quantum black holes

independent.co.uk
Black holes are a passage to another universe, says Stephen Hawking
Humans could escape from black holes, rather than getting stuck in them, according to a new theory proposed by Stephen Hawking.

Unfortunate space travellers won’t be able to return to their own universe, according to Hawking. But they will be able to escape somewhere else, he has proposed at a conference in Stockholm.

Black holes in fact aren’t as “black” as people thought and could be a way of getting through to an alternative universe.

“The existence of alternative histories with black holes suggests this might be possible,” Hawking said, according to a report from Stockholm University. “The hole would need to be large and if it was rotating it might have a passage to another universe. But you couldn’t come back to our universe. So although I’m keen on space flight, I’m not going to try that.

Hawking’s proposal is an attempt to answer a problem that has tormented physicists about what happens to things when they go beyond the event horizon, where even light can’t get back. The information about the object has to be preserved, scientists believe, even if the thing itself is swallowed up — and that paradox has puzzled scientists for decades.

Now Hawking has proposed that the information is stored on the boundary, at the event horizon. That means that it never makes its way into the black hole, and so never needs to make its way out again either.

That would also mean that humans might not disappear if they fall into one. They’d either stay as a “hologram” on the edge, or fall out somewhere else.

“If you feel you are in a black hole, don’t give up,” he told the audience at the end of his speech. “There’s a way out.”


Finally! Hawking finally said it! YES!

in our silent moments
you ask me
what i’m thinking

i grasp for words
often remaining silent
as my tongue gets tied
into shy
and playful knots
thoughts
begin to wander
and i cautiously ponder
yet all i can give
are mere glimpses
of the dream that exists
when my eyes are closed

let me try to convey
all i long to say…

i imagine walking the rooms
inside my mind
with you
who understands
my every weakness
seeing them as strength
i look upon you
who fills the quantum
celestial gap
the black hole
within my heart
a universe
undiscovered
this niche missing
from reality
i envision a home
furnished
and complete
with all the facets
of an unblemished love
conveyed
and displayed
within each photo
that is hung on the walls
love thrives inside
the pages of every book
that rests
upon the dusty shelves
for us to read
letter by letter
together
i imagine that
on our darkest days
when lost in life’s maze
and one may not feel like reading
the other will speak
the words aloud
so very slowly
lovingly
with compassion
the sound will resonate
and saturate
our home
this love will linger about
in the air we breathe
floating
and swirling
captured under blankets
in-between the bedsheets
it will be piling high
on the harvest table
the vital nourishment placed
bountifully upon each plate
the sustenance
in abundance
that will feed our body
heart and soul
i clearly see you
transparent
and vulnerable
yet holding inside
the courage of lion heart
contained
within your own wounds
your weakness
becomes
your greatest
strength
i see you
who requires to be loved
as deeply you love
who looks into my eyes
and desires not to remedy
one single thing
instead
treasuring
what is yours
i see only you
the man who is willing
as i am willing
to cross even the most
treacherous valleys
climb the highest mountains
that we might enjoy the view
both together
forever

in the depths
of your eyes
i see sheer beauty
within every scar
they hide
i see brilliance
in the divine plan
of the past
that lead you here

i am left looking into us
reveling in the perfection
that is chaotically scattered
like diamonds among the stones
that lay upon the path
we walked
before finding

home

-Brie

Simulating a black hole

40 years ago Stephen Hawking predicted that black holes emit a special kind of radiation. Consequently black holes are theoratically able to shrink and even vanish. This radiation arises when virtual particles (pairs of particles developing because of quantum fluctuations inside the vacuum; usually they nearly instantly destroy each other) are near the event horizon. Then the virtual particle pair gets divided: one disappears in the black hole (and its quantum mechanical information) and the other one becomes real. Thus the black hole radiates but unfortunately this radiation is so low that astronomical observations are nearly impossible.
Therefore scientists have to simulate black holes to get empirical evidence. The physicist Jeff Steinhauer of the Technion, the University of Technology of Haifa in Israel exactly did this. He realized an idea of physicist Bill Unruh with an acoustical event horizon. He uses a fog made of rubidium atoms which is only slightly above the absolute zero. Because they are trapped inside an electromagnetic field these atoms become a Bose-Einstein Condensate. Inside of this condensate the acoustic velocity is only a half millimeter per second. With the help of accelerating some above this speed an artificial event horizon is created. The low temperatures lead to quantum fluctuations: pairs of phonons develop. In the simulation these pairs also get divided: one gets caught by the supersonic event horizon; the other one becomes some kind of Hawking radiation.
It is still not sure if this experiment really simulates black holes. According to Ulf Leonhardt it does not proof for sure that the two phonons are entangled. Thus it is not sure if the pairs arised out of one fluctuation. Leonhardt even doubts that the fog of atoms is a real Bose-Einstein Condensate. Leonard Susskind thinks this experiment does not reveal the mysteries of black holes: for instance it does not explain the information paradox, because acoustic black holes do not destroy information.

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Has LIGO already discovered evidence for quantum gravity?

“According to Einstein, a black hole’s event horizon should have specific properties, determined by its mass, charge and angular momentum. In most ideas of what quantum gravity would look like, that event horizon would be no different. Some models, however, predict notably different event horizons, and it’s those departure models that offer a glimmer of hope for quantum gravity. If we see a difference from what Einstein’s theory predicts, perhaps we can uncover not only that gravity must be a quantum theory, but what properties quantum gravity actually has.”

In 2015, LIGO collected data from a total of three candidate gravitational wave events, all of which were announced and released in 2016. These events verified the great prediction of Einstein: that decaying orbits should emit gravitational radiation with specific magnitudes and frequencies that distort spacetime in a particular, measurable way. But some quantum gravitational ideas modify the event horizon and the space just outside of it, creating the possibility that merging black holes will exhibit “echoes” superimposed atop the Einsteinian signal. For the first time, a team of theorists dove into the LIGO data to test this, and may have just uncovered the first evidence for quantum gravity in our Universe.

With the next run of LIGO already underway, be prepared to find out that gravity may be inherently quantum after all!

Single particles of light (photons) simulate quantum particles travelling through time were just used by scientists from the University of Queensland, Australia. They showed that one photon can pass through a wormhole and then interact with its older self.

The study of closed timelike curves (CTC’s) provides valuable insight into particles that can loop back on themselves, breaking free of linear time. One aspect of general relativity that has long intrigued physicists is the relative ease with which one can find solutions to Einstein’s field equations that contain closed timelike curves (CTCs) causal loops in space–time that return to the same point in space and time.

Closed timelike curves are a necessary concept to understand this experiment.
CTCs are used to simulate powerful gravitational fields, like the ones produced by a spinning black hole, that could theoretically (based on Einstein’s theory of general relativity), warp the fabric of existence so that space-time bends back on itself. This creates a CTC, almost like a pathway to travel back through time. The source of time travel speculation lies in the fact that our best physical theories seem to contain no prohibitions on traveling backward through time. The feat should be possible based on Einstein’s theory of general relativity, which describes gravity as the warping of spacetime by energy and matter. An extremely powerful gravitational field, such as that produced by a spinning black hole, could in principle profoundly warp the fabric of existence so that spacetime bends back on itself. This would create a “closed timelike curve,” or CTC, a loop that could be traversed to travel back in time.

3

The Huge-LQG (Large Quasar Group)

The Huge-LQG is a possible structure that could be one of the largest in the known universe. Having originally been identified as the largest, the Hercules-Corona Borealis Great Wall is bigger at 10 billion light years.

The Huge-LQG consists of 73 quasars, a quasar being a class of active galactic nuclei is essentially a superheated region of gas and dust that surrounds a supermassive black hole typically being 10-10,000 times the size of the Schwarzschild radius of the black hole. The existence of this structure defies Einstein’s cosmological principal which states that at large scales, the universe is approximately homogenous (meaning that the fluctuation in matter density throughout space can be considered small). It’s around 9 billion light years away from us, has a length of 1.24 gigaparsecs which is 4.0443 billion light years and a solar mass of 6.1 quintillion (that’s 6.1 quintillion times the mass of our sun and our sun is approximately 2 nonillion kg’s)!

4

Best of 2014!

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Still not satisfied? Relive the previous year in science!

What Would Happen To You If You Fell Into A Black Hole?

Black holes are without question some of the strangest places in the universe. So massive that they hideously deform space and time, so dense that their centers are called “points at infinity,” and pitch-black because not even light can escape them, it isn’t surprising that so many people wonder what it would be like to visit one.

It’s not exactly a restive vacation spot, as it turns out.

If you were to take a step into a black hole, your body would most closely resemble “toothpaste being extruded out of the tube,” said Charles Liu, an astrophysicist who works at the American Museum of Natural History’s Hayden Planetarium.

Liu said that when an object crosses a black hole’s “event horizon” — its outer boundary, or point of no return — the same physics that causes Earth’s ocean tides begins to take effect. Gravity’s strength decreases with distance, so the moon pulls on the side of the Earth closer to it a bit more vigorously than the side farther from it, and as a result, Earth elongates ever so slightly in the direction of the moon. The land is sturdy, so it doesn’t move much, but the water on Earth’s surface is fluid, so it flows along the elongated axis. “That’s the tidal interaction,” he said.

Rising tides are about as calming a scene as there is. A human toeing the line of a black hole? Not so much.

Near a black hole roughly the size of Earth, tidal forces are magnified off the scale. Swan-diving into one, the top of your head would feel so much more gravitational pull than the tips of your toes that you would be stretched, longer and longer. “Sir Martin Rees coined the term ‘spaghettification,’ which is a perfectly good way to put it. You eventually become a stream of subatomic particles that swirl into the black hole,” Liu said.

Because your brain would dissociate into its constituent atoms almost instantly, you’d have little opportunity to soak in the scenery at the threshold of an Earth-size black hole.

However, if you’re dead-set on visiting a space-time singularity, we recommend going big; bigger black holes have less extreme surfaces. “If you had a black hole the size of our solar system, then the tidal forces at the event horizon … are not quite that strong. So you could actually maintain your structural integrity,” Liu said.

In that case, you would get to experience the effects of the curvature of space-time, predicted by Einstein’s general theory of relativity, firsthand.

“First of all, you approach the speed of light as you fall into the black hole. So the faster you move through space, the slower you move through time,” he said. “Furthermore, as you fall, there are things that have been falling in front of you that have experienced an even greater 'time dilation’ than you have. So if you’re able to look forward toward the black hole, you see every object that has fallen into it in the past. And then if you look backwards, you’ll be able to see everything that will ever fall into the black hole behind you.

"So the upshot is, you’ll get to see the entire history of that spot in the universe simultaneously,” he said, “from the Big Bang all the way into the distant future.”

Not such a bad way to go, in the grand scheme of things.

A recent study suggests that each black hole contains another entire universe! According to the new equations, the matter black holes absorb and seemingly destroy is actually expelled and becomes the building blocks for galaxies, stars, and planets in another reality. Essentially, every black hole contains a smaller alternate universe. And our universe might just exist inside a black hole of a galaxy in a much larger universe.

NT time!

It’s often said that introverts have to take time to be alone and reserach after having socialized for a long while. As an ENTP (and a human being) I sometimes have to take time for myself too but I have realized that I don’t neccesarily need that time because I would have ran out of extroversion. In fact I think what I need the time for is intellectual stimulation. 


If I haven’t had enough brain food during the day or even during a whole week I start getting grazy. I get exhausted and my wit and charm turn off and I start feeling like an introvert stuck in a grazy house party. 

But I’m not an introvert (even thought this is exactly why I originally fooled myself into believeing I am one when I first got into mbti) and therefore my cure is not locking myself alone into an empty room for hours.

My cure is intellectual stimulation! Be it a good ol’ pseudo intellectual depate, an article about quantum physics and black holes, a murder mystery tv show, a conversation about international politics or an interesting book on social siences it will get my energy levels up and I’ll be my happy go-luck self again. 

Does this apply to other ENTPs or NTs as well? Bring it on fellas!

Set & Space

I’ve got so many upg feeeeelings about Set and his relationship to outer space. Think about it: God of Storms and Natural Disasters (the known universe is teeming with cosmic storms on a scale that makes the worst earth weather look a breeze generated from a dropped tissue), God of the Desert (space is… not that fertile nor hospitable to life, to say the least, and a desert doesn’t have to be hot and sandy to be classified as a desert), God of Unknown and Foreign Lands (think of the ONE PLACE that is the most foreign to us humans now, the one place we know the least about), God of Chaos (don’t even get me fucking started on spacetime and quantum theory and black holes), AND SO ON

It’s obvious that NTRW like Nut and Khonsu and Ra are more DIRECTLY related to celestial bodies and thematic elements of space, but they feel more like.. Space from the perspective of Earth? Meanwhile, Set’s Space is everything about it that’s unknown and strange and vast and infinite, all the details of the cosmos that we can’t see with the naked eye, everything that no human in our lifetimes will ever touch, and everything no human will -ever- touch.

So if you see a lot of space themes in my future Set art, that’s why. We talk about it a lot but I’m curious if anyone else discusses this with Set, or similar themes with any other NTR (since Set is the only one I’m in a communicating relationship w/ atm).

What Is Dark Matter?

There is as yet no answer to this question, but it is becoming increasingly clear what it is not. Detailed observations of the cosmic microwave background with the WMAP satellite show that the dark matter cannot be in the form of normal, baryonic matter, that is, protons and neutrons that compose stars, planets, and interstellar matter. That rules out hot gas, cold gas, brown dwarfs, red dwarfs, white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes.

Black holes would seem to be the ideal dark matter candidate, and they are indeed very dark. However stellar mass black holes are produced by the collapse of massive stars which are much scarcer than normal stars, which contain at most one-fifth of the mass of dark matter. Also, the processes that would produce enough black holes to explain the dark matter would release a lot of energy and heavy elements; there is no evidence of such a release.

The non-baryonic candidates can be grouped into three broad categories: hot, warm and cold. Hot dark matter refers to particles, such as the known types of neutrinos, which are moving at near the speed of light when the clumps that would form galaxies and clusters of galaxies first began to grow. Cold dark matter refers to particles that were moving slowly when the pre-galactic clumps began to form, and warm dark matter refers to particles with speeds intermediate between hot and cold dark matter.

This classification has observational consequences for the size of clumps that can collapse in the expanding universe. Hot dark matter particles are moving so rapidly that clumps with the mass of a galaxy will quickly disperse. Only clouds with the mass of thousands of galaxies, that is, the size of galaxy clusters, can form. Individual galaxies would form later as the large cluster-sized clouds fragmented, in a top-down process.

In contrast, cold dark matter can form into clumps of galaxy-sized mass or less. Galaxies would form first, and clusters would form as galaxies merge into groups, and groups into clusters in a bottom-up process.

The observations with Chandra show many examples of clusters being constructed by the merger of groups and sub-clusters of galaxies. This and other lines of evidence that galaxies are older than groups and clusters of galaxies strongly support the cold dark matter alternative. The leading candidates for cold dark matter are particles called WIMPs, for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles. WIMPs are not predicted by the so-called Standard Model for elementary particles, but attempts to construct a unified theory of all elementary particles suggest that WIMPs might have been produced in great numbers when the universe was a fraction of a second old.

A typical WIMP is predicted to be at least 100 times as massive as a hydrogen atom. Possible creatures in the zoo of hypothetical WIMPs are neutralinos, gravitinos, and axinos. Other possibilities that have been discussed include sterile neutrinos and Kaluza-Klein excitations related to extra dimensions in the universe.

Black holes might have “firewalls” that instantly incinerate things that fall in

Some physicists think black holes have a “firewall,” or a barrier that instantly incinerates any matter that falls into it. The problem is the idea of a firewall doesn’t fit in with older theories that we have about black holes, and scientists are never quick to abandon long-held theories. But quantum mechanics seems to suggest a black hole firewall exists.

Follow @the-future-now

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Gravity’s Most Extreme Effects Can Now Be Tested In A Laboratory

“Whether the black hole radiation is entangled across the horizon is a pressing question, for the fate of information falling into a black hole depends on it. If the particles are entangled and remain entangled, one of them must eventually fall into the singularity where it gets destroyed. This destruction leaves its partner in an ambiguous state: information has been erased. But such information erasure is forbidden in quantum mechanics, which poses a huge conundrum: physicists don’t know how to make quantum theory and gravity work together.”

One of the more puzzling phenomena in our quantum Universe is that of entanglement: two particles remain in mutually indeterminate states until one is measured, and then the other — even if it’s across the Universe — is immediately known. In theory, this should be true even if one member of the pair falls into a black hole, although it’s impossible to measure that. However, we can (and have) measured that for the laboratory analogue of black holes, known as “dumb holes,” and the entanglement survives!

A.I. is already here, and for now is being helpful. Each one of us distinctively disgusting. Big surprise. How long until we can teletransport Grandpa to Florida? Also, time to brush up on black holes and stuff, because the one in the Milky Way is awake and possibly hungry.