queen mary (queen consort)

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April 1st, 2017 || Official photos released by the Danish Royal Court to mark the confirmation of HH Prince Felix, the youngest son of Prince Joachim and former wife Alexandra, the Countess of Frederiksborg. 

The three photos taken by Steen Brogarrd feature Felix with his siblings, parents, grandparents, and godparents.

Christa Manley (Alexandra’s mother), Alexandra the Countess of Frederiksborg, Prince Nikolai, Prince Consort Henrik, Queen Margrethe II, Prince Felix, Princess Marie, Prince Joachim, Princess Athena and Prince Henrik pose for photographers outside of Fredensborg Palace Church after the confirmation of Prince Felix on April 1st, 2017.

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The Danish Royal Family celebrate Queen Margrethe and Prince Henrik’s wedding anniversary by unveiling the sculpture “ Miss Fredensborg" on June 5, 2017. The sculpture is their joint anniversary gift and was designed by Prince Henrik. 

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get to know me meme (royalist edition): monarchs | | Mary I of England

Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558) was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death. Her younger half-brother, Edward VI, (son of Henry and Jane Seymour) succeeded their father in 1547. Edward attempted to remove Mary from the line of succession because of religious differences. On his death, their first cousin, Lady Jane Grey, was proclaimed queen.  Mary assembled a force in East Anglia and deposed Jane. Excluding the disputed reigns of Jane and the Empress Matilda, she was the first queen regnant of England. In 1554, Mary married Philip of Spain, becoming queen consort of Habsburg Spain on his accession. After her death in 1558, her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed by her younger half-sister and successor, Elizabeth I.

Prince Felix (14 years old) of Denmark , Prince Henrik (8 years old) of Denmark , Prince Nikolai (17 years old) of Denmark , Prince Vincent (6 years old) of Denmark , Prince Christian (11 years old) of Denmark , Queen Margrethe II of Denmark , Prince Consort Henrik of Denmark , Princess Josephine (6 years old) of Denmark , Princess Athena (5 years old) of Denmark , Princess Marie of Denmark , Prince Joachim of Denmark , Crown Princess Mary of Denmark , Princess Isabella (10 years old) of Denmark and Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark are gathered for the unveiling of the sculpture “Miss Fredensborg” to celebrate the 50th wedding anniversary (on July 10th 2017) at Fredensborg Palace in Fredensborg , Denmark 💍 -June 5th 2017.
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Look at Josephine and Athena , they are so cute 💜💕😍.

His Majesty King Philippe and Her Majesty Queen Mathilde of Belgium will make a state visit to Denmark on 28 and 30th March 2017.

The forthcoming state visit aims to strengthen the already strong ties between Denmark and Belgium. The close connection between the two royal families that descended from the Glücksburg line dates back to the year 1863. Thus attended the Belgian royal couple in celebration of HM the Queen’s 75th birthday in 2015 and HM Queen Mathilde is also godmother to HRH Princess Isabella .

—  Danish Royal Court

♕ GET TO KNOW ME: ROYALIST EDITION ♕

✧ Royal Facts {3/5}

↳ In her lifetime, Queen Mary saw 6 monarchs: Queen Victoria, King Edward VII, King George V (her husband), King Edward VIII, King George VI, and Queen Elizabeth II.
Mary lived to see more monarchs than any other queen consort in British history.

HM Queen Margrethe II will celebrate her 77th birthday on April 16th, 2017 with the rest of the royal family at Marselisborg Palace. The Danish Royal Family will make an appearance on the palace balcony following the changing of the guard.
—  Danish Royal Court

Just want to dedicate a post to Queen Mary I of England for a hot minute. 

Mary has such a bad reputation: merciless, frothing at the mouth with religious zealotry, the dark to Elizabeth I’s light. We have John Foxe’s Book of Martyrs to thank for this, a work published a couple of decades after Mary’s death and loaded with misogyny and anti-Catholic sentiment. He called Mary’s reign “bloody” and thus, she gained her lasting sobriquet of “Bloody Mary”. In the early 2000s, Mary’s sister, Elizabeth, won a top spot in a poll held by the BBC called “100 Greatest Britons.” Contrastingly, Channel 4 held a similar poll at the same time called “100 Most Evil Britons” of which Mary was a number. ranking alongside and above literal murderers and criminals. Even today, we take Protestant propaganda (fiercely anti-woman, might I add) seriously and this idea of a bloodthirsty, flame-haired tyrant has entered the popular imagination in Britain and by extension, quite a fair portion of the Western world. Mary was polarising, complicated, occasionally difficult but to me, she ranks as one of the most severely maligned monarchs (and women) in history.

Remember her, now, with this singular fact in mind: she was the first legitimate and undisputed female monarch in English history. And what’s more, she successfully WON her throne by force, one of the only times this had been successful in the history of England. Mary essentially could’ve used a legal loophole and ruled above the law and above Parliament because all legislation regarding the power and authority of monarchy in England up until this point explicitly referred to the rights of men and the rights of kings. Instead, though, in 1554, Mary passed the Act of Regal Power, an incredibly important but forgotten act. This stated in absolute terms that female rulers in England had the exact same rights and amount of authority as their male predecessors. It was her idea, because she believed she was equally as a capable as a king and because she knew that kingdoms needed a basis of guidelines for authority. Later, when Elizabeth came to the throne, this act was incredibly helpful and allowed for a fairly smooth transition. Mary had essentially legitimised all female monarchical power for her subsequent successors. There were other times she proved to be so much more than an empty-headed bigot. She promised her people that she wouldn’t marry Philip of Spain without Parliament’s consent. She reminded everyone that she came from a long line of powerful females (her grandmother was Isabella of Castile, after all). She was, at first, perfectly prepared to spare innocent Lady Jane Grey and only punish the men who had manipulated Jane into taking the throne from Mary in the first place and was only forced to execute her when poor Jane became a focal point for shoddy, badly planned rebellions. And, during her coronation, Mary was crowned as both queen regnant and queen consort as a kind of answer to all those who asserted that the ceremony of kings couldn’t possibly apply to a woman (Elizabeth would be thankful for this move years later, too). She frequently flitted between whether she wanted to dominate or hold back but she was utterly convinced that she could do as good a job as a man.

As for her religious policy that she often gets called up on: it was not all about burning heretics. In fact, it was mainly preoccupied with re-education in order to introduce Catholicism as the dominant religion of England. It would be gradual and Mary knew this. She was a figurehead of the 16th century Counter-Reformation, so often painted as something entirely masculine. The burnings were atrocious, of course, and mainly acted as a deterrent. But you have to remember that burning was the accepted punishment for heresy in Europe at this time and was carried out before Mary and after her. The only difference for Mary is ferocity: however, this makes sense since Mary only reigned for 5 years. Nowadays, Marian historians agree that had Mary lived longer, her religious reforms would’ve been incredibly successful and secure and she could’ve reigned as a fairly peaceful and enlightened Catholic monarch.

That being said, Mary could be unfair and cruel. She occasionally let her bitterness about the tragedy of her childhood override what was probably the right thing to do. For example, Mary offered all the Protestant heretics a chance to recant and be saved EXCEPT for Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, who recanted twice but to no avail. Mary had no mercy for him because he was one of the main reasons behind her bastardisation and subsequent mistreatment by her father. She hated him and it showed. 

But the major criticisms of Mary fall pretty flat when studied carefully and it is a damn shame that those criticisms have been so pervasive and continue to lead a character assassination on her legacy. If anything, we should feel pity for Mary. She famously said she had not been born for happiness, as she spent most of her life trying to make up for the love she had been denied by her father, who had once called her the pearl of his world until he decided that her existence was worth tuppence next to that of a son. She doted on her husband who, in turn, saw her as a bit of an unattractive blip and rather insultingly proposed marriage to her younger sister very soon after Mary’s death (Elizabeth tartly refused and became Phillip’s greatest enemy). But I think, above all, we should regard Mary as a milestone in the history of female authority and thank her for laying one of the foundation stones of equalising the power between men and women. 

Tom Riddle Timeline : 1926 - 1940
  • Friday, December 31, 1926: Tom Marvolo Riddle is born at Wool's Orphanage in London, England, UK.
  • Tuesday, October 29, 1929: Tom Riddle is only a few months shy of his 3rd birthday. The stock market on Wall Street in New York City (USA) crashes. The Great Depression begins, ushering in a global recession.
  • Sunday, August 19, 1934: Tom Riddle is now 7 years old. Adolf Hitler becomes Führer of Germany.
  • Monday, January 20, 1936: Tom Riddle is now 9 years old. King George V dies, and his son ascends the throne as King Edward VIII.
  • Saturday, March 7, 1936: Germany invades and occupies the Rhineland, beginning Hitler's conquest of Europe. In May, Mussolini's Italy takes Ethiopia.
  • Saturday, August 1, 1936: The Summer Olympic Games in Berlin take place. The games were the first to be televised, and the radio broadcasts reach 41 countries. Over 70 hours of coverage is aired. Blackouts would occur from time to time, and the quality was generally poor. The opening ceremony was held at the Berlin Olympic Stadium. After the parade of nations and a speech by the president of the German Olympic Committee, the games were declared open by Adolf Hitler. Writer Thomas Wolfe, who was there, described the opening as an "almost religious event, the crowd screaming, swaying in unison and begging for Hitler. There was something scary about it; his cult of personality". Germany wins the most medals (89), with the United States placing second in numbers (56). The UK places 10th, with 14 medals.
  • Friday, December 11, 1936: King Edward VIII, the eldest son of King George V and Queen Mary, abdicates the British throne. He does so to wed Wallis Simpson, an American divorcee. He famously said, "I have found it impossible to carry the heavy burden of responsibility, and to discharge my duties as king, as I would wish to do without the help and support of the woman I love." His brother, Prince Albert, Duke of York, succeeds to the throne as King George VI. George VI's elder daughter, Princess Elizabeth (later Queen Elizabeth II), becomes first in the line of succession, as heiress presumptive.
  • Thursday, May 27, 1937: King George VI and Queen Elizabeth are coronated at Westminster Abbey in London. The return procession to Buckingham Palace was over six miles in length, making it the longest coronation procession up to that time; crowds of people lined the streets to watch it, over 32,000 soldiers took part, and 20,000 police officers lined the route. The event was designed to be a public spectacle, which was also planned as a display of the British Empire. May 1937 included a programme of royal events lasting nearly the entire month to commemorate and mark the occasion. In the lead up to the coronation, guests from across the Empire and around the world assembled on Buckingham Palace, and official receptions were held to welcome them; amongst those attending were Indian princes, and, for the first time, native African royalty. For the event itself, the prime ministers of each Dominion took part in the procession to the abbey, while representatives of nearly every country attended. Contingents from most colonies and each Dominion participated in the return procession through London's streets. It was also the first coronation to be filmed, as well as the first to be broadcast on radio.
  • Monday, December 12, 1937: The Daily Express reports that Lloyd's of London was "quoting 32 to 1 odds against Britain being involved in a war before December 31, 1939".
  • Tuesday, December 21, 1937: The Walt Disney animated film "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" premieres at the Carthay Circle Theatre in Los Angeles, California (USA). It is the first full-length, cel animated feature film. The film goes on to be featured on the cover of TIME magazine, 6 days later. The film opens to a tremendous critical success, with many reviewers hailing it as a genuine work of art, recommended for both children and adults. By May 1939, its total international gross of $6.5 million made it the most successful sound film of all time. Noted filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein and Charlie Chaplin praised the film as a notable achievement in cinema; Eisenstein went so far as to call it "the greatest film ever made". The film inspired Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to produce its own fantasy film, "The Wizard of Oz", in 1939. Within two years, Disney completes "Pinocchio" and "Fantasia", and had begun production on features such as "Dumbo", "Bambi", "Alice in Wonderland", and "Peter Pan".
  • Thursday, December 22, 1937: A strange fish was found on a fishing trawler in East London, South Africa, part of the British Empire (Commonwealth). It was later identified as a coelacanth, previously thought to be extinct.
  • Saturday, December 25, 1937: George VI delivers his first Royal Christmas Message. At four minutes, it was the shortest Message to date.
  • Wednesday, December 29, 1937: The new Constitution of Ireland goes into effect. The Irish Free State was abolished, and the country was renamed simply "Ireland", or "Éire".
  • Friday, December 31, 1937: Tom Riddle turns 11 years old, and is visited by Albus Dumbledore, the Transfiguration Professor at Hogwarts, at Wool's Orphanage. Tom learns that he is a wizard.
  • Sunday, February 20, 1938: Tom Riddle is 11 years old, several months shy of his 12th birthday. Hitler gives a three-hour internationally broadcast speech in the Reichstag, Berlin (Germany), vowing to protect German minorities outside of the Reich, and reiterating demands for "restoration of German colonies". Later on, the House of Commons continues to endorse Neville Chamberlain's policy of appeasement towards Germany.
  • Thursday, March 10, 1938: Hitler orders his generals to prepare for an invasion of Austria.
  • Saturday, March 12, 1938: The German army crosses the Austrian border at 8:00 AM, completing "Anschluss" (union) with Austria.
  • Monday, March 14, 1938: Hitler visits Vienna. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain makes a speech in the House of Commons on "the Austrian situation", saying the government "emphatically" disapproved of Germany's deed, but that "nothing could have prevented this action by Germany, unless we and others with us had been prepared to use force to prevent it."
  • Sunday, March 20, 1938: Thousands of demonstrators march in London to protest the Bombing of Barcelona, and the Chamberlain government's refusal to allow arms to the Republicans [in the Spanish Civil War].
  • Sunday, April 10, 1938: 50,000 attend a "Save Spain" rally in Hyde Park, protesting the British government's policy on the Civil War.
  • Tuesday, April 26, 1938: On Budget Day in the United Kingdom, Chancellor of the Exchequer Sir John Simon introduces the biggest peacetime budget in the nation's history. Taxes on income, gasoline and tea were increased to help pay for the national rearmament program.
  • Friday, June 24, 1938: The Royal Air Force launches a new recruitment campaign, and receives 1,000 inquiries on the first day alone.
  • Saturday, June 25, 1938: Douglas Hyde becomes the 1st President of Ireland.
  • Sunday, July 5, 1938: The famous psychoanalysist Sigmund Freud, 82 and frail, arrives in Paris on the Orient Express, having fled persecution by the Nazis in his homeland of Austria. After a few hours of rest, he continues on his way to London, where he had been granted asylum. The next day, he establishes a residence at a rented home near Regent's Park in London. Freud was also made a British citizen upon his arrival in Britain, despite normally requiring five years' residence.
  • Monday, July 18, 1938: Queen Marie of Romania [Princess Marie of Edinburgh], 62, last Queen consort of Romania, and wife of Romanian King Ferdinand I, dies of pancreatic cancer. She was one of Queen Victoria's five crowned granddaughters and one of three to retain their position as consort after the conclusion of World War I, alongside the Queens of Norway and of Spain.
  • Thursday, July 28, 1938: The Cunard White-Star liner RMS Mauretania is launched.
  • Sunday, August 7, 1938: The RMS Queen Mary sets a record for east-to-west Atlantic crossing of 3 days, 23 hours and 48 minutes. On August 14, the RMS Queen Mary sets a record for the eastbound Atlantic crossing of 3 days 20 hours 42 minutes.
  • Friday, August 26, 1938: Germany sent notes to Britain and France asking them to compel Czechoslovakia to accept the demands of the Sudeten Germans, including giving them the right to autonomy. The British government announces the mobilization of the Royal Navy in response to German military exercises.
  • Saturday, August 27, 1938: Winston Churchill makes a speech in Theydon Bois, saying that war was not inevitable, "But the danger to peace will not be removed until the vast German armies which have been called from their homes into the ranks have been dispersed. For a country which is itself not menaced by anyone, in no fear of anyone, to place over 150,000 soldiers upon a war footing is a very grave step." Churchill said that Europe's fate lay in the hands of "the extraordinary man at the summit of Germany. He has raised the country from defeat; he has brought it back again to the foremost ranks of power. It would indeed be a fatal act if he were to cast away all he has done for the German people by leading them into what would almost certainly become a world war."
  • Tuesday, August 30, 1938: The British cabinet holds a meeting on the Sudeten crisis, and then issues a vague statement to the public: "At the conclusion of the meeting the ministers expressed their entire agreement with the action already taken and the policy to be pursued in the future."
  • Wednesday, August 31, 1938: Winston Churchill writes the Foreign Secretary, Lord Halifax, urging the formation of a united front with France, the Soviet Union and the United States.
  • Thursday, September 1, 1938: At 11:00 AM, Tom Riddle boards the Hogwarts Express for the first time. He sets off from King's Cross Station in London. Later that evening, he is Sorted into Slytherin.
  • Sunday, September 4, 1938: A Royal Air Force plane crashes into a residential area in the Edmonton region of London, killing the pilot and twelve other people.
  • Saturday, September 10, 1938: Alfonso, Prince of Asturias, heir apparent to the throne of Spain from 1907 to 1931, dies at the age of 31 in a car accident. He crashed into a telephone booth, and appeared to have minor injuries, but his haemophilia led to fatal internal bleeding.
  • Monday, September 12, 1938: Hitler makes a bombastic speech in Nuremberg, declaring that "the oppression of Sudeten Germans must end". The speech was broadcast live to the United States by CBS Radio and was the first time that many Americans had ever heard Hitler speak. The British cabinet held a meeting almost as soon as Hitler was finished speaking. They were relieved that Hitler had only demanded "justice" for Sudeten Germans, and had not committed himself to war.
  • Thursday, September 15, 1938: Thomas Wolfe, 37, an American writer and playwright, dies of miliary tuberculosis of the brain, after a bout of pneumonia. The next day, The New York Times wrote: "His was one of the most confident young voices in contemporary American literature, a vibrant, full-toned voice which it is hard to believe could be so suddenly stilled. The stamp of genius was upon him, though it was an undisciplined and unpredictable genius.... There was within him an unspent energy, an untiring force, an unappeasable hunger for life and for expression which might have carried him to the heights and might equally have torn him down." TIME wrote: "The death last week of Thomas Clayton Wolfe shocked critics with the realization that, of all American novelists of his generation, he was the one from whom most had been expected."
  • Monday, October 3, 1938: Irish troops take over the forts of Dunree and Leenan on Lough Swilly, ending 247 years of British military presence in Ireland.
  • Wednesday, October 5, 1938: Winston Churchill delivers a now-famous speech to the House of Commons, calling the Munich Agreement "a total and unmitigated defeat". In the British periodical "The Week", Claud Cockburn writes that Charles Lindbergh, the famous American airman, had recently told a meeting of the Cliveden set that "the Luftwaffe could defeat the British, French, Soviet and Czechoslovak air forces combined".
  • Sunday, October 16, 1938: Winston Churchill gives a radio address to the United States, outlining the threat of Nazi Germany, and the need of both Britain and the United States to arm themselves. The speech was titled "The Defence of Freedom and Peace", but subtitled "The Lights are Going Out", an allusion to the famous comment attributed to Sir Edward Grey at the beginning of the First World War, "The lamps are going out all over Europe".
  • Sunday, October 30, 1938: A radio drama performance of "The War of the Worlds", directed and narrated by Orson Welles, airs over the CBS radio network in the USA. It becomes famous for allegedly causing a nationwide panic among people who thought the drama about an alien invasion by Martians was a real news broadcast, but such accounts have been wildly exaggerated.
  • Tuesday, November 1, 1938: Seabiscuit defeats War Admiral in a special race at Pimlico Race Course in front of a crowd of 40,000.
  • Wednesday, November 16, 1938: The Halifax Slasher scare begins in West Yorkshire, England, when two young women reported being attacked by "an unseen assailant with a mallet or hatchet". Scotland Yard is called to assist as reports of the "slasher" grow. The case is dropped on December 2, when it is revealed to have been a mass hoax.
  • Sunday, November 20, 1938: Queen Maud of Norway ["Maud of Wales"], consort of Norwegian King Haakon VII, and the youngest daughter of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom and Queen Alexandra; the aunt of King George VI, dies from heart failure.
  • Thursday, December 1, 1938: Britain introduces a "national register" for war service.
  • Saturday, December 31, 1938: Tom Riddle turns 12 years old.
  • Tuesday, March 15, 1939: Tom Riddle is now 12 years old, and is set to attend his second year at Hogwarts in September. The Nazis take Czechoslovakia. Over the course of the next few months, Nazi Germany allies with Italy, as well as Soviet Russia.
  • Friday, August 25, 1939: Britain signs a Mutual Assistance Treaty with Poland.
  • Thursday, August 31, 1939: It is the day before Tom Riddle is set to take the Hogwarts Express from King's Cross in London. The British fleet mobilizes; Operation Pied Piper begins in London. On the morning of Thursday, August 31st 1939, news outlets across Britain were all reporting the same thing. In the coming days, millions of vulnerable civilians would be evacuated from the country's centers of industry and shipping for their own safety. The government feared aerial bombardment of cities and towns, something the world had so recently witnessed during the horror of the Spanish Civil War. "Evacuation Begins To-Morrow," were the words printed in large type across the front page of newspapers like the Express and Echo in Devon, which quoted the government announcement on evacuation: "It has been decided to start evacuation of the school-children, and other priority classes, as already arranged under the Government's scheme, to-morrow, Friday September 1st. No one should conclude that this decision means war is now regarded as inevitable."
  • Friday, September 1, 1939: At 11:00 AM, Tom Riddle boards the Hogwarts Express, and sets off for Hogwarts. Operation Pied Piper begins evacuations of London. Nazi Germany invades Poland. On September 1, 1939, Muggle children arrive at their school, clutching their gas masks and rucksacks which they had been required to bring to school for over a week in anticipation of the evacuation. They are organized in squads of fifty, with at least five teachers per squad. A banner giving the school name and colors leads each squad. Teachers wear bright-red armbands with the school numbers in black lettering. They were then marched to the train stations. Some mothers followed behind weeping, and a few had to be restrained by the police, from joining their children or snatching them back. Other children mustered at their local primary school, carrying their gas-mask, toothbrush, change of underclothes and label. Many of the evacuees thought they were going on vacation. In his Mass Observation diary, Joseph Welbank describes a conversation with a school mistress the night before the evacuation. "I said 'I bet the kids feel miserable don’t they?' She said 'No fear, they are looking forward to it. Some of them are sorry there wasn't a war last September. They want the holiday. That's the best way to look at it." This shows that many of the children did not know what was really going on, or why they were being evacuated. Some younger children had even arrived with shovels and pails, having been told by their parents that they were going to the seashore. The biggest problem for the evacuees during the long journey was a lack of food and water. Teachers had forbidden the children from bringing any water, the "official" reason being to avoid broken glass, but in truth, they did not want to worry about children having to use the bathroom. Fruit, such as apples, oranges, and pears, were used as thirst quenchers. When the children arrived at the railway platforms, they were loaded onto whatever train was available, with little effort to control their destinations. School groups and families were broken up in the rush to get everyone on trains. Parents were told that their children would send them a postcard notifying them of where they were once they had reached the reception area. One mother was overheard saying, "She (her youngest child) cried a lot last night…wish I knew where she was going." Other parents saw the disorganization and secrecy as reasons to evacuate their children privately.
  • Sunday, September 3, 1939: Britain, France, Australia and New Zealand declare war on Germany. By this point, nearly 1,437,000 people had been moved from British cities without a single casualty or accident. Evacuees are lower in number than anticipated by the British Muggle government. In London, only half of the schoolchildren went at this time. Nationwide, 827,000 schoolchildren, 524,000 mothers and children under five, 13,000 expectant mothers, 7,000 handicapped people, and 103,000 teachers and helpers were all evacuated. Aside from the complaints of mistakes in the evacuation, most of the hosts' grievances regarded child guests who were "verminous, bed-wetters, liars, thieves, had no respect for property, unclean habits, rude, quarrelsome, stuck-up, gave no assistance in the home, and would be too expensive to keep". Most of these problems were "diseases of poverty," which helped to make the middle and upper classes, as well as the poor people of the countryside, aware of the "deep and shameful poverty which exists to-day in the rich cities of England". E.A. Stebbing wrote in his diary for Mass Observation, "If good can come out of evil, then this war is surely doing good in showing people how other people live. There is no doubt that people in this district have been taken aback by the habits and conditions of the life of slum children." The hosts would have been more sympathetic to the conditions of their evacuees had London been bombed, but since it was not, they felt that the exposure to these dirty habits and "diseases of poverty" was unnecessary and their moods quickly changed from sympathetic to hostile. There was also the question of decent clothing. Many slum children were ill prepared for evacuation. Some arrived with little clothing, and others had clothes that were not suited for the wear and tear of country living. Kind foster parents felt it their duty to re-outfit children who came ill prepared. They often did this at their own expense, and then asked the parents to pay later, which caused issues because many parents could not afford new clothes for their children. In some towns, charitable funds were organized for children who had insufficient clothes or shoes and the government secretly distributed thousands of pounds for the poorest and most "necessitous cases". The children in London, who had not been evacuated, were left without school for several months. Since the government had expected more people to take part in the evacuation, they had re purposed many of the schools for the war effort, and sent all of the teachers to the country with the evacuated children. Doctors and social workers began to note the physical deterioration of the children left behind, because of the absence of school supervision, medical services, and school milk. The government was reluctant to re-open the schools in the evacuation areas, because it meant admitting the evacuation had failed.
  • Monday, September 4, 1939: British Royal Air Force attacks the German Navy.
  • Tuesday, September 5, 1939: United States proclaims its neutrality; German troops cross the Vistula River in Poland.
  • Sunday, September 10, 1939: Canada declares war on Germany; Battle of the Atlantic begins.
  • Wednesday, September 27, 1939: Poland surrenders to Germany. Nazis and Soviets divide up Poland.
  • Thursday, November 30, 1939: The Soviets attack Finland.
  • Monday, January 8, 1940: Tom Riddle is now 13 years old, and midway through his second year at Hogwarts. Rationing begins in the UK. Great Britain begins issuing ration books containing coupons for bacon, butter and sugar. Shortly after, tea, jam, biscuits, breakfast cereals, cheese, eggs, milk and canned fruit rationing were introduced. Later, as the war continued, many more items of both food and non-food items were introduced including meat, petrol, clothes, tea, and soap were rationed. The Ministry of Health records that 43% of the unaccompanied schoolchildren had returned home. Overall, Operation Pied Piper is considered to have failed, because by the beginning of 1940, almost 700,000 evacuees in England and Wales had returned home.