really thanks thanks

anonymous asked:

apparently because of the era mulan was in she should've spoken cantonese (or at least not mandarin) so why is mandarin the default chinese now?

hoo boy, this is a major misconception that i’ve heard a lot, especially from Cantonese speakers, who somehow believe that all people in pre-1000 AD China would’ve been speaking Cantonese ahahaha. I think this is an urban myth from some pseudo-linguistics rumours making its rounds in Cantonese-speaking communities over the last couple generations, probably stemming from the fact that Cantonese phonology is more conservative than Mandarin in terms of our syllable-final consonants, and the preservation of the voiced/voiceless distinction in Middle Chinese by extending our tonal inventory. A lot of people think that that automatically makes Cantonese the “pure Chinese language”, which makes me cringe really hard tbh, bc that’s not how languages work LOL. 

The problem with the Sinitic languages is that we have no exact way of knowing when and how people spoke back in the day, and the characters give no 100% explicit phonetic clues, so the best we can use as reference are the rime tables that some smart Chinese linguists compiled way back in the day. The most famous one is the book of Qieyun rime tables, which helped modern linguists re-construct Middle Chinese forms. Middle Chinese is said to generally have been spoken around the 6th-11th century, or somewhere around that range, and the Qieyun tables were published sometime in the 6th century, so they would’ve reflected an early Middle Chinese variety that functioned as a standard language in that time period. The problem is that outside of this standard language, people in China were already speaking their own Sinitic languages like they are today, some of which were already mutually unintelligible from one another. Unfortunately, there’s no way to track exactly what languages were spoken because all we have are the rime tables.

The early forms of the modern varieties that we know today as Mandarin, Cantonese, Hakka, Wu, etc all split off from Late Middle Chinese presumably sometime between the 12th and 13th century, some languages later than others ofc (except for Hokkien and the other Min varieties, who had a bit of a special development, but that’s a different story). Mulan (who btw was a legendary character; we’re not even 100% sure if she actually existed) apparently lived during the Southern and Northern Dynasty period, which lasted from 420–589, which would fall into the Middle Chinese period, more specifically in the Early-Mid Middle Chinese period, so she probably would not have spoken anything close to Cantonese OR Mandarin in her time. 

Another problem is that Mulan is said to have been from the Northern Wei Dynasty (北魏), which would’ve taken up the area north of the Yangtze River. Cantonese was historically spoken in southern China, particularly in the general regions of modern-day Guangdong and Guangxi. Guangzhou was always a very successful port city, even 1500 years ago, and became a very important cultural center even in the Southern Song Dynasty (particularly in the 12-13th century). In this time period, an early form of Cantonese had already developed, and it was also around this time that it gained a literary level to read the Chinese Classics. Therefore, it seems highly highly highly improbable that Mulan was a Cantonese speaker, considering that her time period and general geographical location did not even come close to matching the timeline of Cantonese or any other modern Sinitic variety. 

Also to answer your question about why Mandarin is the standard today: it comes from a place of political power. Nanjing and Beijing (lit. Southern Capital and Northern Capital) were always the place of political power, and in courts they would use a standard language so that there could be communication between officials from all over China, hence the formal name for Mandarin: 官話 (lit. ‘official speech’). And that continued throughout history, simply because Beijing was always the source of political power, and made decisions for the country. However, the implementation of Mandarin as the ‘national language’ in all parts of China was a relatively recent event (around the mid-1900′s), in comparison to the entire history of the Chinese languages. Before Mandarin was heavily implemented in almost all parts of China, most people were still speaking local varieties, which would have mainly consisted of developing forms of modern Sinitic varieties. 

TL;DR - Nope, contrary to popular belief, Mulan most likely did not speak Cantonese, and neither did a lot of early famous Chinese figures like Confucius, Mencius, Laozi, etc. 


Little Monica doll Sarubia by Caroline Ann Seales
[Little Monica Sarubia]

jewish/muslim solidarity is the best way to beat christian goyim ideologies because they expect us to hate each other and when we work together to dismantle them they have no idea what to do its great
Lessons in Love, Chapter 28
An Archive of Our Own, a project of the Organization for Transformative Works
By Organization for Transformative Works

AKA, the epilogue. :’) I don’t want to spoil anything, so I’m going to use this space to thank people instead of writing a summary. 

First, thank you to everyone who’s read any of this fic - even if you just read a chapter, I’m thankful for you. Thank you to my enthusiastic, helpful betas - @abbygrffns and @shefollowedfires - and to @griffinskane, who helped me figure out a coherent plot line when all I had was 3,000 words of a semi-smutty one-shot about high school teachers. 

Thank you to @fandammit for letting me base my fic around a photoset of hers, and thank you to anyone and everyone who made art/photosets based on Abby and Marcus in this story. And to anyone who has messaged me, left kudos, or commented to tell me who much they love the story, please know your words mean everything to me. I still can’t believe how much people enjoyed this fic, and I’m honored and humbled by the response.

*wipes away tears* It’s been a great ride, you guys, and I’m thankful you went along with me for it. 

Now, on to my Hunger Games AU.

You were feeling down so I quickly got to work. 

Gotta make my Cat boyfriend smile y'know!! 



So Mark’s holding a charity stream for LGBT+ right now. I know Mark cares about all of us, but I think this is the first time that really clicked for me. I’m ace as can be, and right now I feel like crying. One of my heroes believes in me. He cares about me. Thank you so much Mark


“… Regardless, in short, this is a matter of manufacturing mistake, as well as personal preference now that I am alone. I hope you understand… and don’t intend to mock me as some of my dance group members have.

… On that note, where do you come from? Johto? Kanto? Or elsewhere…?”

[ @ask-arbok / @askmakuhita ]

Writing Round-up

I know a bunch of people were doing this right at the new year, but I wanted to wait until the anniversary of the day I started writing for this fandom (Jan 22). (I think @inell started writing at about the same time!)

I’ve written 162,306 words (!!), with 60 fics in 9 different pairings. I’m really proud of my productivity over the past year!

My favorite fics:

I know now what trouble can be - I’m proud of this partly because it’s a big bang, and I didn’t think I’d ever make it to 20,000 words. But this is my big effort to un-fuck season one canon, and I think I did a pretty good job.

Free Condoms With Purchase - I think I love this fic because it feels the most true to me. This one’s based off a lot of my own experiences, but is (as far as I can tell) still relatable. I just really love how it turned out. (Features asexual Derek)

Most popular:

On AO3: The Cintron Hall Situation

On Tumblr: Movie Wolf

It’s been a good year, and I hope to write just as much (if not more!) this year! I’d also like to write a wider variety of pairings, so if anybody has prompts, feel free to send them my way! :)

As I go through my drawings and try to tag them (‘my art’ is the tag where only drawings will be :) I’ve noticed few things:
1) I finally know how to draw Vax
2) I used to draw waaaay too much (I kinda miss that tho)
3) dying from embarassment at seeing some of older stuff but at the same time - IMPROVEMENT holy shit
4) I have the best followers and you guys are always so supportive. Love you ❤

annaisu  asked:

I know I've said this before, but it absolutely needs repeating: your art style is adorable, strong, and clear, and I truly love it and every single image you produce. Thank you so much for all of these lovely, wonderful comics with Sans and Pap :)

If you wanted to make me cry today, congrats, you did it ;-;

Thank you so much for typing that, it made me so happy ;”D i shall not stop producin content, u better believe it! <3

anonymous asked:

Louis' custody arrangement seems to be the same one my friend has with her baby's dad (they broke up before the birth, he was an abusive fuck, he doesn't even send her money and stopped visiting the kid because he got someone else pregnant) and I would think Louis is a better person and with more options than visiting twice a week in a public place with no overnights til the kid is at least 2. My friend's baby doesn't even have her dad's last name yet he has more visiting rights than Louis.

No, but larries are being dramatic

okay but just imagine the Woman’s Pride March in Los Santos. You have your women marching and of course since this is Los Santos you have people who don’t believe in this and so they are throwing things at the marchers, fighting them, yelling slurs.(of course the police isn’t doing anything about it the LSPD is super corrupt) And then suddenly you here a distant rumbling and everybody turns and just sees 8 huge pink monster trucks stopping at the edge of where marchers and the assholes against it are. The doors to the pink trucks open revealing the Fake AH Crew

Keep reading


What happen here…..

@dfjlower101 You…awesome artist……WHY?!


@anda-blr You sweetheart….why?! 

@oblivion-times Why do you always give me so much love?!


This is an illusion?…..T-This is real?

 *hides in a trash can(?*