rangeland

anonymous asked:

Hey there, I've been really enjoying reading your blog and have been learning a lot. I'd like to ask about some claims I see being made online about that everyone needs to stop eating meat/animal products imminently to lessen climate change. Is that the full picture? Most articles I see online promote a "plant based" (read: vegan) diet, but is it feasible for everyone to even do that? Would it even help? Thanks :)

This is a very complex question, and a lot has been written on it from different perspectives, but I have to say that it definitely is not the full picture.  To be honest, the question you asked could become an entire paper and/or thesis, but here are some reasons why everyone stopping eating animals immediately is neither feasible nor sustainable for people or the climate. 

The fact of the matter is, we have to feed -everyone- with the land and resources we have.  Climate change aside, that is the problem ag seeks to solve. So a solution is not truly sustainable unless it is capable of feeding everyone and is better for the climate than alternatives. Ok? Here we go!

So, does going animal-free work to feed everyone?

  • Many people (myself included) cannot safely exist on a diet devoid of animal products. Whether it be due to celiac, soy allergies, corn allergies, other gut disorders, many people need at least some animal products to survive. I have celiac. I also cannot eat soy more than occasionally without getting very sick and risking permanent health consequences. The majority of the items on the list of foods I cannot eat without getting sick and/or putting my health at risk are plant-derived. I am far from the only one like this. 
  • Allergies to plant-derived foods are far more common than to animal-derived ones.  Of the top 8 allergens estimated to cause >90% of allergic reactions by the Mayo Clinic, half of them are plant sources, and of the plant sources listed (peanuts, tree nuts, soy, wheat) those are common sources of protein for vegetarian/vegan diets. If we cut out animal-based protein, where are people with these allergies going to get protein?
  • Saying “everyone can eat vegan” is ableist, and denies the reality of many people, myself and many of my family members included.

Going totally vegan may actually be bad for some ecosystems

  • Grasslands and rangelands need grazing to survive. These lands evolved under pressure from native herbivores, which in turn were kept in check by predators. Humans have largely eliminated those predators from a good chunk of the world, or severely reduced them (see the issue with deer overpopulation in the US due to human elimination of predators). 
  • Even if all the land currently grazed by herbivores was returned to wild populations, we risk herbivore overpopulation issues and long-term environmental degradation. If we just remove all grazing herbivores, we wind up with habitat degradation and in many places, increased fuel for forest fires, which causes its own problems. Removing herbivores also changes ecosystem balance for many other species that rely on herbivores to clear out excess brush, provide manure, or alter habitats.
  • A totally vegan diet for humanity wastes land.  (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/next/earth/going-vegan-isnt-actually-th/) Most grazing land is unsuitable for row crops without massive inputs of fertilizer and tilling/irrigation, which themselves can have a fairly high carbon footprint, and repeated tilling can be very bad for certain kinds of soil. (http://cropwatch.unl.edu/tillage/structure
  • Have you ever seen the rangelands of California or Montana? It would be extremely difficult to grow row crops there, but we are really good at growing cattle and sheep there!  Since grassland is 26% of the world’s land area, and 70% of the world’s agricultural area, any diet that doesn’t use pasture-produced animal products will be wasting a lot of land that could be feeding people. (http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/agpc/doc/grass_stats/grass-stats.htm)
  • As the world population increases, pressure on existing land usage is going to increase, and so agriculture needs to rise to meet this challenge.

So I think we can make the case that a), a vegan diet will not feed everyone, and b) wastes land that could be used to feed people. So by default it’s not sustainable.

But what about livestock and climate change?

  • Livestock production of all types sum up to 15% of total greenhouse gas emissions worldwide (http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/197623/icode/),and 24% of global greenhouse gases come from agriculture, forestry, and other land use, according to the FAO. That includes plant and animal agriculture. (source: https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/global-greenhouse-gas-emissions-data)
  •  Of this, livestock are a major contributor, but so is soil management, which is needed for growing both human food and feed for livestock.
  • By contrast, electricity/heat, industry, and transport account for 25, 21, and 14% of greenhouse gases, respectively. 
  • In the US, livestock account for just 4.2% of total greenhouse gas emissions. To contrast, transportation and energy production account for 27% and 31% of total US greenhouse gas emissions, respectively. 
  • The contribution of livestock to greenhouse gases is higher in developing countries, partially due to a lot of livestock eating poorer quality feed or needing longer to reach market, and the fact that grass-fed livestock do produce more methane than livestock fed on lower-fiber feeds. 
  • But as discussed above, those grass-eating livestock are necessary for producing food where other crops can’t grow, and keeping ecosystems healthy.
  • So for the US and other developed countries, focusing on livestock seems a bit shortsighted compared to developing cleaner energy and transport, right? (source: http://www.afia.org/rc_files/801/livestocks_contribution_to_climate_change_facts_and_fiction.pdf Disclaimer: the author of this piece is one of my advisors) 
  • The US EPA here lists a lot of good ways we can improve agriculture to reduce climate change https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/sources-greenhouse-gas-emissions#land-use-and-forestry but the fact of the matter is, while ag and livestock ag in particular contribute a good amount to climate change, it’s got a big job to do - feeding everyone!
  • Herbivores like cows and sheep and goats are needed to preserve native forage-based ecosystems and provide food, but at the cost of producing methane that contributes to climate change. However, if we got rid of every cow and sheep and replaced their contribution to human diets with chicken and pigs, we’d have to grow extra food for them, which means more greenhouse gases to grow those foods, and we’re back at square one
  • To me, the real benefit of livestock, especially on range situations, is that they turn human-inedible plant protein into human-edible protein. That’s a significant reason why they’re so important to the human food supply.
  • Livestock also eat a lot of byproducts (brewer’s mash, hulls, tomato pulp, etc) that would otherwise go to waste.  This reduces the impact of their feed production and of waste disposal in other industries. We’d have a lot of reject feed/byproducts sitting around if we got rid of livestock, and those would have greenhouse gas production from their waste disposal.

For me, it amounts to priorities - we know a vegan diet won’t feed everyone and it wastes land. We don’t have enough arable land to feed everyone on a vegan diet, even if everyone could go vegan. 

We have researchers like myself and my colleagues working to help farmers reduce greenhouse gas emissions no matter what they farm (greenhouse gas emissions are a waste, remember, and cost farmers money). Livestock, especially in range situations and developing countries, eat a lot of stuff that would otherwise go to waste, and help keep ecosystems healthy. 

So it’s not just the analytical life cycle of the animal and it’s impacts, it’s what would the effect on climate change be by a) removing livestock and b) dealing with the human food needs met by doing so? 

To me, livestock earn their keep, and while it is our job to keep improving livestock systems to be more efficient and help  prevent worse climate change, we also need to remember that livestock are an important part of the sustainability of existing systems. 

So hope that answered your question, anon! For more info, check out this video presentation that you might find neat, as well: http://articles.extension.org/pages/28311/clearing-the-air-on-animal-ag-and-greenhouse-gases

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Leonardo DiCaprio: Transcript of His Earth Day 2000 Speech (April 22nd, 2000) 

Ever since I was a little kid, environmental issues have sparked my interest.

Let me start off by saying that the problem with doing a speech on the environment is that there is so much to say about so many issues. So let me first take a step back and tell a story that comes from my family.

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High School Students Gather Near Burns, OR for High Desert Youth Range Camp

Campers at the High Desert Youth Range Camp  stand near the top of the Butte at the Northern Great Basin Experimental Range. Photo courtesy of the High Desert Partnership.

By Sarah Levy

Have you ever looked at a sagebrush—that small, woody plant with green-gray leaves that dots the high mountain deserts in western states—and wondered, “what’s so special about this thing?” Have you ever wondered how it survives on the steppes, where it’s hammered by harsh winters and hot summers? Have you ever wondered which plants and animals rely on sagebrush, or how landowners manage that landscape for cattle grazing?

Starting Wednesday, June 21, 2017, 15 high school-aged students interested in learning more about rangelands and their management will participate in three and a half days of hands-on experiential learning at the 6th annual High Desert Youth Range Camp held at the Northern Great Basin Experimental Range just outside of Riley, OR.

“High Desert Youth Range Camp is an excellent experience for any student that might be considering a career in the natural resources management field,” Camp Coordinator Gabi Johnson said.

Once camp is set up, students spend three of their days learning about soil health, rangeland botany, invasive plants, fire effects, fuel management, wildlife habitat management, the ability to use grazing as a tool, cattle feed requirements and other issues that affect ecological balance in the sagebrush steppe. Students hike, learn field methods and are quizzed on rangeland botany basics. Of course, because this is a summer camp, students also participate in cooking Dutch oven desserts, a selfie scavenger hunt, and rangeland bowling. Camp culminates on Saturday morning with a hike to the top of the Butte (the landmark of this property) and students presenting their management plans to their peers and field experts. With successful completion of camp, students are eligible to receive two free college credits in field studies from Treasure Valley Community College.

Photo: Students at the High Desert Youth Range Camp present a management plan for rangelands. Photo courtesy of the High Desert Partnership.

“I thought rangelands were a place of little importance, but now I know that this is a place with lots of life,” one former camper wrote.

In addition to earning college credit, Oregon high school students have the opportunity to earn the “Top Camper” award. The Top Camper receives an all-expense paid trip to the Society of Range Management annual conference to represent the Pacific Northwest Section in the High School Youth Forum (HSYF). The students present a professional paper on a rangeland related issue, tour area ranches and areas of natural resource management.  In Jan. 2018 the meeting will be held in Sparks, Nevada. The Pacific Northwest Section of Society for Range Management sponsors their entire trip.

Since its inception, more than 80 campers have attended the High Desert Youth Range Camp. The camp is conducted with staff from Eastern Oregon Agriculture Research Center, Burns, OR USDA-Agriculture Research Service, Oregon State University, Treasure Valley Community College, The Nature Conservancy,   Adrian High School, Burns High School, Bureau of Land Management, US Fish and Wildlife Service and Harney County Watershed Council.

Emily Weidner, a biologist with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, will be teaching the students about what’s needed to create and sustain wildlife habitat on the range.

“Range Camp is so important to help educate the next generation of landowners and ranchers,” Weidner said. “This is my first year at camp, and I’m excited to be a part of it.”

If you’d like more information about the High Desert Youth Range Camp, please call Gabi Johnson at 541.589.1239 or email her at dustin.gabi.johnson@gmail.com

anonymous asked:

You claimed that glassfed beef produces more gas than grain. Can you explain why? And does that mean that letting cattle graze on a natural grassland or pampas unsuitable for crops is bad?

What a good question! Again, you could write a whole paper on this, or a thesis, but let me try to hit the major points. I’m  going to have to break up the answer into two bits here:

1) Grass-fed animals, on an individual animal level, produce more methane per day than grain-fed ones. But why is that?

Let’s start with a view of what’s going on inside the animal: 

  • Herbivores like cattle and sheep have a very complex ecosystem of microbes in their gut, particularly in the part of the stomach called the rumen. 
  • The rumen is like a giant fermentation vat - it’s anaerobic (no oxygen), warm, and has a pH ranging from neutral-ish to slightly acidic. 
  • Feed goes in, gets regurgitated and chewed to break it down into smaller pieces, and then the rumen microbes break it down.  
  • While some nutrients exit the rumen into the acid part of the stomach without microbes getting a hold of them, the majority of nutrients in feed go to keep the microbes healthy and happy. 
  • The byproducts of the microbes’ actions on these feeds help feed the animal

The basic equation is this: 

Feed + microbes -> VFAs + CO2 + methane +microbial protein

  • VFAs, volatile fatty acids, are short-chain fatty acids that get absorbed by the gut and used for energy - in fact, these account for >70% of a cow or sheep’s energy!  
  • Rumen microbes use nitrogen in feed to grow and make more microbes, and when they get washed out of the rumen into the acid stomach, become a major source of protein to the animal, especially on low-protein diets. 
  • Waste products like carbon dioxide and methane get burped out and become greenhouse gases.

Methane is what the rumen does with excess hydrogen. 

  • There’s been research that shows that the level of hydrogen in the rumen affects the rate of certain chemical reactions, especially ones needed for microbial function, and too much hydrogen can make it harder for some microbes to function.  
  • So methane production by specific methanogenic microbes reduces hydrogen in the rumen, allowing microbes to go on their merry way. 

What you feed cows alters how much hydrogen microbes produce as a byproduct of fermenting feed.  

  • The major VFAs, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are always going to be produced, but the ratios differ depending on diet. 
  • When acetate or butyrate is produced, so is hydrogen, and hydrogen levels rise in the rumen.  
  • When propionate is produced, the reaction uses up hydrogen, and hydrogen in the rumen decreases.
  • Pasture-based diets contain lots of cellulose, which produces mostly acetate when fermented.  
  • This is good, because cellulose is one of the things that humans definitely can’t digest, so cows are turning human inedible food into tasty meat and milk
  •  But it also means that there’s more hydrogen in the rumen because of the higher acetate levels.  
  • Mostly-grain diets, which have more starch, favor propionate, so less hydrogen and therefore less methane gets produced by the animal itself

There are other more complex effects involving different microbial groups, plant compounds, and pH effects, but let’s stick with this for now. 

There’s also the factor that methane production is driven by how much feed enters the rumen, which is driven by how much feed the animal needs to meet its energy requirements.  Forages usually have lower energy per pound of feed and are less digestible, so an animal needs to eat more. This, combined with acetate being the major VFA, means that on a per day basis, a grass-fed animal will in general produce more methane than a grain-fed one. 

However, the nice thing about grass-fed beef is that the inputs to the system are lower.  On native pasture, the only inputs are often rain and manure.  On managed pasture, there may be irrigation, seeding, fertilizer, etc.  

For grain-based diets, you have to add on the energy (and greenhouse gases) from producing the feed, processing the feed, and transporting the feed, versus the greenhouse gases from managing pasture.  But grain-fed cattle eat a lot of byproducts from other industries that would otherwise go to waste (beet pulp, distiller’s grains, barley hulls) so you need to consider that. Emissions from feed can make up a good chunk of the overall emissions associated with animal production, so the answer gets even more complex fast.  

This specific kind of analysis, of assigning greenhouse gas emissions and summing them up for a product, is part of a technique called Life Cycle Assesment - that is, looking at the life cycle of a product to determine the inputs and outputs and the emissions associated with them.  I’m doing one right now on sheep production in California and it’s utterly fascinating, but it shows that in these situations, there often isn’t an easy answer, and it depends a lot on where you set the boundaries and what you define as an impact. The debate is ongoing, and there really isn’t one clear-cut answer right now. 

So, moving on to part 2 of your question:

Is it bad to let cattle graze land unsuitable for crops because the animals themselves produce more methane than the same cow on a grain-based diet? DEFINITELY NOT.  

Cattle grazing on rangelands is definitely sustainable if managed right.

 I discussed this on my previous post here http://animalsustainability.tumblr.com/post/159885334236/hey-there-ive-been-really-enjoying-reading-your but grasslands need large herbivores to survive, and given how much land is grassland, not producing livestock on grasslands wastes a lot of land that could feed people. Removing herbivores also changes ecosystem balance for many other species that rely on herbivores to clear out excess brush, provide manure, or alter habitats.

If we don’t graze these native rangelands with something, then we risk habitat degradation and impacts on the other species that live there.  Large herbivores are an important part of the grasslands’ circle of life, and help promote ecosystem health if managed sustainably.  Grass-fed systems are also important for using land responsibly to feed everyone. 

Methane is just one part of the big picture. We need to look at ecosystem health, and the methane and other GHGs needed to produce what we’d feed these cattle if we didn’t feed them pasture.

So to answer your question, Both grain-fed and pasture-based systems have their place in modern agriculture, and neither is strictly better than the other.  And the fact is: all systems have the potential to be sustainable!

Thanks for staying with me this long. Here, have some cute Herefords as a treat (one of my favorite beef breeds). They have such sweet faces. Image credit: Irish Hereford Breed Society

Male lions roar to establish territory, but with the decline of the lion population, roars have gotten less frequent. San Diego Zoo Global​ is working to conserve lions through a division of the Northern Rangelands Trust. With your help, we can bring back the roar. #WorldLionDay (photo: Scott Pollard)

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#TravelTuesday with Guest Photographer Bob Wick Continues with Day Trips Near the Vegas Strip.

About two hours from Las Vegas in a very remote, lightly populated area is the Basin and Range National Monument. It is truly an iconic American landscape. The vast, rugged landscape redefines one’s notions of distance and space and offers great landscape photography opportunities among its vast valleys surrounded by rugged mountains. The Monument preserves the legacies of 13,000 years of culture and the White River Narrows and Mount Irish Archaeological Districts, which include large concentrations of prehistoric rock art. During the late 19th century, Basque and other ranchers brought sheep and cattle into the valleys, and ranching remains an important part of the local culture to this day.  This is a very remote area with no visitor facilities and limited cell phone coverage, so come prepared.

Photo tip: Learn to use a digital editing program.  There are many on the market that will work perfectly well for most basic photo adjustments.  Great photographers like Ansel Adams spent much more time in the darkroom than they did in the field. Now we have the advantage of doing the same types of adjustments digitally. Adjusting contrast, light balance and other basic fine-tuning will make your images pop – the key is to be subtle and not overdo it.  I always shoot “RAW” images and do the all image adjustments myself. Most people who think adjustments are “cheating” don’t realize that if they don’t shoot RAW files, their camera is doing many adjustments automatically and they are giving up personal artistic control. 

Check out our @esri Nevada daytrips multimedia storymap for more stunning photos, videos, helpful links and maps of the area: mypubliclands.tumblr.com/traveltuesdaynevada.

Herb of the Week-Alkanet

COMMON NAMES

Alkanet
Bugloss
Common Alkanet
The plant known commonly as alkanet is a biennial herb familiar to all herbalists. The herb is characterized by coarse and hairy stems as well as leaves that arise out of a cluster of basal leaves. The plant is about 1- 3 feet tall when fully developed. The plant is also characterized by possessing lower leaves that are stalked; these can grow up to eight inches in length. Leaves in the upper part of the plant are narrow, they can be oblong or lance like in shape, these upper leaves can reach about six inches in length with a width an inch. Alkanet bears very dainty and purplish blue flowers, these flowers bloom from late May up to October, the flowers are tubular in shape, they can be about one fourth of an inch across and are replaced by minute and nut like fruits of the plant.

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Cow herding can be beneficial to the wildlife in parts of Africa. In areas where there is low quality grass, cows are able to graze down on it providing high quality grass for the other wildlife like the hartebeest and grant. Previous grazing also stimulates growth which is beneficial for elephants and waterbuck.

Cattle for Conservation? How cattle grazing affects the behavior of wild grazers on shared rangelands in East Africa- J Schieltz

Rapid Research #22

I think about the Tok'ra all the time. I think they are one of most fascinating cultures I have ever seen developed on tv. Think about what their society has to deal with.

  • no children. The symbiotes are born with genetic memories, and the humans are recruited. No mammalian births to Tok'ra harseesis children. Not to mention, since they have no Jaffa, about half of their symbiote children likely die while trying to blend
  • a large part of their conflict with the Tau'ri and the SGC is that they’re too willing to leave people behind, but they are in an entirely different position. They have no safe base to retreat to, and no army or WMDs as fallbacks. They have no “normal life” with restaurants and universities, they have existed for thousands of years as a resistance force.
  • they must have incorporated dozens and hundreds of human cultures into theirs, as they recruited new hosts.
  • they are never alone: every single Tok'ra is two people. I bet that’s why they have a seemingly easy time doing long undercover missions solo, because they never actually are.
  • how exhausting it has been in human history for resistance fighters, yet these guys have been doing it for so long that it’s their whole society.
  • I think it’s crazy interesting that they bury their dead in the gate. Not only is it effective against being captured and reanimated with a sarcophagus, it’s just a really beautiful image. The funeral in “Allegiance,” with the words “Never surrender, even in death,” is one of my favorite lines, right up there with the “Shal kek nem ron” the Jaffa say (need to make a Jaffa post too).
  • the requirements for a successful romantic partnership probably means that when everything aligns so that all 4 parties are happy, it’s very intense. Not to mention the possibility of emotional feedback loops between symbiote and host over another person.
  • their lifespan is extremely long, but their way of life is very transient. Their tunnels are made to be deconstructed at a moment’s notice, and they’re pretty devoid of decoration as well.
  • speaking of decoration, they dress for practicality and camouflage only. As far as I remember, they don’t wear jewelry that’s not also a weapon or tool. I wonder if that’s a cultural reaction to the goa'uld tendency to dress and decorate extravagantly, a result of recruiting a lot of people who are probably used to wearing uniforms, or some mix of that.
  • what do they eat, actually? They live under deserts and rangelands (which is interesting for humans, and very different for the symbiotes, considering their species evolved in swamps) and don’t seem to have any food production. Do they forage, or trade?
  • how difficult is it to adapt to sharing a body? What are arguments like? When one is a member of a committee or something, does the other automatically become so also?

These are the questions/thoughts that keep me up at night.

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Spring comes to the grassland! #weekendinspiration

The last frost is long gone and the cottonwoods have put on their best green, all of which signals a change in seasons on the high grasslands of southern Arizona.  At Las Cienegas National Conservation Area southeast of Tucson, the rush of life – from new pronghorn fawns and prairie dog pups to calves at the Empire Ranch – is reason to celebrate.

Pronghorn antelope are among North America’s fastest animals, but just minutes after birth even walking in a straight line looks like a challenge.  This year’s fawns will join a growing herd in the area that once dipped below 20, but now stands near 300 thanks to cooperative conservation work and improved habitat.

This is also ranching country. A drive of cows and calves through the sacaton grass and mesquite into the Empire Ranch headquarters corral calls to mind over 140 years of continuous tradition.

Smaller critters thrive amidst all the action.  The Black-tailed Prairie Dog – a skittish but curious mammal that builds elaborate tunnel networks - was extirpated from Arizona by 1960, but now at Las Cienegas several colonies welcome new pups to the mix each spring.

Summer is on the way, but for now some appreciation of spring is in order.

Post by Adam Milnor, BLM Arizona; new photos by Bob Wick, BLM

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Working Landscapes: Livestock Grazing on the Agua Fria National Monument

Livestock grazing played an important role in our history and how we settled the west.  The Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 established the US Grazing Service and was passed as a means to provide regulation of grazing on public lands to improve rangeland conditions.  When the US Grazing Service and the General Land Office merged to become the BLM in 1946, livestock grazing continued as a valid, permitted land use; it continues as a legitimate land use today.

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A bloody combination of forces has led to a drastic decline in lion populations. As we move into the next 100 years, San Diego Zoo Global is working with organizations to protect keystone species and wildlife diversity. To be successful, strategies to save lions (and other wildlife) must respect and incorporate the needs of local people.  We’re proud to partner with Ewaso Lions and the Northern Rangelands Trust to fund their boots-on-the-ground efforts.

Details: http://bit.ly/SavingSimba

Photo by @amivitale. Yesterday was #WorldRangerDay and here is one of my heroes, Kamara, with two of the baby rhinos he looks after at Lewa Wildlife Conservancy (@lewa_wildlife). Rangers like him literally put their lives on the line to protect and care for these animals every day. Thanks to their work and investment in the local communities, Lewa did not lose a single rhino to poaching in 2014. Ranger units like Lewa’s and the Northern Rangelands Trust (@nrt_kenya) have significantly improved the security of wildlife and people in the neighboring areas.

@natgeocreative @thephotosociety @nikonusa @natgeo #savetherhinos #lewawildlife #natureisspeaking #conservation #animals #nature #rhinos #kenya #magicalkenya #bestwildlife #nikonnofilter #nofilter #nikon #d4s #nikonambassador #photojournalism #onassignment #amivitale by natgeo

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Happy Birthday, Oregon!

They say that “Virginia is for lovers.”  But it’s Oregon that was born 156 years ago today, on Valentine’s Day.  Maybe that’s why there are so many things to love about BLM-managed lands in Oregon, more than 15 million acres of forests, rangelands, beaches, mountains and more!

Ranching, a Nature Lover’s Labor of Love

By Rachel T. Carnahan, BLM Arizona Public Affairs and Tumblr Blogger

Diamond Butte on the BLM Arizona Strip. Photo by Lorraine Christian, BLM Arizona Strip Field Manager

Driving east into the sun, I gaze south across the Arizona Strip. The sage-studded desert floor seems to stretch on forever.  

In my head, I rewrite the story of the modern day cowboy, of the rancher who scratches a living from this harsh country.  My stories draw from memories of classic westerns and an imagination fed by rugged Arizona landscapes.  Who is that modern day cowboy?  What drives the cowboy to work the land today?  

As I take the truck off highway, onto a wide dirt road, I come closer to the White Pockets Corral and possibly answers to my questions.

Quail Hill Draw, Arizona. Photo by Jon Jasper, BLM Arizona Strip Outdoor Recreation Planner

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