CHASING SUNS: Chapter 6 Flesh Wounds

1,837 words

The naga hunt was located near the Disc of Cauthess, the impact site of a meteorite from generations ago. More than once Cam considered turning the truck around, after all the drive was a long one, but then her side would flare up as flashbacks of Gladio and Steph rapid-fire assaulted her concentration and she’d give it more gas, reaching speeds well over the posted limit. Not like anyone would pull her over.

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

What's your opinion on venomous snakes as pets? Nothing intense like rattlers or mambas, but less dangerous things like Hognose or False Water Cobras?

Rear fanged venomous is no worse than a bee sting to people who aren’t allergic, and IMO are perfectly fine to own :) It is rare that a hoggie bites. I can’t say much on FWCs tho, since I haven’t researched them very much.

PSA: Do not call hognose snakes venomous...

…because people use the word “venomous” to mean different things.

The legal and layman’s definition of “venomous” is “an animal that produces a toxin that is seriously dangerous to humans”. When most people say “venomous” this is what they are talking about. Hognose snakes (and many other rear-fanged snakes like garter snakes) definitely DO NOT fit this description in any way. No human has EVER died or lost a limb due to a bite from a hognose snake; there aren’t even records of any serious envenomations.

If we are using the strict scientific definition of “venomous”, which is “an animal that actively injects a toxin into the target organism” then hognose snakes would technically be considered venomous. But they are “venomous” in the same way a honeybee or harmless spider is “venomous”. If you keep bees you wouldn’t go around saying you have a swarm of venomous insects in your backyard because bee stings are not seriously dangerous to the vast majority of people. And hognose snake bites are probably even less dangerous than bee stings; a significant number of people don’t have any reaction and you are less likely to be allergic to hognose “venom” than bee “venom”.

Referring to hognose snakes as “venomous” in most contexts could lead to them being banned or killed out of irrational fear. They should only be called “venomous” in strictly scientific discussions and even then you should make it abundantly clear that “venomous” does not mean dangerous when used in the scientific sense.  

Because when you throw the words “venom” and “venomous” around in most contexts people assume you mean “dangerous” and “highly toxic to humans”. Instead use phrases like “mildly toxic saliva” and “Duvernoy’s gland secretions” which are technically accurate but do not unnecessarily freak people out.  

Boiga dendrophila, commonly called the mangrove snake or gold-ringed cat snake, is a species of rear-fanged colubrid from southeast Asia. It is one of the biggest cat snake species, averaging 6–8 feet (1.8–2.4 m) in length. It is considered mildy venomous. Although moderate envenomations resulting in intense swelling have been reported, there has never been a confirmed fatality. (Wikipedia) (Photo by Sir Mart)

sammy-and-crew  asked:

Are you intending to continue the show me series as a permanent thing? if so, i'd like to see a very unique noodle.

I am, now that the Christmas break is over! A unique noodle… hm hm hm, well, how about Azemiops feae (Fea’s viper), the viper that breaks all the rules?

At first glance, Fea’s viper doesn’t look all that special. It’s a beautiful snake, for sure- those orange bands on the black body are striking- but what really makes this animal unique is that it’s not very much like a viper at all. It’s a very tiny little viper- neither males nor females attain lengths greater than one meter (about three feet, if you’re a Yankee). It has a strangely-shaped head covered in big shield scales (like a colubrid) as opposed to small scales (like pretty much every other viper), an odd skull that’s more oblong than the typical viper triangle, tiny venom glands, bizarre stubby fangs that look more like a rear-fanged snake’s than a viper’s (they have this blade-like structure on the bottom/back that rear-fanged snakes and some asps have), and smooth scales covering the body (instead of keeled scales like most vipers). Its lifestyle is strange for a viper as well. They’re entirely oviparous, meaning that they lay eggs. This is not a typical viper trait; in fact, vipers actually get their name from their tendency to have live birth. Vi- derives from vivo, meaning to live; per- derives from pario, meaning birth in Latin. But these snakes lay eggs! 

So… why do we consider them a viper? Simply put, they’ve got more in common with vipers than they do with any other flavor of snake (though at times they’ve been lumped with both colubrids and elapids)- it’s just that they are more primitive than the others. Their venom is also characteristically viperine- well, some of it. When you look at the non-enzymatic characteristics (their venom doesn’t clot blood, cause hemorrhaging, or cause paralysis via myolysis), their venom doesn’t look viperine at all. But when you look at the enzyme activity, it’s a dead ringer for viper venom, giving good evidence of where the heck this thing fits taxonomically. 

In addition to the above, its threat displays are kind of interesting. It basically mimics the eventual direction pit viper evolution took; it rattles its tail and flattens out the head to look not hooded but triangular, as opposed to the really ovoid shape it typically has. Seriously, look how round its head is!

In conclusion, this mountain-dwelling, water-loving, shrew-devouring Asian species is really something special and strange. Alone among vipers it displays some truly primitive characteristics… and where it fits with the rest of the vipers also makes it special. It’s an Asian species, but it’s actually more closely related to the New World Crotalinae pit vipers. There are Asian crotalines, but they’re more closely related to the rattlesnakes, bushmasters, and other New World pit vipers than they are to the Fea’s viper. 

Image sources: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

anonymous asked:

I thought Levi was a Mangrove snake? Looking at google pictures side by side Russian rat snakes and Mangroves look nearly identical wow. Mangroves have a head shaped a little different and the face yellow is bigger, Are there any other big differences appearance wise?

Hi Anon, 

There’s a few differences to tell them apart. 

Here’s the mangrove snakes (Boiga dendrophila) which are rear fanged venomous. 


They have pretty large eyes relative to their head and thin clean black lines on the lower jaw. 


They are also very arboreal and have a narrow triangular body shape with thin clean bright yellow stripes.

Here’s Levi (elaphe schrencki

Levi’s eyes are not as big compared to the head.  His lower jaw stripes are not as regular or clean (no offense Levi).  

Russians also have a slightly different head shape as you mentioned (Boiga have slightly broader more triangle like heads).  Russian’s  have a bit of a black eye stripe which breaks up the line of yellow across their face.  Levi’s chin and belly is also flecked/chequered with black whereas the mangroves have just yellow bellies. 

Levi’s body is much more typical rat snake “loaf of bread in cross section” shape and they are quite muscular.  His stripes are much more variable in pattern and colour than a mangrove, some of his bands are forked, some are more browny-gold than yellow and the colour changes from head to tail a bit. 

Russians also have keeled scales which I don’t think mangroves do. 

Overall similar colour schemes but a few differences! Hope that helps !

Are hognose snakes venomous?

Whether hognose snakes are “rear-fanged venomous” or merely have “toxic saliva” is a hotly debated subject among the herpetology community.

What I don’t think some people realize is that the line between toxic saliva and venom is not very clear cut. From an evolutionary perspective all venom is modified saliva and all venom glands are modified salivary glands. You could argue that all venom is just extremely toxic saliva made in specialized salivary glands with a complex delivery system (fangs).

Hognose snakes, as well as many other colubrids, have a Duvernoy’s gland which produces toxic proteins. This gland is largely considered to be homologous to the venom glands found in vipers and elapids (they are both modified salivary glands that produce toxins) though much more primitive. Some other colubrids have more developed Duvernoy’s glands; in boomslangs (another rear-fanged colubrid) the Duvernoy’s gland produces a deadly hemotoxic venom.

A duct extends from the Duvernoy’s gland to the base of the rear fangs. Vipers and elapids have hollow fangs for injecting their venom, but hognose snakes (and other rear-fanged colubrids) must chew their toxins into whatever they are biting. This means that envenomation from a hognose snake is only possible from prolonged chewing and not from a quick hit-and-release bite.

Essentially what a hognose snake has is very primitive venom with a rudimentary, inefficient delivery system (chewing instead of injection). This is probably similar to what the ancestors of vipers and elapids had when they were first starting to evolve venom. Scientifically I would say this qualifies hoggies as being mildly venomous; personally I usually tell people they have “mildly toxic saliva” because throwing the word “venomous” around tends to scare people.

A prolonged chewing from a hognose snake might result in swelling, bruising, numbness, or pain around the wound site and possibly dizziness and nausea. There are no records of medically significant envenomation from a hognose snake; they are reluctant to bite and many people have no reaction whatsoever. Venomous or not they are not dangerous snakes (and the difference between toxic saliva and mild venom is not a very big one).

@cup-noodle thanks for tagging me on that question about hognose venom, it led to me researching all this and learning some interesting new information. Hope some of this may help with your care sheet if you decide to update it! :)


California Lyre Snake (Trimorphodon lyrophanes)

One of the most interesting snakes in my small collection. Lyre Snakes are medium sized, rear-fanged snakes that range in the Southwestern United States and into Mexico. Nocturnal and mildly venomous, these snakes prey primarily on lizards and small rodents.

This specimen is housed in an front-opening, glass display tank with under-tank heating. At night, an infrared heat bulb is turned on so that the snake can be observed. 

xerxia31  asked:

8. Help me, please and 24. Enemies. Everlark, of course!

My attempt to wrap up Vampire!Katniss from a drabble I posted a few days ago. A scene taken from a little bit of TMI plus my own imagination to round things out. Part 1 is short and you can find it here.  @lovelizziekins @alliswell21 @b-boop5 @everllarkingjoshifer Pbg

Peeta stared at the mound of fresh dirt covering Katniss’s body, arms crossed in mourning. She may rise, but Katniss as he’d known her was gone. He’d laid her in the newly shredded ground himself, whispering apologies against her lips, not even trying to conceal the tears slipping down his cheeks.

“You may want to leave now,” Gale said without a glance in Peeta’s direction. “She’ll be hungry when she wakes, and you’re more human than what I’ve got in this vial.” He held up an elongated, corked tube full of dark red liquid. Peeta tried not to let his face twist in disgust.

Keep reading

Dear reptile-people of tumblr. Forgive me but I have told a lie. He is not, as I was told, a boomslang. He is a Battersby’s Green-snake. So, while I thought I was risking my life to bring impress you with photos, there was no real danger of a rear-fanged deadly bite with venom causing bleeding from all my orifices. But I did step in buffalo poo….so that should count for something.