raetia

Bergamo is located in Lombardia 40 km northeast of Milan, pop: 120,000. The foothills of the Alps begin just north of the town. Bergamo occupies the site of the ancient Bergomum, founded as a settlement of the Celtic tribe of Cenomani. In 49 BC it became a Roman municipality, containing 10,000 inhabitants at its peak. An important hub on the military road between Friuli and Raetia, it was destroyed by Attila in the 5th century. From the 6th century on, it was the seat of one of the most important duchies of northern Italy, together with Brescia, Trento, and Cividale del Friuli. After the conquest of the Lombard Kingdom by Charlemagne, it became the seat of a county under one Auteramus. In 1428 it fell under the control of the Venetian Republic, remaining part of it until 1797. In 1815, it was assigned to the Austrian Empire. Giuseppe Garibaldi freed it in 1859 during the Second Italian War of Independence, when it became part of the Kingdom of Italy. During the 20th century Bergamo became one of Italy’s most industrialized cities.

As of 2010, 85% of the population was Italian. The largest immigrant groups come from other European nations (mostly Romania and Ukraine): 4.89%, Americas (mostly from Bolivia): 4.61%, sub-Saharan Africa: 1.59%, North Africa: 1.53%. Currently 1/5 of babies born in Bergamo has at least one foreign parent. 

An Updated MLM Book List

My last list only had ~20 books on it, so I went through my Goodreads and Amazon lists to fill it out a bit more. Be sure to check for warnings on each book because I have not read them all. I marked the ones I’ve read that have questionable content so you can look into them more. 

  1. Aisling, Book One: Guardian; Aisling, Book Two: Dream; Aisling, Book Three: Beloved Son by Carole Cummings
  2. Ariah by B.R. Sanders
  3. Aristotle and Dante Discover the Secrets of the Universe by Benjamin Alire Sáenz
  4. As Meat Loves Salt by Maria McCann
  5. Ash and Echoes; Ice and Embers; Iron and Ether; Cairn and Covenant; Calling and Cull; Wine and Roses (I don’t know exactly where this one fits in or if it does) by August Li
  6. At Swim, Two Boys by Jamie O’Neill
  7. The Beauty’s Brother by Leon Hart (read; ☆☆☆)
  8. Black Magic; Come to Me (a short in the same universe) by Megan Derr
  9. Blood for Magic by Aundrea Singer
  10. Blood Tells by Rachel White
  11. Brethren; Matelots; Treasure; Wolves by W.A. Hoffman
  12. Call Me by Your Name by André Aciman
  13. Captured Shadows by Richard Rider
  14. Carry On (my sister recommends this one) by Rainbow Rowell
  15. The Cat in the Cradle; From Darkness to Darkness by Jay Bell
  16. Champion of the Scarlet Wolf: Book One; Champion of the Scarlet Wolf: Book Two by Ginn Hale
  17. The Charioteer by Mary Renault
  18. Cry to Heaven by Anne Rice
  19. The Desire for Dearborne by V.B. Kildaire
  20. The Devil in the Dust; Tower of the King’s Daughter; A Dark Way to Glory (doesn’t say LGBT on Goodreads; unsure if it actually is); Feast of the King’s Shadow (doesn’t say LGBT on Goodreads; unsure if it actually is); Hand of the King’s Evil; The End of All Roads (doesn’t say LGBT on Goodreads; unsure if it actually is)by Chaz Brenchley
  21. The Devil Lancer: A Novel of the Crimean War by Astrid Amara
  22. Downtime by Tamara Allen
  23. Dragon Slayer by Isabella Carter (read; ☆☆☆☆)
  24. The Engineered Throne; The Painted Crown by Megan Derr
  25. Eromenos by Melanie McDonald (underage)
  26. The Errant Prince by Sarah L. Miller (read; ☆☆☆)
  27. Evensong’s Heir by L.S. Baird
  28. Family of Lies: Sebastian by Sam Argent
  29. The Fire’s Stone by Tanya Huff
  30. The Foxhole Court; The Raven King; The King’s Men by Nora Sakavic
  31. Ghost; Weregild; Koan; Incendiary by Carole Cummings
  32. Gives Light; Looks Over; St. Clair; Why the Star Stands Still; Lending Light; Overlooked by Rose Christo
  33. Greenwode; Shirewode; Winterwode by J. Tullos Hennig
  34. Highfell Grimoires by Langley Hyde
  35. The High King’s Golden Tongue (read; ☆☆☆☆); The Pirate of Fathoms Deep by Megan Derr
  36. Human Frailties, Human Strengths by Jaye McKenna
  37. Kei’s Gift; Falling from the Tree; Staying Power; Home Ground by Ann Somerville
  38. The Last of the Wine by Mary Renault
  39. Lord Mouse by Mason Thomas
  40. Lord of the White Hell: Book One (reading); Lord of the White Hell: Book Two by Ginn Hale
  41. Luck in the Shadows (read; ☆☆☆☆☆); Stalking Darkness (read; ☆☆☆☆☆); Traitor’s Moon (read; ☆☆☆☆☆); Shadows Return (read; ☆☆☆☆; slavery, torture, sexual assault); The White Road (read;☆☆☆☆); Casket of Souls (read;☆☆☆☆); Shards Of Time (read;☆☆☆☆☆); Glimpses by Lynn Flewelling [My favorite series]
  42. The Luxury of Vengeance by Isabella Carter
  43. Made of Stars by Kelley York
  44. Magic’s Pawn (read; ☆☆☆☆; VERY major character death); Magic’s Promise; Magic’s Price by Mercedes Lackey
  45. The Magpie Lord; A Case of Possession; Flight of Magpies by K.J. Charles
  46. Maurice by E.M. Forster
  47. Mélusine; The Virtu; The Mirador; Corambis by Sarah Monette
  48. Mordred, Bastard Son by Douglas Clegg
  49. The Necromancer’s Dance; The Necromancer’s Dilemma by S.J. Himes
  50. On A Lee Shore by Elin Gregory
  51. One Man Guy by Michael Barakiva
  52. A Royal Affair; Aleksey’s Kingdom by John Wiltshire
  53. Sacrati by Kate Sherwood
  54. Sacred Fate; Hallowed Bond; By Chance Met; Heartstrings; Cross Purposes; In Fine Form; Shield Mate by Eresse
  55. Scarlet and the White Wolf; Mariner’s Luck; The Land of Night; The King of Forever by Kirby Crow
  56. The Soldier of Raetia; The Heirs of Fortune by Heather Domin
  57. The Song of Achilles by Madeline Miller (read; ☆☆☆☆☆)
  58. The Sons of Thestian by M.E. Vaughan
  59. Stasis; Flux; Equipoise (according to Goodreads profile, all royalties from this series are donated to Doctors Without Borders!) by Kim Fielding
  60. The Steel Remains; The Cold Commands; The Dark Defiles by Richard K. Morgan
  61. The Stone Prince; The Painter Knight; The Granite Shield; The Golden Sword by Fiona Patton
  62. Swordspoint; The Privilege of the Sword; The Fall of the Kings by Ellen Kushner
  63. Tainted Blood; Tainted Soul by Sam C. Leonhard
  64. Trick of the Light; Turncoat by Megan Derr
  65. Two Boys Kissing by David Levithan
  66. The Vintner’s Luck; The Angel’s Cut by Elizabeth Knox
  67. Wicked Gentlemen by Ginn Hale
  68. Widdershins; Threshold; Stormhaven; Necropolis; Bloodline; Hoarfrost; Maelstrom; Fallow by Jordan L. Hawk
  69. Wraeththu: The Enchantments of Flesh and Spirit; Wraeththu: The Bewitchments of Love and Hate; Wraeththu: The Fulfilments of Fate and Desire by Storm Constantine
Emperor Augustus

{A condensed summary of his life}

He was the first emperor of Rome and founded the Roman Empire by replacing the Roman republic. 

Early life

Gaius Octavius was born on the 23rd September 63 B.C. In 43 B.C., his great-uncle, Julius Caesar, was assassinated and Octavian was made heir in his will. Following this, he joined with Mark Antony and Lepidus to defeat the assassins in the Battle of Philippi. After this, they divided as they all wanted to be the new leader of Rome. Lepidus was driven into exile and Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium. Instead of becoming another dictator, Octavian established the principate and he gave himself the title of Augustus. 

Reign

Augustus engendered social reform and began reconstructing Rome. He erected several impressive new buildings and became patron to several famous poets, such as Virgil. He managed to make peace with the Parthian Empire and improved much of Rome. He did this by reforming their tax system, developing networks of roads, introducing an official courier system, establishing a standing army, introducing the Praetorian Guard and creating official police and fire-fighting services. Augustus’ reign was so great that it initiated the idea of the Pax Romana.

Military glory

Augustus greatly expanded the Roman Empire by conquering Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum and Raetia. He also extended his power further into Germania, Africa and Hispania. 

Death

Unfortunately for Augustus, he never had any sons, only a daughter called Julia. Therefore, he had no heirs. He had two step-sons however, from his second wife, Livia. The eldest son was Tiberius and he succeeded as Emperor. Augustus sadly died in 14 A.D. at the age of 75. It is possible that he died from natural causes, however there were many rumours that Livia had poisoned him.

Celtic Gold Coin Of The Vendelici Tribe

This gold stater was struck in the early 1st century BC. It shows a triskeles within a wreath-like torc with an annulet at each open end. The reverse side shows a pyramid of eight annulets: five, on the bottom, each enclosing a pellet, and three, forming the top two rows, each enclosing a smaller annulet; all within a wavy torc.

The Vindelici lands were known to the Romans as Vindelicia (map) and were considered bounded by the Danube and Germanic frontier to the north, the Inn (Œnus) to the east, Raetia to the south, and the Helvetii to the west. These lands today form northeast Switzerland, southeast Baden, and southern Württemberg and Bavaria. The chief town is assumed to have been the oppidum at Manching before the Romans; after the Roman conquest, the tribe’s capital was moved to Augusta Vindelicorum (“Augusta of the Vindelici”, modern Augsburg).

Together with the neighboring tribes, the Vendelici were subjugated by Tiberius in 15 BC. The Augustan inscription of 12 BC mentions four tribes of the Vindelici among the defeated, the Cosuanetes, Rucinates, Licates and Catenates.

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Lutetia, asteroid and ancient French tribe
image

The asteroid Lutetia lies almost directly in the plane of the ecliptic approximately 230 million miles from the sun, on average. It was discovered in 1852 by the German-French painter, astronomer and polymath Hermann Goldschmidt, who discovered it not long after purchasing a telescope he financed by selling paintings of Galileo produced on a recent trip to Florence. Although he originally believed that he had discovered a new planet, he soon confirmed that it was indeed an asteroid and named it after the Roman name for the city that eventually became Paris: Lutetia Parisiorum, named for the Gallic tribe the Parisii who first inhabited the island later known as Île de la Cité. In July of 2010 the French spacecraft the Rosetta passed approximately 1800 miles away from Lutetia and took several hundred high resolution photographs, mostly of the north pole of the asteroid. Lutetia is a medium sized asteroid, somewhat egg shaped, 100 kilometers in diameter and 120 kilometers in diameter along its longest axis, with a fairly eccentric orbit.

In March 2011 the International Astronomical Union agreed to a naming system for Lutetia’s features, allowing them to be named for regions, cities and rivers in Roman Gaul, as in the map above:
Baetica, Achaia, Etruria, Narbonensis, Noricum, Pannonia, and Raetia.
Like most students of Latin, one of the first ‘real’ texts I read was Caesar’s Gallic wars, ’Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres….’, and one of the first early maps I studied was pre-Roman Gaul. It’s all coming back to me! Expect to see more Latin than Greek words in the next couple of weeks!

Image of Lutetia courtesy ESA 2011 MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/RSSD /INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA. Orbit of Lutetia courtesy NASA/JPL, used with permission. Map of Caesar’s Gaul in the public domain.