rays engineering

“If there is energy within the substance it can only come from without. This truth was so manifest to me that I expressed it in the following axiom: ‘There is no energy in matter except that absorbed from the medium…’ If all energy is supplied to matter from without then this all important function must be performed by the medium.”

“When radio-active rays were discovered their investigators believed them to be due to liberation of atomic energy in the form of waves. This being impossible in the light of the preceding I concluded that they were produced by some external disturbance and composed of electrified particles. My theory was not seriously taken although it appeared simple and plausible. Suppose that bullets are fired against a wall. Where a missile strikes the material is crushed and spatters in all directions radial from the place of impact. In this example it is perfectly clear that the energy of the flying pieces can only be derived from that of the bullets. But in manifestation of radio-activity no such proof could be advanced and it was, therefore, of the first importance to demonstrate experimentally the existence of this miraculous disturbance in the medium. I was rewarded in these efforts with quick success largely because of the efficient method I adopted which consisted in deriving from a great mass of air, ionized by the disturbance, a current, storing its energy in a condenser and discharging the same through an indicating device. This plan did away with the limitations and incertitude of the electroscope first employed and was described by me in articles and patents from 1900 to 1905. It was logical to expect, judging from the behavior of known radiations, that the chief source of the new rays would be the sun, but this supposition was contradicted by observations and theoretical considerations which disclosed some surprising facts in this connection.

“Light and heat rays are absorbed in their passage through a medium in a certain proportion to its density. The ether, although the most tenuous of all substances, is no exception to this rule.  Its density has been first estimated by Lord Kelvin and conformably to his finding a column of one square centimeter cross section and of a length such that light, traveling at a rate of three hundred thousands kilometers per second, would require one year to traverse it, should weigh 4.8 grams. This is just about the weight of a prism of ordinary glass of the same cross section and two centimeters length which, therefore, may be assumed as the equivalent of the ether column in absorption. A column of the ether one thousand times longer would thus absorb as much light as twenty meters of glass.  However, there are suns at distances of many thousands of light years and it is evident that virtually no light from them can reach the earth. But if these suns emit rays immensely more penetrative than those of light they will be slightly dimmed and so the aggregate amount of radiations pouring upon the earth from all sides will be overwhelmingly greater than that supplied to it by our luminary. If light and heat rays would be as penetrative as the cosmic, so fierce would be the perpetual glare and so scorching the heat that life on this and other planets could not exist.

“Rays in every respect similar to the cosmic are produced by my vacuum tubes when operated at pressures of ten millions of volts or more, but even if it were not confirmed by experiment, the theory I advanced in 1897 would afford the simplest and most probable explanation of the phenomena. Is not the universe with its infinite and impenetrable boundary a perfect vacuum tube of dimensions and power inconceivable? Are not its fiery suns electrodes at temperatures far beyond any we can apply in the puny and crude contrivances of our making? Is it not a fact that the suns and stars are under immense electrical pressures transcending any that man can ever produce and is this not equally true of the vacuum in celestial space? Finally, can there be any doubt that cosmic dust and meteoric matter present an infinitude of targets acting as reflectors and transformers of energy? If under ideal working conditions, and with apparatus on a scale beyond the grasp of the human mind, rays of surpassing intensity and penetrative power would not be generated, then, indeed, nature has made an unique exception to its laws.

"It has been suggested that the cosmic rays are electrons or that they are the result of creation of new matter in the interstellar deserts. These views are too fantastic to be even for a moment seriously considered. They are natural outcroppings of this age of deep but unrational thinking, of impossible theories, the latest of which might, perhaps, deal with the curvature of time. What this world of ours would be if time were curved…“

–Nikola Tesla

“The Eternal Source of Energy of the Universe, Origin and Intensity of Cosmic Rays.” October 13, 1932.
4

***NIKOLA TESLA’S INVENTION FOR COLLECTING THE UNLIMITED ENERGY FROM COSMIC RADIATIONS***

US Patent No. 685,957: Apparatus for the Utilization of Radiant Energy

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, NIKOLA TESLA, a citizen of the United States… have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Apparatus for the Utilization of Radiant Energy…

It is well known that certain radiations–such as those of ultra-violet light, cathodic, Roentgen rays, or the like–possess the property of charging and discharging conductors of electricity, the discharge being particularly noticeable when the conductor upon which the rays impinge is negatively electrified. These radiations are generally considered to be ether vibrations of extremely small wave lengths, and in explanation of the phenomena noted it has been assumed by some authorities that they ionize or render conducting the atmosphere through which they are propagated. My own experiments and observations, however, lead me to conclusions more in accord with the theory heretofore advanced by me that sources of such radiant energy throw off with great velocity minute particles of matter which are strongly electrified, and therefore capable of charging an electrical conductor, or, even if not so, may at any rate discharge an electrified conductor either by carrying off bodily its charge or otherwise.

My present application is based upon a discovery which I have made that when rays, or, radiations of the above kind are permitted to fall upon an insulated conducting-body connected to one of the terminals of a condenser while the other terminal of the same is made by independent means to receive or to carry away electricity a current flows into the condenser so long as the insulated body is exposed to the rays, and under the conditions hereinafter specified an indefinite accumulation of electrical energy in the condenser takes place. This energy after a suitable time interval, during which the rays are allowed to act, may manifest itself in a powerful discharge, which may be utilized for the operation or control of mechanical or electrical devices or rendered useful in many other ways.

Figure 1 is a diagram showing the general arrangement of apparatus as usually employed.

Fig. 2 is a similar diagram illustrating more in detail typical forms of the devices or elements used in practice.

Figs. 3 and 4 are diagrammatical representations of modified arrangements suitable for special purposes.

…It will be found that when the radiations of the sun or of any other source capable of producing the effects before described fall upon the plate P an accumulation of electrical energy in the condenser C will result. This phenomenon, I believe, is best explained as follows: The sun, as well as other sources of radiant energy, throws off minute particles of matter positively electrified, which, impinging upon the plate P, communicate continuously an electrical charge to the same. The opposite terminal of the condenser being connected to the ground, which may be considered as a vast reservoir of negative electricity, a feeble current flows continuously into the condenser, and inasmuch as these supposed particles are of an inconceivably small radius or curvature, and consequently charged to a relatively very high potential, this charging of the condenser may continue, as I have actually observed, almost indefinitely, even to the point of rupturing the dielectric. If the device d be of such character that it will operate to close the circuit in which it is included when the potential in the condenser has reached a certain magnitude, the accumulated charge will pass through the circuit, which also includes the receiver R, and operate the latter…

–NIKOLA TESLA.

Nikola Tesla Won 8 Nobel Prizes For His Work And Discoveries. No He Didn’t. These People Did Instead.

  1. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, Physics, 1901: Wilhelm Roentgan was awarded the first Nobel Prize in physics for his discovery of X-Rays on November 8, 1895. Not many know this but Tesla was working with X-Rays prior to Roentgen in 1892, but used the term “radiant matter” instead. He conducted numerous experiments and some of the first imaging, which he called “shadowgraphs,” using these unknown rays in his laboratory before its destruction by fire on March 13, 1895. Tesla was also the first to warn the scientific world on the harms of these rays if not used properly.
  2. Marie Curie, Pierre Curie and Antoine Henri Becquerel, Physics/Chemistry, 1903/1911: The three shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery and work on radioactivity in 1898. Madame Curie won the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for her discovery of radium and polonium, also in 1898. Tesla discovered radioactivity in experiments with X-Rays in 1896, and published many articles on the subject in scientific periodicals prior to the three.
  3. Joseph John Thomson, Physics, 1906: Thomson was awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery of the electron in 1897. Tesla originally called electrons “matter not further decomposable” in his experiments with radiant energy in 1896, but his finding of the electron goes back to when he and Thomson had a back and forth debate in 1891 about experiments with alternating currents of high frequency. Tesla claimed that his experiments proved the existence of charged particles, or “small charged balls.” Thomson denied Tesla’s claim of verifying these particles with his vacuum tubes until witnessing Tesla’s experiments and demonstrations given in a lecture before the Institute of Electrical Engineers at London in 1892. Thomson then adapted to Tesla’s methods and was able to create equipment which allowed him to produce the required high frequencies to investigate and establish his electron discovery. 
  4. Guglielmo Marconi and Karl Ferdinand Braun, Physics, 1909: Both shared the Nobel Prize for their work and development of radio. Marconi is known for proving radio transmission by sending a radio signal in Italy in 1895, but it is a fact that he used Tesla’s work to establish his discovery. Tesla invented the “Tesla Coil” in 1891, which radio relies on, and the inventor proved radio transmission in lectures given throughout 1893, sending electromagnetic waves to light wireless lamps. Tesla filed his own basic radio patent applications in 1897, and were granted in 1900. Marconi’s first patent application in the U.S. was filed on November 10, 1900, but was turned down. Marconi’s revised applications over the next three years were repeatedly rejected because of the priority of Tesla and other inventors. After Tesla’s death in 1943, the U.S. Supreme Court made Marconi’s patents invalid and recognized Tesla as the true inventor of radio.
  5. Charles Glover Barkla, Physics, 1917: Barkla was awarded the prize for his work with Rontgen radiation and the characteristics of these X-rays and their secondary elements and effects. He was educated by J. J. Thomson. Again, Tesla worked with and explained these radiations in full detail throughout the late 1890s, showing that the source of X-rays was the site of first impact of electrons within the bulbs. He even investigated reflected X-rays and their characteristics such as Barkla.
  6. Albert Einstein, Physics, 1921: Einstein was awarded the prize for his theoretical theories which are still praised today, and also his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect (I have many other post that show Tesla’s fair arguments against Einstein’s theories so I will only dwell on the photoelectric effect). Einstein first postulated that light has a nature of both waves and particles in 1905. This lead to the development of “photons,” or photo electrons, which gave light a wave-particle duality. Now it must be noted that Nikola Tesla wasn’t just a theoretical physicist like Einstein, but was an experimental physicist as well. In 1896, Nikola Tesla was the first to promulgate that energy had both particle-like and wavelike properties in experiments with radiant energy. He set up targets to shoot his cathode rays at which upon reflection, projected particles, or vibrations of extremely high frequencies. Instead of taking the particle-wave duality route, he proposed that they were indeed vibrations, or basically sound waves in the ether. Nikola Tesla preceded by Einstein 4 years on the photoelectric effect publishing a patent titled “Apparatus of the Utilization of Radiant Energy.” filed in 1901, based off his experiments with radiant energy. He had a far better understanding on the matter than Einstein had, because he actually developed experimentations to prove his theories.
  7. James Chadwick, Physics, 1935: Awarded the prize for his discovery of the neutron in 1932. Tesla’s discovery of neutrons goes back to his work with cosmic rays, again in 1896, which are mentioned in the next bit. He investigated and discovered that cosmic rays shower down on us 24/7, and that they are small particles which carry so small a charge that we are justified in calling them neutrons. He measured some neutrons from distance stars, like Antares, which traveled at velocities exceeding that of light. Tesla succeeded in developing a motive device that operated off these cosmic rays
  8. Victor Franz Hess, Physics, 1936: Hess won the Prize for his discovery of the cosmic rays in 1919. Tesla predated him 23 years publishing a treatise in an electrical review on cosmic rays in 1896. Tesla’s knowledge on the matter surpasses even today’s understanding of cosmic rays.

If this isn’t proof enough that Nikola Tesla got shit on, then I will add that Tesla definitely should have won the Nobel Prize for being the first person to invent the commutatorless alternating current induction motor (a huge part of the electrical power system we still use today), for his inventions and work with light bulbs, radar, for his invention of remote control, and most importantly for demonstrating the transmission of electrical energy/power without wires. Ahead of his time is an understatement.

8

I’ll say it again: Scientists have created a synthetic stingray that’s propelled by living muscle cells and controlled by light.

!

But the ultimate goal isn’t a cyborg sea monster - it’s a human heart.

“I want to build an artificial heart, but you’re not going to go from zero to a whole heart overnight,” says Kit Parker, a bioengineer and physicist at Harvard University’s Wyss Institute. “This is a training exercise.”

Full, fascinating story here.

Songwriter & Producer Rick Nowels Explains How Lana Del Rey’s ‘Lust For Life’ Came Together

Genius: You’ve been working with Lana for a long time now. What’s your songwriting process like, and how has it evolved?

Rick Nowels: Our process has not changed over the years. Lana always comes in with a concept and often, a melody and lyrics on her iPhone. I listen to it acapella, find the exact key she’s singing in and start to create a chord progression around it. We start playing together and define the exact chords and melody. Then she finishes the lyrics. I’m always knocked out by how incredible her lyrics are and how effortlessly she seems to write them. After that, we solidify the verse and chorus. We usually write the middle eight from scratch—that’s the section that comes after the second chorus. It is a construct of classic songwriting sometimes called the bridge. You don’t see a lot of middle eights in songs anymore. I love that we write them because I think they make the songs more timeless and satisfying. Lana usually records her vocals right after the writing process. I play piano or guitar with her and we do live takes. This gives the songs a performance aspect, and I think it contributes to the intimacy in her vocal delivery. I work out my piano or guitar part and accompany her voice. I follow her mood and together we get a feeling in the room. She doesn’t do many takes. She knows when she’s got the master take. After she gets her lead vocal she immediately starts arranging and singing her background vocals. This is a very exciting thing because she’s completely unique in her approach to it and it’s all a part of her songwriting process. When the backing vocals are complete you essentially have a finished Lana Del Rey record. The song speaks with minimal instrumentation and just her vocals. After that, we begin the process of building the backing track, which can take some time and experimenting and inviting some great musicians to contribute.

 Many people have said this album feels like a return to Lana’s earlier sound (i.e. the Born to Die era). Do you agree with that assessment and if so, was it an intentional choice on Lana’s part?

Rick Nowels: Not at all. It’s a constant moving forward. Lana is a prolific songwriter. I see every new song as the next Lana Del Rey song. I’m honored to be the first person to hear many of them in their early form and one that she trusts to help construct them. There’s no other thought than to write the best song we can and then to capture it in a recording. For me, it’s song by song, and because she’s so prolific we have a wealth of really strong songs. The big picture emerges and I know she’s always thinking about it.

Genius: You and Lana flipped what was originally the verse of “Lust for Life” into the chorus. What was that process like and how much did the song change from what it sounded like originally?

Rick Nowels: The original “Lust For Life” is a beautiful art song, it’s quite touching. Maybe someday Lana will release it. We did a rewrite a lot of it during the making of the album. It turned out great and It was a thrill to have The Weeknd and Lana singing together.

Genius: What was it like working with A$AP Rocky for “Summer Bummer” and “Groupie Love”? Did Lana always intend to have a rap element on the track, and does that change the way you approach writing a song or handling production?

Rick Nowels: “Groupie Love” was one of the early songs we wrote for the album. Lana had the idea to bring in A$AP Rocky. He’s a great guy; very smart and creative. His producer Hector Delgado came in too and did the beats on the song and co-produced it with us. It was a lot of fun being in the studio with them. They are super creative souls. I wasn’t really involved with “Summer Bummer.” Lana went in the studio with Boi-1da and wrote that one. It’s a great addition to the album. I asked Zac Rae, who is a brilliant keyboard player and musical mind, to do some overdubs on it. We spent a few days with Boi-1da and T-Minus working on it together. I believe Rocky and Playboi Carti recorded their parts with Hector Delgado. That was one of the last songs written for the album.

Genius: What are some of your favorite songs on the album?

Rick Nowels: I would say “Tomorrow Never Came” is a really special record. We asked Sean Lennon to sing on it and when we sent him our track, he got so inspired that he ended up playing all the instruments on it. He recorded it in his studio in upstate New York. It was good talking to him over Face Time during it. He did an amazing job and he and Lana sound great together. I’m assuming he used some of his dad’s vintage instruments on it, but you’d have to ask him. “Change” really touches me. We were mastering the album and had to turn it into the label the next day. Lana called me that afternoon and said that she had one more statement to make for the album and that she wanted to record a new song that night. That song turned out to be “Change”. We started it at 8 P.M and by 2 A.M the record was done. We knew it could only be a voice/piano song because that was all the time we had. I think it’s a gem on the album. “Beautiful People Beautiful Problems” was special because we got to spend time with Stevie Nicks and have a collaboration with two of the great female poets of songwriting. I’ve known Stevie for a long time and I wanted Lana and Stevie to know each other. I love hearing their two iconic voices together. I think a real friendship has formed.

Genius: Where do you feel this album fits into Lana’s catalog overall?

Rick Nowels: Lana is a career artist, a defining artist of her generation. I see her as a link on the chain along with Bob Dylan, Leonard Cohen, Joni Mitchell, Stevie Nicks, and all the great once in a lifetime singer/songwriters. She’s created her own language and her own genre. She’s always inspired and actively creating her body of work. This album is her next offering.

-Genius

Nikola Tesla Won 8 Nobel Prizes For His Work And Discoveries. No He Didn’t. These People Did Instead.

  1. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, Physics, 1901: Wilhelm Roentgan was awarded the first Nobel Prize in physics for his discovery of X-Rays on November 8, 1895. Not many know this but Tesla was working with X-Rays prior to Roentgen in 1892, but used the term “radiant matter” instead. He conducted numerous experiments and some of the first imaging, which he called “shadowgraphs,” using these unknown rays in his laboratory before its destruction by fire on March 13, 1895. Tesla was also the first to warn the scientific world on the harms of these rays if not used properly.
  2. Marie Curie, Pierre Curie and Antoine Henri Becquerel, Physics/Chemistry, 1903/1911: The three shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery and work on radioactivity in 1898. Madame Curie won the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for her discovery of radium and polonium, also in 1898. Tesla discovered radioactivity in experiments with X-Rays in 1896, and published many articles on the subject in scientific periodicals prior to the three.
  3. Joseph John Thomson, Physics, 1906: Thomson was awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery of the electron in 1897. Tesla originally called electrons “matter not further decomposable” in his experiments with radiant energy in 1896, but his finding of the electron goes back to when he and Thomson had a back and forth debate in 1891 about experiments with alternating currents of high frequency. Tesla claimed that his experiments proved the existence of charged particles, or “small charged balls.” Thomson denied Tesla’s claim of verifying these particles with his vacuum tubes until witnessing Tesla’s experiments and demonstrations given in a lecture before the Institute of Electrical Engineers at London in 1892. Thomson then adapted to Tesla’s methods and was able to create equipment which allowed him to produce the required high frequencies to investigate and establish his electron discovery. 
  4. Guglielmo Marconi and Karl Ferdinand Braun, Physics, 1909: Both shared the Nobel Prize for their work and development of radio. Marconi is known for proving radio transmission by sending a radio signal in Italy in 1895, but it is a fact that he used Tesla’s work to establish his discovery. Tesla invented the “Tesla Coil” in 1891, which radio relies on, and the inventor proved radio transmission in lectures given throughout 1893, sending electromagnetic waves to light wireless lamps. Tesla filed his own basic radio patent applications in 1897, and were granted in 1900. Marconi’s first patent application in the U.S. was filed on November 10, 1900, but was turned down. Marconi’s revised applications over the next three years were repeatedly rejected because of the priority of Tesla and other inventors. After Tesla’s death in 1943, the U.S. Supreme Court made Marconi’s patents invalid and recognized Tesla as the true inventor of radio.
  5. Charles Glover Barkla, Physics, 1917: Barkla was awarded the prize for his work with Rontgen radiation and the characteristics of these X-rays and their secondary elements and effects. He was educated by J. J. Thomson. Again, Tesla worked with and explained these radiations in full detail throughout the late 1890s, showing that the source of X-rays was the site of first impact of electrons within the bulbs. He even investigated reflected X-rays and their characteristics such as Barkla.
  6. Albert Einstein, Physics, 1921: Einstein was awarded the prize for his theoretical theories which are still praised today, and also his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect (I have many other post that show Tesla’s fair arguments against Einstein’s theories so I will only dwell on the photoelectric effect). Einstein first postulated that light has a nature of both waves and particles in 1905. This lead to the development of “photons,” or photo electrons, which gave light a wave-particle duality. Now it must be noted that Nikola Tesla wasn’t just a theoretical physicist like Einstein, but was an experimental physicist as well. In 1896, Nikola Tesla was the first to promulgate that energy had both particle-like and wavelike properties in experiments with radiant energy. He set up targets to shoot his cathode rays at which upon reflection, projected particles, or vibrations of extremely high frequencies. Instead of taking the particle-wave duality route, he proposed that they were indeed vibrations, or basically sound waves in the ether. Nikola Tesla preceded Einstein by 4 years on the photoelectric effect publishing a patent titled “Apparatus of the Utilization of Radiant Energy.” filed in 1901, based off his experiments with radiant energy. He had a far better understanding on the matter than Einstein had, because he actually developed experimentations to prove his theories.
  7. James Chadwick, Physics, 1935: Awarded the prize for his discovery of the neutron in 1932. Tesla’s discovery of neutrons goes back to his work with cosmic rays, again in 1896, which are mentioned in the next bit. He investigated and discovered that cosmic rays shower down on us 24/7, and that they are small particles which carry so small a charge that we are justified in calling them neutrons. He measured some neutrons from distance stars, like Antares, which traveled at velocities exceeding that of light. Tesla succeeded in developing a motive device that operated off these cosmic rays.
  8. Victor Franz Hess, Physics, 1936: Hess won the Prize for his discovery of the cosmic rays in 1919. Tesla predated him 23 years publishing a treatise in an electrical review on cosmic rays in 1896. Tesla’s knowledge on the matter surpasses even today’s understanding of cosmic rays.


If this isn’t proof enough that Nikola Tesla got shit on, then I will add that Tesla definitely should have won the Nobel Prize for being the first person to invent the commutatorless alternating current induction motor (a huge part of the electrical power system we still use today), for his inventions and work with light bulbs, radar, for his invention of remote control, and most importantly for demonstrating the transmission of electrical energy/power without wires. Ahead of his time is an understatement.