raskova

Marina Raskova (1912-1943) was a Soviet pilot, navigator, and commander who founded 3 famous female air regiments during the Second World War.

Born to a middle-class Russian family, Raskova initially had aspirations of becoming a musician, but eventually abandoned the idea to study chemistry. While working in a dye factory as a chemist she met Sergei Raskov, an engineer, who she married and had a daughter with. She changed careers in 1931 when she joined the Aerodynamic Navigation Lab of the Soviet Air Force as a draftswoman. Aged 19 in 1933 she became the first female navigator in the Air Force and the following year became the first woman to teach at the Zhukovskii Air Academy.

In 1935 she divorced from her husband and focused on her flying career. She become a famous pilot as well as a navigator, setting a number of long distance records. This included the famous ‘Flight of the Rodina’ covering 6000km from Moscow to Komsomolsk, which she conducted with two other female pilots, Polina Osipenko and Valentina Grizodubova. However the flight ran into difficulties at the end of its 26 and a half hour journey when poor visibility hampered the landing. As the navigator’s pit was vulnerable in crash landings, Raskova bailed out with a parachute while the two pilots completed the landing.  She survived with no water and almost no food for 10 days before she found her way to landing site and reunited with her team. All 3 women were decorated with the ‘Hero of the Soviet Union’ award, the first women ever to receive it.

With the outbreak of World War 2 the Soviet Union was in need of pilots and many women volunteered. However while there were no formal restrictions on Soviet women in the military, many found their applications were denied or mysteriously delayed. Raskova proposed the creation of women’s aviation units and used her celebrity status to propose the idea directly to the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. Following a speech by Raskova in September 1941 calling for women pilots to be welcomed into the war, Stalin ordered the creation of 3 new air regiments, the 586th Fighter Aviation Regiment, the 125th Guards Bomber Aviation Regiment, and the 46th Taman Guards Night Bomber Aviation Regiment, dubbed The Night Witches. These regiments were entirely formed of women, from the pilots to the engineers to the support staff. Each regiment contained around 400 women, most of them in their early twenties, who completed 4 years’ worth of training in a matter of months.

Raskova personally took command of the 125th Bomber Regiment, for which she obtained the very best equipment available, including the state-of-the-art Petlyakov Pe-2 bombers, which caused some resentment from male units. The 125th regiment went on to fly 134 missions over the course of the war, dropping over 980 tons of bombs.

Raskova herself was killed on January 4th 1943, while attempting to lead two other Pe-2’s to a safe airfield. She was forced into making a forced landing on the Volga Bank, which resulted in the deaths of the entire bomber crew. Raskova received the first state funeral of the war and her ashes were buried in the Kremlin Wall beside those of fellow pilot, Polina Osipenko. She was posthumously awarded the Order of Patriotic War 1st Class and the regiments she created continued to serve for the duration of the war.

flickr

Valentina Matyukhina (08.05.1915 – 23.12.1944) by Olga
Via Flickr:
Guards senior lieutenant, master pilot of the 125th âMarina M. Raskovaâ Borisov Guards Bomber Regiment. Flew 53 missions, was killed at a combat mission. Матюхина Валентина Алексеевна (8 мая 1915 – 23 декабря 1944) Гвардии старший лейтенант, старший летчик 125 гв. БАП им. Расковой В Отечественной войне с января 1943 года. За время пребывания на фронтах Великой Отечественной войны (на октябрь 1944 года) совершила 53 боевых вылета (налет 55 часов 22 минуты) Погибла при выполнении боевого задания в районе Мачули (Латвия) 23 декабря 1944 года. Награждена орденами Красной Звезды (29.05.1943) и Красного Знамени (17.10.1944), медалью «За оборону Сталинграда» (22.12.1942)

Maria Dolina (1922–2010) was a Soviet pilot and acting squadron commander of the 125th “Marina M. Raskova” Borisov Guards dive bomber Regiment. She was active primarily on the 1st Baltic Front during World War II. Performed 72 sorties by plane Pe-2, dropping 45,000 kg bombs. In six aerial combats the crew of Maria shot down 3 enemy fighters (in the group). On August 18, 1945 Dolina was awarded the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union.

3

Soviet Night Witches

The Night Witches (from the German Nachtexen) were a regiment of female military aviators, formally the 588th Night Bomber Regiment of the Soviet Air Forces.

In the summer of 1941, Col. Marina Raskova was called upon to organize a regiment of women pilots to fly night combat missions of harassment bombing. From mechanics to navigators, pilots and officers, the 588th regiment was composed entirely of women; it became the most highly decorated female unit in the Soviet Air Force, each pilot having flown over 800 missions by the end of the war and twenty-three having been awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union title.

Missions were carried out against the German military from 1942 to the end of the war. The Night Witches flew in wood and canvas Polikarpov Po-2 planes; despite being obsolete and slow, the basic materials allowed for daring maneuvers and exceedingly quiet entrances. An attack technique of the night bombers was to idle the engine near the target and glide to the bomb release point, with only wind noise to reveal their location; German soldiers likened the sound to broomsticks, giving rise to the nickname. (Incidentally, the Nazis also feared and loathed them: any pilot who shot down a witch was awarded an Iron Cross.)

The Night Witches overcame challenges from within the Soviet Air Force to fly combat missions, and over time became an important force against the Nazis, flying over 23,000 sorties and said to have dropped 3,000 tons of bombs. And they did all this while decorating their planes with flowers and using their navigation pencils as lip color. [x]

Finally home.

The book tour is done for this year. Regular work and posting should resume soon.

(from the Boston event - featuring cosplayers for Isabella of France, La Jaguarina, Sappho, Micaela Almonester, Khawlah bint al Azwar, Marina Raskova, Julie d’Aubigny, Hildegard von Bingen, Xena, and Mariya Oktyabrskaya. Not pictured: Mariya’s wheelchair-bound dog, who cosplayed as Fighting Girlfriend)

Thank you to everyone who came out. It was amazing seeing all of you. I’m so grateful to be able to do this, and it’s all thanks to your support.

3

Soviet female pilots also flew with bravery and distinction fighting against the Germans. 

Thanks for the recommendation Jenn.

Source:  Wikipedia

“Night Witches” is the English translation of Nachthexen, a World War II German nickname (Russian Ночные ведьмы, Nochnye Vedmy), for the female military aviators of the 588th Night Bomber Regiment, known later as the 46th “Taman” Guards Night Bomber Aviation Regiment, of the Soviet Air Forces. The regiment was formed by Colonel Marina Raskova and led by Major Yevdokia Bershanskaya.

The regiment flew harassment bombing and precision bombing missions against the German military from 1942 to the end of the war.[1] At its largest size, it had 40 two-person crews. It flew over 23,000 sorties and is said to have dropped [2] 3,000 tons of bombs. It was the most highly decorated female unit in the Soviet Air Force, each pilot having flown over 800 missions by the end of the war and twenty-three having been awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union title. Thirty of its members died in combat.[3]

The regiment flew in wood and canvas Polikarpov Po-2 biplanes, a 1928 design intended for use as training aircraft and for crop-dusting, and to this day the most-produced biplane in all of aviation history. The planes could carry only six bombs at a time, so multiple missions per night were necessary. Although the aircraft were obsolete and slow, the pilots made daring use of their exceptional maneuverability; they had the advantage of having a maximum speed that was lower than the stall speed of both the Messerschmitt Bf 109 and the Focke-Wulf Fw 190, and as a result, the German pilots found them very difficult to shoot down. An attack technique of the night bombers was to idle the engine near the target and glide to the bomb release point, with only wind noise to reveal their location. German soldiers likened the sound to broomsticks and named the pilots “Night Witches.”[4] Due to the weight of the bombs and the low altitude of flight, the pilots carried no parachutes.[5]

From June 1942, the 588th Night Bomber Regiment was within the 4th Air Army. In February 1943 the regiment was honored with a reorganization into the 46th Guards Night Bomber Aviation Regiment and in October 1943 it became the 46th “Taman” Guards Night Bomber Aviation Regiment.[6] The word Taman referred to the unit’s involvement in two celebrated Soviet victories on the Taman Peninsula, during 1943.

Night Witches

“Night Witches" is the English translation of Nachthexen, a World War II German nickname (in Russian Ночные ведьмы), for the female military aviators of the 588th Night Bomber Regiment, known later as the 46th "Taman" Guards Night Bomber Aviation Regiment, of the Soviet Air Forces. 

The regiment was formed by Colonel Marina Raskova and led by Major Yevdokia Bershanskaya. The regiment flew harassment and precision bombing missions against the German military from 1942 to the end of the war. At its largest size, it had 40 two-person crews. It flew over 23,000 sorties and is said to have dropped 3,000 tons of bombs. It was the most highly-decorated female unit in the Soviet Air Force, each pilot having flown over 800 missions by the end of the war and twenty-three having been awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union title. Thirty of its members died in combat.

An attack technique of the night bombers was to idle the engine near the target and glide to the bomb release point, with only wind noise to reveal their location. German soldiers likened the sound to broomsticks and named the pilots "Night Witches.” Due to the weight of the bombs and the low altitude of flight, the pilots carried no parachutes.

nightbringer24  asked:

I just noticed in your Master List of Historical Women in Combat, you missed out the all-female 588th Night Bomber regiment, aka Nachthexen (Night Witches) from the portion focusing on women in 20th century conflict. I am a tad bit curious as to why they aren't included. Although, I can easily imagine that in a post of that length and with the amount of research needed, certain things can be unfortunately overlooked.

I included Lydia Litvyak as a placeholder for the Night WItches. Why, exactly, has to do with how I do my research. I do entries on individuals as opposed to groups. If a group has several notables that have each done different feats (i.e. the SOE), they’ll get listed separately. The Night Witches, as far as I’ve researched, all have varying degrees of the same story, and to me, it feels like Lydia is the most interesting/representative of them. That said, I could probably stand to put in at least Marina Raskova and Nadezhda Popova, whose lives each took some interesting twists.

“But wait,” you say, “you DO have some groups listed on there instead of individuals!” This is true. Units like the Dahomey Amazons and the Order of the Hatchet, as far as I’ve been able to determine, do not have documented individuals that could represent the group, I’ve listed them because they’re awesome and I need to try to find a “princess” to draw from them as opposed to making one up. If I knew of a single person who could encompass their story, I’d use them instead. Seh-Hong-Dong-Beh from the Dahomeys doesn’t count, since her story’s pretty thin.

Lastly, if there’s a single person who has “sidekick” stories, I’ve tried to list those separately from the main entry, since they often get overlooked and I don’t want to forget them. I’m here thinking of people like Jhalkaribai, Le Chan, and Phung Thi Chinh.

Hope that makes things somewhat clearer.

(and thank you for sending in an ask as opposed to raging about it in reblogs. Tumblr is pretty terrible at helping me figure out when people are trying to talk to me.)

slightlycollegechick replied to your post “I just noticed in your Master List of Historical Women in Combat, you…”

Litviak wasn’t in the Night Witches, though, she was in a different bombing regiment along with Marina Raskova—the founder of the three groups that allowed women. Bershanskaya, Popova, and others were in the Night Witches

Ack! You’re right. She was in the 586th, not the 588th. But she still shows up in a ton of books about Night Witches. My mistake (an understandable one, I’d hope - haven’t done thorough research on them yet!).

Amending now.