World War II
  • Entertainment in Britain During WWII 
  • Entertainment Industry During World War II
  • World War II on the Radio
  • Wartime Entertainment WWII
  • Wartime Entertainment
  • Canadian War Museum - Art and War: Australia, Britain and Canada in the Second World War
  • The Forties and the Music of World War II
  • World War II Songs
  • Music 1940 - 1949
  • List of Billboard Number-One Singles of the 1940s
  • American Music During World War II
  • Role of Music in World War II
  • Entertainment in 1940 - 1949
  • Food Rations in the Japanese Forces
  • Makeshift Cooking, German Army, WW2
  • Radio in Nazi Germany
  • Newspapers in Nazi Germany
  • Films in Nazi Germany
  • Art in Nazi Germany

Hygiene, Health & Medicine

  • Medicine and World War II
  • Social Security - Life Expectancy from 1930s+
  • WWII Disease Table
  • History of WWII Medicine
  • The Use of Atabrine to Fight Malaria During World War II
  • The Use of Plasma During World War II
  • The Use of Morphine as a Pain Killer During World War II
  • Nursing and Medicine During World War II
  • The Army Nurse Corps in World War II
  • Equipment of a WWII Combat Medic
  • Personal Accounts of WWII Medics
  • WWII African American Combat Medics
  • Penicillin: Medicine’s Wartime Wonder Drug
  • Medicine in Germany, 1918 - 1945
  • World War II Exposures 
  • Controlling Disease during World War II, 1939 - 1944
  • Health on the Home Front - Health Care and World War II
  • WAR & Military Mental Health
  • Mentally Ill and Jewish in World War II
  • U.S. Veterans Affairs Lobotomized Soldiers After World War II
  • Lobotomy For World War II Veterans: Psychiatric Care by U.S. Government

Fashion

  • 1930-45 in Fashion
  • Clothing, 1930-45
  • Rationing Fashion in the United States
  • Fashion in the 1940s
  • 1940s Make-Up Guide
  • 1940’s Beauty Secrets
  • 1940s Fashion: The Decade Captured in 40 Incredible Pictures (Photos)
  • 1940s Rationing - Utility Clothing Fashion and Costume History
  • Women’s Clothing in 1940s
  • Fashion in 1940 - 1949
  • Fashion in the 1940s: Clothing Styles, Trends, Pictures & History
  • Fashion in the 1940s - Prices & Examples
  • What did they wear? Gas masks for all
  • What is Utility Wear?
  • The Front Line of British WWII Fashion
  • World War II and Fashion: The Birth of the New Look (PDF)
  • The impact of World War II on women’s fashion in the United States and Britain (PDF)
  • The History of Fashion WWI to WWII
  • Women’s Shoes in 1940s
  • Authentic WWII Era Hairstyle & How To
  • United States Army Uniforms in World War II
  • World War II German Uniform
  • List of World War II Uniforms and Clothing
  • Nazi Style
  • LIFE.com - Fashion in Post-War Paris

Dialogue

  • WWII US Naval Dictionary
  • Glossary of German Military Terms
  • Military Slang: Terms Used By Soldiers in WWII
  • FUBAR F***ed Up Beyond All Recognition: Soldier Slang of World War II (General Military)
  • Military Slang For WWII
  • List of Ethnic Slurs by Ethnicity
  • The Racial Slur Database - Germans
  • Morse Code
  • Military Time Chart for 24 Hour Time Clock
  • Converting Standard Time to Military Time
  • WW2 Civilian Slang
  • Teen Slang of the 1940s
  • 1940s Slang
  • Forties Slang
  • Words That Were: 1940–1949 (Canada)

Law Enforcement & Crimes

  • New Jersey State Police - History: 1940’s
  • New York State Police - History: 1940’s
  • Anaheim Police Department - History: 1940
  • Academia.edu - British Police Training in the 1940s and 1950s
  • Art Theft and Looting During World War II
  • Rape During the Occupation of Germany
  • War Rape in World War II
  • Allied War Crimes During World War II
  • Nazi Medical Experiments
  • World War II Crimes
  • Nazi War Crimes
  • German War Crimes Against Soviet Civilians
  • Nazi Crimes Against Soviet POWs
  • Execution of Women by the Nazi during World War II
  • World War II and the Holocaust
  • World War Two - German Prisoner of War Camps
  • List of WWII POW (Prisoner of War) Camps in Germany
  • German Prisoners of War in the United States
  • Japanese Prisoners of War in WWII
  • Sexual Slavery - Germany During WWII
  • German Military Brothels in World War II
  • Rape, Murder and Genocide: Nazi War Crimes as Described by German Soldiers
  • 1940s Crimes
  • History of Drug Abuse: The 40’s
  • 25 Vintage Police Record Photographs (Photos)
  • Grisly Crime Scene Photography of 1940s New York

It’s Asian and Pacific Islander Heritage month as well as being Women’s HIstory Month, so today I thought I wold profile Yuri Kochiyama

Today’s woman of the day is Yuri Kochiyama. Kochiyama was a Japanese American human rights activist.

Mary Yuriko Nakahara was born on May 19, 1921 in San Pedro, California to Japanese immigrants. Her family was relatively affluent and she grew up in a predominantly white neighborhood. In her youth she attended church and taught Sunday school. Kochiyama attended San Pedro High School. She attended Compton Junior College, where she studied English, journalism, and art. Yuri Kochiyama was a school teacher at the Presbyterian church close to where she resided.

Her life changed on December 7, 1941, when the Japanese Empire bombed Pearl Harbor. After the bombings, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, which consisted of three tall white men,barged through looking for her father. Within a matter of minutes, the three white men took her father away as he was considered a “suspect” who could threaten national security. Her father was sick to begin with and he was just released from the hospital when the FBI arrested him. Her father died the day after his release.

The U.S. government ordered Yuri, her mother and brother to leave their home in San Pedro. They were forced to move to the War Relocation Authority concentration camp at Jerome, Arkansas, where they lived for the next three years. While interned, she met her husband, Bill Kochiyama. The couple moved to New York in 1948 and lived in public housing for the next twelve years.

In 1960, Kochiyama and her husband Bill moved to Harlem in New York City and became acquainted with Malcolm X and was a member of his Organization of Afro-American Unity. She was present at his assassination on February 21, 1965, at the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem, and held him in her arms as he lay dying. She was able to form with a bond with Malcolm X because she saw that African Americans were being oppressed as well. She was sitting in the front of the Ballroom when assassins came in and killed him.

In 1977, Kochiyama joined the group of Puerto Ricans that took over the Statue of Liberty to draw attention to the struggle for Puerto Rican independence. Kochiyama and other activists demanded the release of five Puerto Rican nationalists who were jailed in the United States for more than 20 years. According to Kochiyama, despite a strong movement enabling them to occupy the statue for nine hours, they intended to “give up peacefully when the police came.” The five Puerto Ricans were eventually released.

Kochiyama also became a mentor during the Asian American movement that grew during and after the Vietnam War protests. Yuri and her husband could secure reparations and government apologies for injustices toward Asian Americans such as the Japanese American internment. President Ronald Reagan signed the Civil Liberties Act in 1988 which, among other things, awarded $20,000 to each Japanese American internment survivor.

In 2005, Kochiyama was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize through the “1,000 Women for the Nobel Peace Prize 2005” project

“Remember that consciousness is power. Consciousness is education and knowledge. Consciousness is becoming aware. It is the perfect vehicle for students. Consciousness-raising is pertinent for power, and be sure that power will not be abusively used, but used for building trust and goodwill domestically and internationally. Tomorrow’s world is yours to build”.

Yuri Kochiyama
1921-2014

Monument in Cemetery, Mt. Williamson, 1943, photo by Ansel Adams

Thousands of Japanese Americans were taken from their homes, rounded up by the US government in 1942 and relocated to internment camps where they remained until the end of World War II in 1945. The photo above was taken at the Manzanar internment camp (the Manzanar War Relocation Center) at the foot of the Sierra Nevadas in California’s Owens Valley. Ansel Adams, already a well-known and successful photographer, went to the camps in 1943 to document what he felt was a great injustice.

slurps too loudly, then not enough

I feel like cultural identity is something I’ve struggled with my whole life, and is something I’m still struggling with today. and in my head, I compare it with eating ramen. When I’m in Japan or with my Japanese friends, I feel self-conscious about not slurping the noodles enough. Japanese people slurp noodles with such vigor and intensity that I feel like I need to force myself to make more noise to fit in. But when I’m eating noodles with my American friends, I catch myself making too much noise. and this perfectly captures my constant internal battle of being too Japanese, not Japanese enough, being too American, not American enough. 

While I am 100% Japanese ethnically, my mother is Japanese (from Japan) and my father is third generation Japanese American (sansei). My maternal grandparents are residing in Hayama, Kanagawa-prefecture, Japan. My paternal grandmother was raised in LA and was later relocated Japanese internment camps. I am technically fourth generation (yonsei), my parents and I like to joke about being 2.5 generation (2.5sei). Truthfully, there are not many people like me. There are many second-generation Japanese American people (Nisei) where both of their parents are from Japan, can speak English and Japanese fluently but still are very culturally Japanese. And there are also many people where both of their parents are 3rd,4th,5th generation Japanese American, can’t speak Japanese and are very culturally American.

I have always been in between.

Even from a very young age, in Japanese language school, I noticed that I was different from all the other kids. Japanese wouldn’t come as easily to me as the second-generation kids (Nisei). Speaking was tough, grammar was even harder, and I was always behind, no matter how hard I worked.

And I wondered, why? I don’t have an excuse. Both of my parents were Japanese! Why is Japanese so hard for me? And then I realized that unlike all the other families who had multiple family members who spoke Japanese at home, I only had my mother, who would often speak in English to be able to communicate to my father and sister. I realized that I needed to work doubly as hard as everyone to keep up. And as I grew older and was juggling high school, APs and golf, I had to face the fact that fluency just wasn’t possible for me.

On the other hand, I was too “FOB-y”, too Asian, too Japanese to fit in at regular school when I was younger. I would bring the Japanese bento lunches my mother would pack with care everyday. And usually on top of the rice, there would be a purple furikake or rice seasoning. Or my mom would pack boiled sausages that she would cut to look like little octopuses. I used to be proud of my lunch and Japanese food but after a while, I started to notice the stares I received from classmates. And how no one would sit next to me anymore. One boy yelled at me, “Why is your rice purple?! Are you an alien?” Another taunted, “EWW she’s eating octopus!” At first, I was shocked and hurt that my classmates would make fun of the food my mother took so much time to prepare, and I asked my mom to only pack bologna sandwiches for the next couple of years.

After a while, I learned that people were just afraid of what they weren’t familiar with and my mother told me to share my food instead with my classmates. And that all of a sudden made me the most popular kid in class.

While it got easier throughout middle and high school, I felt like I started to neglect my Japanese side in attempts to fit in. I became very vocal about my grandmother and her parents’ time in the Japanese American internment camps, even winning a Japanese speech contest with a ticket to Japan. But despite all that, I still felt unbalanced, either feeling too Japanese, not Japanese enough, too American, or not American enough.

When I got to college, I feel like I’m finally able to fit in somewhere. I joined the Japanese Student Association and became an officer, where I was finally extremely immersed into conversational Japanese and Japanese pop culture, which were aspects I thought I was missing to become “more Japanese”. And now, in order to get more in touch with my Japanese American side again, I’m getting more involved with the Nikkei Student Union.  

For the longest time, I felt like my “double identity” was a constant push and pull, like I was stretching myself too thin. But I feel like I’m starting to finally feel a balance and am on the way of loving myself. and being less critical of myself and thinking less of what others think of me. Instead, I have double the support, and twice the cultures to be proud of. I mean, who else can say that my favorite bands are 嵐, aiko, Sam Smith and Walk the Moon, and that I’m watching How to Get Away with Murder and 5時から9時まで and other J-dramas at the same time! I am starting to finally feel comfortable with myself, and I hope this feeling continues.

2

W.R.A. Leave Pass, Teiji Okuda, No. 15771

Those incarcerated at the War Relocation Centers (Japanese Internment Camps) were denied many of their civil and personal liberties. The freedom to travel outside of the camps was severely restricted. However, internees could leave the camps if they were able to join the work-release program. 

(Smithsonian Institution)

       The Black Sheep Book Review: The Red Pencil by Andrea Davis Pinkney                                     and illustrated by Shane W. Evans


Publisher: Little, Brown and Company

Year Published: 2014

Number of Pages: 309

Genre: Fiction

Target Audience: Young Readers ages 8 - 12


        Although she was happy living her life on her family’s farm, Amira dreamed of something more. She dreamed of going to Gad Primary School in Nyala just like her friend, Halima. With her pointed stick she would draw on the sandy soil, hoping one day to turn her pictures into words. However, when the Janjaweed attack her village Amira has no choice but to go to a refugee camp, where her dreams of school are at risk of being ripped away from her like a vicious sandstorm.

       Although I don’t have an affinity for writing poetry (Bad poetry? Oh noetry!), I enjoy reading it from time to time; which is why “The Red Pencil” was a refreshing break from all the prose I’ve been immersed in. Not only that, but the illustrations in the book are  beautiful - purposeful yet abstract images that make Amira’s life jump off the page.

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The Aberford Cast (in one post)

The Main Four (The playable characters from the story mode)

Peggy Whitman

Former professional baseball player. Current housewife, mother of three, and terrible cook. Married to Arthur Whitman, Captain in the APD. Peggy is outspoken, tenacious, and strong-willed. Treats being told no as a personal challenge. Peggy’s planned AI personality is aggressive, attacking the nearest targets.

Betty Smith

Exceptional homemaker and chef. Also works as a nurse at Aberford General. Married to Phillip Smith, security liaison with Edwin Voorhees Industrial Laboratories. No children. Betty is kind, protective, and extremely competent at everything she does. Betty’s planned AI personality is Protective, targeting the zombies who are targeting the player.

Doris Baker

Doris worked as riveter during WWII while her husband Ralph fought in the Pacific theater. Now she waits tables at the local diner. Mother of four. Doris is tough, assertive, and committed to doing her duty as a citizen of Aberford and of the United States. Natural leader. Doris’ planned AI personality is Defensive, targeting the strongest or most dangerous enemies first.

Sylvia Hornberger

Sylvia’s fierce intelligence pushed her towards cutting-edge biochem research, where she met her now-husband Carl. She worked at Edwin Voorhees Industrial Laboratories for six years until she was terminated after becoming pregnant with her second child. Ruthless and tactically minded. Sylvia’s planned AI personality is Predatory, targeting the zombies that can be defeated the fastest.

The Expansion Characters (Play important roles in the main story and are playable in freeplay/multiplayer mode, with full side campaigns as stretch goals. Story details may still change for some of them.)

Norma Thompson

(I’m going to let a real artist do the concept on Norma, but Norma has strong facial features that people sometimes mistake for being severe or strict. She is, in fact, very warm once she opens up to people.)

Norma is the manager of Ms. Butler’s Boarding House for Girls and Young Women. She fought in WWII before transitioning and takes an experimental anti-androgen that she gets from a friend at Edwin Voorhees Industrial Laboratories. Norma is smart, practical, and very protective of the girls in her charge.

Mary Kuroki

A third-generation Japanese-American who spent her teenage years in a wartime internment camp. After relocating to Aberford, Ohio, Mary’s father sent her to college, where she earned a degree in Engineering. Mary builds rockets for Edwin Voorhees Industrial Laboratories and, much to her mother’s irritation, is unmarried.

Patricia Baker

At sixteen, Patricia is Doris’ oldest daughter. She’s a cheerleader at the local high school, where the zombie outbreak is particularly bad. 

Alejandra Rasmussen

Alejandra fell in love with a Mormon missionary in Mexico and married him shortly after he completed a degree in mathematics at BYU. Alejandra speaks very little English, but is a talented painter and is very self-reliant. She and her husband chose a really, really bad day to begin their new life in Aberford, Ohio.

businessinsider.com
46 photos of life at a Japanese internment camp, taken by Ansel Adams
In 1943, legendary photographer Ansel Adams visited Manzanar, a Japanese internment camp in California's Sierra Nevada mountains.
By Brian Jones

Even at the time, this policy was opposed by many Americans, including renowned photographer Ansel Adams, who in the summer of 1943 made his first visit to Manzanar War Relocation Camp in the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

Invited by the warden, Adams sought to document the living conditions of the camp’s inhabitants.

His photos were published in a book titled “Born Free and Equal: The Story of Loyal Japanese-Americans” in 1944, with an accompanying exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art.

This is believed to be the last known photo of Anne Frank with her sister Margot taken in early to mid 1942. Later that year In July her sister Margot would be among the first to receive notice that she was to be sent to Nazi Germany ordering her to report for relocation to a work camp. Anne was then told by her father that the family would go into hiding. The Frank family was discovered and arrested on the morning of August 4th 1944. Having been arrested in hiding, they were considered criminals and were sent to the Punishment Barracks for hard labor. In March 1945, a typhus epidemic spread through the camp and killed approximately 17,000 prisoners. Witnesses later testified that Margot fell from her bunk in her weakened state and was killed by the shock, and that a few days later Anne Frank died.

• Interesting Fact: In April 1945 just weeks after Anne Frank’s death, the camp was liberated by British troops.

                           The 5th Wave BY: Rick Yancey 

Publish Date: May 7th, 2013; Paperback 

Finished Reading: July 21st, 2016 

Goodreads Rating: 4.14 ⭐️

My Rating: 5⭐️

My Review: -Spoiler Alert-

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Okay so I know when Steve pulls out that “I know guys with none of that worth ten of you” line on Tony, we know he’s talking about Bucky.

But it REALLY bugs me that fandom treats it like he’s ONLY talking about Bucky. Because Steve spend the war with some really bang up people who weren’t given shit. Gabe Jones was a radio guy with a college education, who spoke multiple languages in a time when most black men were not even allowed to attend school with white students. In a time when most white americans didn’t or couldn’t make it to college, Gabe Jones did. Jim Morita was a japanese american in a time when japanese americans were being rounded up like cattle, forced to leave everything, and relocated to prison camps. JIm Morita had to pull out his dog tags to prove to Dugan that he belonged there. Peggy Carter was a woman training and overseeing a group of hypermasculine men and forced to deal with the idea, every day, that she shouldn’t be there because she was a woman. Agent Carter showed us that Peggy’s ability to do her job, her competency, even her relationship with Steve, is constantly pushed into the dirt because she was a woman. Like BUcky Barnes is very important to me and how important he is to steve is very important to me. But he wasn’t the only important person in Steve’s life, he wasn’t the only person who did a lot more good than Tony with a whole lot less to go on. Gabe, Jim, and Peggy had a hell of a lot more stacked against them. 

Today is Japanese American Internment Remembrance Day. 

On this day in 1942, FDR issued Executive Order 9066, which authorized the internment of all people of Japanese descent living in the “exclusion zone,” which constituted most of the United States’ Pacific Coast. Approximately 110,000 people of Japanese descent living on the American mainland were interned in “Wartime Relocation Camps”. 

Though the decision was at the time justified as a wartime measure against sabotage, no evidence exists to imply that sabotage originating with Japanese immigrants or their families ever occurred. Internment and exclusion were entirely the result of anti-Japanese racial bias. Racist sentiment against East Asians was common, and, at times, resulted in bans or quotas to prevent bar immigrants from China and Japan from receiving visas or entering the country. 

Santa at a WWII Internment Camp - Children of Japanese-American U.S. Soldiers - Minidoka Relocation Center, Hunt, Idaho - 1944

heyits_poky:

“In this photo provided by the War Relocation Authority, beneath their sage-brush Christmas tree, children of Japanese American soldiers now overseas are entertained by Seiichi Hara, USO chairman at the Minidoka Relocation Center, Hunt, Idaho, Dec. 18, 1944, who as Santa Claus brought them presents from their soldier fathers fighting in the United States army. (AP Photo/Interior Department War Relocation Authority)” Source: AP Images