William T. “Bloody Bill” Anderson- Dr. Richard B. Kice, Of Richmond, Missouri, Took Several Photographs Of Anderson After His Death

He born in Kentucky in 1839; he migrated with his family from Missouri to the Council Grove, Kansas area before the war. By the time he turned 21 he was accompanying wagon trains on the Santa Fe Trail, selling stolen horses. With the start of the Civil War, Anderson began a career as a bandit, first with antislavery Jayhawkers, and later with proslavery Bushwhackers.

In July 1862, he returned to Missouri with his brother Jim, where they resumed their guerrilla warfare against Unionists in the area. His notoriety as a guerrilla began in 1863 when he joined the forces of William Quantrill. Believing the collapse of a Union jail in Kansas City that killed one sister and injured two others was a deliberate act by Union forces, Anderson joined forces with Frank James, Cole Younger and others and played a leading role in Quantrill’s raid on Lawrence, Kansas on August 21, 1863. During the raid approximately 200 men and boys were killed and the business district burned. On October 6, 1863, he helped Quantrill massacre Union General James Blunt’s column at Baxter Springs, Kansas.

On September 27, 1864, Anderson and his gang stopped a train near Centralia, Missouri, removed 24 Union troops, stripped and shot all but one in cold blood. Later that day they destroyed three companies of the 39th Missouri Infantry led by Major A.V.E. Johnston. Anderson and his guerrillas went on to serve with Confederate generals Sterling Price and Joseph Shelby in their unsuccessful raid into Missouri in the fall of 1864. When near Albany, Missouri on October 27, 1864, Anderson was caught in an ambush and killed, and his body transported to Richmond, Missouri, where it was identified by documents found in the pockets, including a photograph of Anderson and his wife, and a lock of his infant daughter’s hair.

Anderson was photographed with a Union soldier holding his head up, wearing a “guerrilla shirt,” and with a pistol propped in his hand. His body was placed on public exhibition in Richmond. He was decapitated, with his head placed on top of a telegraph pole, and his body was dragged through the streets before being buried in an unmarked grave.

Tintype by Richard Kice, Richmond, Mo.-Image Wilson’s Creek National Battlefield;WICR 30222 http://ozarkscivilwar.org/photographs/anderson-william/

(via Jesse James: A Rare Cabinet Photo Version His Famous Image | Lot #44012 | Heritage Auctions)

Jesse James: A Rare Cabinet Photo Version His Famous Image Dressed as a Quantrill Guerilla. This classic image is on a mount from Mitchell of Kansas City, Missouri, and matches the other cabinet of Jesse found in the Zink collection. It was originally in ambrotype form, taken on July 10, 1864, at Platte City, Missouri, following Jesse’s first engagement with Quantrill. Note that Jesse was not left-handed, but the original ambrotype was a reversed image. Period ink identification reads “Jesse W. James at age 19. In uniform of Guerillas…”

Quantrill’s Raid 1863

When the Kansas Territory was opened to settlement in 1854, abolitionists from New England rushed to the area in an effort to keep the territory from becoming pro slavery. Lawrence, Kansas was founded by the anti-slavery Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Society which was formed in 1854 and aided many emigrants to Kansas and Nebraska. Lawrence wasn’t just a destination, but also a center from which the emigrants could proceed.

Lawrence grew into an important stop on the Underground Railroad and Kansas Jayhawkers fought several times with pro slavery Bushwhackers from Missouri. One significant local clash was in 1856. Others were further south and involved people like John Brown and his family in places like Osawatomie. The conflict intensified at the the start of the Civil War, when Kansas became a free state

The most famous of these battles was on August 21, 1863, when William Quantrill (a former Lawrence school teacher) lead 400 Missouri men into Lawrence. They were intent on burning every house and killing every man. Around 200 men were killed that day. see-  raid and sacking of Lawrence, Kansas

The house pictured is 743 Indiana Street which was a boarding house at the time of Quantrill’s Raid. It was spared when Emily Hoyt, the landlady, successfully plead that it was her only source of income. Her son was hiding in the cupola.

see-  The Legend of the Golden Gun The Outlaw Josey Wales Arizona Raiders

Archibald Clement. “Little Arch, or Archie, at age 17 became William (’Bloody Bill’) Anderson’s lieutenant. It is said that in one short year Clement eclipsed the record of every known guerrilla by killing 54 men. He was part of William C. Quantrill’s famous raid on Lawrence, Kansas, August 21, 1863, and a major player in the Centralia, Missouri, massacre. After the Civil War he took up robbing banks until he was killed December 13, 1866, in Lexington, Missouri, at age 19.” Source.

Quantrill’s Raiders-1906 Reunion- Pro-Confederate “Bushwhackers" 

The first reunion of the men who rode with William Clarke Quantrill was held in September 1898 at Blue Springs, Missouri. They continued to hold annual reunions for thirty-two years, until 1929. Photo State Historical Society of Missouri.

Quantrill’s Raiders were a loosely organized force of pro-Confederate Partisan rangers, "bushwhackers”, who fought in the American Civil War under the leadership of William Clarke Quantrill. The name “Quantrill’s Raiders” seems to have been attached to them long after the war, when the veterans would hold reunions.