I support your right to ship

Shipping is a joy to some. It gives them happiness and away to get away from the real world. However humanity is a stupid judgemental animal. They always look for away or reason to hate.

I don’t understand the hate pewey gets. Or reylo. Or any fandom. Regardless of what you ship, do what makes you happy. After all if these people are easily triggered then they seriously need help. Remember you know you are not a bad person. You could be kind and mellow. Those who choose to ship hate will always be poison. If I support lewd art it’s only because it has always exist. And forever will exist. Label me as trash or pedo or any card you like to use. You only prove that you are the hateful trash.

To those who put up with the everyday bullshit know that you are not alone. If you choose to draw clean art, that’s good. It’s your choice. If you choose to draw adult then fine. Just remember to always respect each other and don’t lower yourself like those who live miserable lives.


National Archaeological Museum:

Mycenaean swords and hilts:

Fragment of a bronze sword. The hilt and shoulder are decorated in the cloissone technique, in which the scale compartments are inlaid with lapis lazuli. This elaborate design ends in lion or eagle-heads, from Mycenae.

Bronze dagger with golden decoration of feliformia in a landscape with bushes, from Pylos.

Gold hilt and pommel revetment of a long sword from Skopelos. The sword is decorated with repousse spirals and concentric circles. The gold sheet of the hilt from the hilt was donated by the Society of Friends of the National Archaeological Museum in 1938, while the pommel was discovered inside the tomb. 

Bronze dagger with a golden decoration of a marinescape with nautiluses, from Pylos.

Faience imitation of sword hilt with gold inlays, from Mycenae.

A long bronze sword with an elaborate gold hilt revetment, decorated with spirals and ending in lion-heads. Griffins adorn the blade, from Mycenae.

For some more mycenaean weapons see here and here


greek mythology ➻ Poseidon  (part 1/12)

“Poseidon was one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and myth. He was god of the Sea and other waters; of earthquakes; and of horses. In pre-Olympian Bronze Age Greece, he was venerated as a chief deity at Pylos and Thebes. Poseidon was protector of seafarers, and of many Hellenic cities and colonies.”

anonymous asked:

How diffrent is show Davos from book Davos ?

I have been sitting on this one for a while. Pardon the wait, anon? This deserved more than a few lines.

Initially, not so much. Davos was one of the better-adapted characters right through season four, with many of his scenes capturing the spirit of the character even as the plot showed signs of broader misinterpretation in adaptation. What few problems I had were, for the most part, directly caused by the poor understanding of Stannis’ character.

And then, in season five, show!Davos started to go off the rails.

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Bronze Spartan shield conquered, as the inscription punched on it reveals, from the Spartans at the victory of Pylos in 425 BC. Ancient Agora Museum in Athens, around 510 BC


Grave of ‘Griffin Warrior’ at Pylos Could Be a Gateway to Civilizations

Source: New York Times

Archaeologists digging at Pylos, an ancient city on the southwest coast of Greece, have discovered the rich grave of a warrior who was buried at the dawn of European civilization.

He lies with a yardlong bronze sword and a remarkable collection of gold rings, precious jewels and beautifully carved seals. Archaeologists expressed astonishment at the richness of the find and its potential for shedding light on the emergence of the Mycenaean civilization, the lost world of Agamemnon, Nestor, Odysseus and other heroes described in the epics of Homer.

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cosmog’s fashion shopping guide

ITS ARI!! ive been wanting to share my stores n tips for a while so… here goes. if u want more stuff lmk tho! these rnt all of my links (i left out all of my accessory+bags+jewelry+make-up stores especially so i might make a separate post 4 those) and i can give recs for specific styles/looks/items/budgets/etc bc i have a place(s)…..4 everythinggg


  • make an amazon wishlist (or a few!) to organize what u want. get the browser extension tht lets u add from websites other than amazon!
  • read reviews and customer feedback if theyre available to u!!! i literally……dont even consider buying something online w/o reading reviews if im unsure tbh. theyre rlly helpful.
  • be wary of buying rly cheap clothes on sites like amazon, sheinside, and choies, theyre often pretty bad quality and not what is advertised. ive been burnt before and trust me its better to get something better quality than to get something u can never wear bc it isnt made right!
  • consider basics first! think abt some pieces that are going to be the lynchpin of your wardrobe. u can pair more out-there pieces w/ them and theyll give your looks more versatility in what u can make!
  • good colors for basics are neutrals and a bit of colors you plan to wear a lot of.
  • thrifting is….so good if ur on a budget and even if ur not!!! u can find so much in thrift stores…..go thrifting
  • dont trust letter sizes. take your bust, waist, and hip measurements, and use every store’s individual size chart!
  • if youre debating between getting something a size smaller or a size larger, always go larger
    if u have a tailor available to u make use of them!! if u have a garment that u love but it doesnt fit u quite right u dont have to send it back!
  • make outfits while u shop! dont just buy pieces by themselves unless its something ur specifically looking for
  • if u have nowhere to start look at a store’s lookbooks, new in, and bestsellers
  • some websites also have features where u can shop the entire look the pictured model is wearing, or looks from their instagram, which i <3 to utilize!!!
  • take inspo from celebrities, instagrammers, and models! a rlly good way to get started is recreating looks uve seen before, esp if u have no idea what youre going for with a new outfit! 
  • i have an outfit curating instagram @stylegrinch and u can also find me on polyvore @solgaleo !
  • speaking of polyvore, its a really cool site for curating items and stuff into outfits!
  • use the extension honey to get huge discounts on most online stores!! it searches for all available coupons for u and stacks them if it can.


  • $ = mass market (forever 21, h&m, etc)
  • $$ = contemporary (urban outfitters, topshop, etc)
  • $$$ = designer (michael kors, etc)
  • $$$$ = haute couture (versace, oscar de la renta, etc)
  • favorites are italicized! 

price marks are dependent on what is being sold; a price mark for a store selling glasses for $100 will be different than a store selling a romper for $100.


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Jaydick week day 4: Greek Mythology

Summary: Jason contemplates his life and the people he’s met during the many years of the Trojan War

A handy guide to see who each character was based on:
Jason: Achilles
Dick: Patroclus
Tim: Odysseus
Bruce: Agamemnon
Alfred: Nestor
Damian: Diomedes
Barbara: Helen
Slade/Deathstroke: Paris

Jason stared out at the Mediterranean from the Trojan shore he had called home for nearly ten years. ‘This war is like all crime,’ he pondered, playing with the blade in his hand. ‘It seems never ending and hopeless.’

How Queen Barbara of Sparta had even allowed herself to be captured is one thing. Why King Bruce of Mycenae got involved is another. Nevertheless, here they all were. News had it Barbara was held captive by Slade of Troy, and forced into a marriage with him. Jason gritted his teeth. He had met Barbara a few times before the war and had got along well. He was all too happy to join the fight to bring his friend back home, even if it cost him his life.

The other men were okay. Not brilliant, but okay. King Bruce was an ass most of the time. He’d been a warrior for many years, residing over Mycenae as a guardian of the night. He seemed a contradiction, ruling with the grace of any good king, and fighting tooth and nail like a wild boar. He could be ruthless too, Jason had seen him in battle after all, but all his anger never went anywhere. He didn’t kill, which never failed to grate on Jason’s nerves.

King Alfred of Pylos was Bruce’s main advisor. He mostly kept himself away from conflict, whether it was within the camp or out on the battlefield, but there was no one better to stick behind the scenes. He was their last line of defence, their spiritual heart, and despite his closeness to Bruce he would still look out for any soldier, be they king or common man. He also berated the Mycenaean king from time to time, and that was always amusing to watch.

Jason didn’t know what to think of King Timothy of Ithaca. He had heard of his reluctance to go to war, leaving behind a shaky kingdom and growing family he was prophesied not to see again for 20 years. He would often tell wistful stories of his father, the former King Jack, or his beautiful and clever wife Stephanie. The man was also deadly in battle. While Jason was all rage and brute force, the Ithacan king had brains far beyond his brawn, that landed him an advantage in the madness of bloodshed. Watching his kill count grow, he could understand why he was called Timothy the Cunning.

King Damian of Argos was an arrogant little one. He considered himself the best of the lot, and with more battle experience than most at such a young age, maybe he wasn’t coming from nowhere. His swordsman skills were unrivalled, and besides Jason himself he had the highest kill count of any warrior. But boy, did he think he was hot shit. He figured that because he was a favourite of Athena he was above everyone else. Jason gave his bragging no notice. He’s met goddesses before. Nothing could compare to humanity.

And then there was him, the pondering warrior with a dagger in his hand. He was no king, only a demigod that was smashed to pieces and reborn near immortal in his mother’s cauldron. He hasn’t been the same since his resurrection, and he doubts he ever will be. He will act out vengeance as long as crimes are committed and he’s still breathing.
He shouldn’t even be here. It wasn’t his destiny. But things never turn out how they’re supposed to. Kind of like how he fell for his best friend.

“Jay?” The man in question rounded the bay to their tent. His dark unkept hair blew in the ocean breeze, and Jason wanted nothing more but to dig his hands into that mop, and cradle his second-in-command in his arms.
“I’m right here Dick.” He called, dropping the blade in the sand. Now was not the time for thoughts of war. As he drew closer his golden smile became more apparent, and Jason couldn’t help himself any longer. He reached forward and pulled the older man into a passionate kiss.

Sometimes he wished him and Dick could have a normal life together, away from the bloodshed and battlefields. He wanted to watch as his love taught some of the neighbour’s kids self defence, or to kiss him senseless during Dionysia in Athens. He wished they would die together with a long life behind them, and for their souls to find eternity together, wherever they ended up. But he knew it was a lost cause. Jason had war in his veins, and he knew Dick was never going to deny him of his blood. They gave up that dream the moment they stepped on the boat to Troy.

They both knew it was likely neither of them would come back home alive. But that didn’t mean they weren’t happy. And it certainly didn’t stop the dreams of “What If”.

mercenaryselena  asked:

Hello! I was wondering if you could do a retelling of the birth of Hermes and the fight he gets into with Apollo for stealing his cattle?

OK, so I put this up to a public vote and this myth was by far the most popular choice, so here we go. If people don’t want to read a myth about a mouthy child prodigy stealing his half-brother’s cows, then press J on your keyboard now as this is going to be a long post. More info under the Read More, as always!

The story starts, as all good stories should, with a woman giving birth in a cave. The woman in this instance is Maia, who is giving birth to Zeus’ baby, because approximately 70% of all babies in Greek mythology belong to Zeus. Once she’s popped the baby out, she’s like “well, it’s time for a nap. Hermes, watch over yourself” and then she’s out like a light and Hermes is left to stare at the walls or something.

After a few hours, Hermes gets really bored with living the baby lifestyle, and so he decides to absolutely subvert the infant hegemony by immediately learning how to walk. Like the freakish genius baby that he is, he escapes from his swaddling and toddles all the way down to Pieria, where he finds a whole field of cows. Immediately, he’s just like “sweet, I’ve always wanted a whole field of cows” and starts stealing them. Being a complete genius, he realises that he has to cover his tracks, so he finds a whole load of cow-sized boots that are presumably just lying all about the place in Ancient Greece, and he puts these boots on the cows and leads them away to a little town called Pylos. As soon as Hermes has left, Apollo saunters into the field where he keeps his favourite cows, and when he notices that they’re gone, he drops to his knees dramatically and cries “I will have my vengeance, in this life or… well, the same life, thank goodness for immortality!” and he sweeps away in a haze of sunlight and glory. 

Once he’s at Pylos, Hermes hides all the cows in the grotto, when his little tummy starts rumbling. Apparently forgetting the fact that he’s a newborn baby and absolutely should not be on solid foods at this point, he decides to slaughter two of the cows as a sacrifice, and then he cooks up the leftover meet with a little sage and probably some mixed herbs and a lovely red wine roux. While he’s waiting for the meat to cook, he finds an adorable little tortoise wandering around outside the cave, and immediately he’s like “awesome, time to continue my sociopathic spree of animal slaughter” and he kills the tortoise and cleans out the shell, stretching some of the cow hide and tendons across it, and bam, he’s invented the lyre. After playing a few prodigal ballads on his rad new instrument, he decides that he’s tired and it’s absolutely time for a little nap and maybe a burp or two, and so he waddles back home to Kyllene, where Maia, who is definitely not up for the mother of the year award, doesn’t even realise that he’s been missing and is covered in cow entrails.

Meanwhile, Apollo is doing some absolutely stellar detective work, probably whilst wearing his special detective hat, the one with the blue ribbon around the brim which brings out the cornflower hue of his eyes, because no-one steals Apollo’s cows and gets away with it. Seething with rage, he goes into the heart of the town of Pylos, and to the first woman he sees, he’s like “look, this is probably a really strange question, but have you by any chance seen a shitload of cows?” and the woman nods, briefly dumbstruck by Apollo’s jawline, and she says “this is probably a really strange answer, but I’m pretty sure I saw a baby leading a really well-organised line of cattle wearing shoes right through the heart of our fine town” and Apollo blinks and he’s like “shoes” and the woman says “yes, without socks” and Apollo says “a baby” and the woman nods and says “a human baby” and Apollo frowns and says “are you sure it was a baby and not just a tiny bald man?” and the woman shakes her head and says “it was definitely a baby, I don’t usually get confused between my infant son and my withered grandfather” and Apollo just sighs and says “well, that’s really thrown me for a loop, I have absolutely no idea who this nefarious baby could possibly be” and the woman is like “judging by your cheekbones, I would say that you’re probably a god, so why don’t you just use your whole divine science mojo and get it over and done with?” and then Apollo blinks, briefly denying the woman a glimpse of his azure gaze, and he’s like “that is the best idea I’ve ever heard from a woman, I will do just that”

and so, Apollo taps into his super special psychic abilities, and immediately he’s like “that goddamn little shit, I should’ve known it would be a devious child of Zeus that did this, honestly all of Zeus’ kids are just so terrible and badly behaved, he’s like a walking advertisement for vasectomies” and the woman is like “but aren’t you a child of Zeus?” and Apollo just pushes her to one side and he’s all “quiet, woman, I have a baby to physically overpower” and then he’s off to Kyllene to fuck an infant up.

At Kyllene, Hermes is sitting in his crib, being really adorable and cherubic and basically the epitome of everything a non-criminal baby should be, when Apollo bursts in, stark and handsome against the bright light outside the cave, and he’s like “arrest that baby! I have reason to believe he has partaken in a bovine conspiracy” and Maia is like “you are aware that he is literally three hours old?” and Apollo nods sagely and says “it’s a bitter pill to swallow but the worst kind of criminals start young, now hand that baby over and no-one gets hurt, except probably that baby” and then Hermes opens his little rosebud mouth and says “you’ve got the wrong man, Apollo, this is madness” and he smirks wryly and Maia’s mouth just falls open and she whispers “I’m getting Mensa on the phone right now” but Apollo ignores her and hisses “you won’t get away with this, Hermes, your one man crime spree is over” and Hermes just snorts and he’s like “dude, I’m a baby, you won’t convince a jury” and Apollo narrows his eyes and says “we’ll see about that, sunshine” and then Hermes just says “no, you’re sunshine” and then Apollo leaves to go and do the mature thing, which is to call their dad.

When Zeus arrives, Apollo is like “you have to do something, my incredibly recent half-brother has stolen all my favourite cows” and Zeus sighs and he’s all “can’t your mother fix it?” and Apollo is like “his mother isn’t the same as mine, dad, jeeze, I just said he was my half-brother” and Zeus blinks and he’s like “oh yes, of course, you’re my son. Haha, I totally knew that, son. Let’s go and sort this out, son” and Apollo is like “please stop calling me ‘son’, it’s weird” and Zeus is like “I agree, we will never speak of this again” and they go into the cave.

Immediately, Hermes just throws his little pudgy hands in the air and says “whatever Apollo says I did, I didn’t do it” and Zeus narrows his eyes and says “you’re both more verbose and defensive than the average baby, aren’t you?” and Hermes is like “what can I say, I got some traits from my dad” and then they make finger guns at each other and Apollo just starts banging his head against the cave wall and says really wearily “my cows, dad” and then Zeus clears his throat and tries to arrange his face into a serious expression and says “son, what’s all this about Apollo’s cows?” and Hermes is like “I didn’t steal them from under his nose and sacrifice some of them and turn one of them into a lyre and plectrum” and Apollo just shouts “I can’t believe what I’m hearing!” and Hermes scoffs and says “then fix your hearing, I just said I didn’t do it” and Zeus is like “you totally did it, didn’t you” and Hermes has the grace to look a bit bashful as well as proud and says “yeah, I may have very slightly done it” and Zeus beams and turns to Apollo and he’s like “are you kidding me? This absolutely fantastic baby of mine managed to steal your cows and invented an entire musical instrument! This is better than the time I stole a human male with the promise of cups” and Apollo just whimpers and Zeus sighs and he’s like “right, Hermes, let’s stop your brother’s bitching once and for all. Show me where you hid these cows” and Hermes whines “but daaaaad” and Zeus is like “no buts, I am putting my foot down and temporarily assuming the role of a father figure” and Apollo is like “you are literally our father” and Zeus says “for the next few hours, yes” and before Apollo can make a pithy rebuttal about parental responsibilities, Hermes is leading them to Pylos.

As soon as they get to Pylos, Apollo just runs over to his cows and starts hugging them, murmuring things like “don’t worry, papa’s here, no-one’s going to hurt you now” and Zeus looks at Hermes and says “he’s getting a bit Pasiphaë over this, isn’t he?” and Hermes is like “yeah, I’m starting to worry that he’s going to try and get revenge on me somehow” and Zeus takes him to one side and says “between you and me, son, I think you should apologise” and Hermes is like “I literally cannot do that, it goes against all my ethics as a spoilt brat, but I guess I could give him that sweet lyre I made from the flesh of his pets” and Zeus is like “that’s an excellent idea, son, we’ll make a diplomat of you yet”. So, Hermes goes over to Apollo and gives him the lyre, and says “no hard feelings, bro?” and Apollo just blinks and asks “what is that?” and Hermes is like “well, I tore the skin off your favourite cow and made it into this really beautiful instrument” and Apollo is about to start screaming when Hermes just holds up his hands and says “we can get into the ethics of that later, but first, here’s Wonderwall” and he starts playing a really haunting melody on this fantastic instrument, and when he’s finished, Apollo just blinks and says “I want it” and Hermes is like “if you promise to put this whole silly thing behind us, then it’s a deal” and Apollo is like “put what whole silly thing behind us?” and Hermes is about to clarify when he sees that Apollo is making a finger gun at him, and Hermes rolls his eyes and makes a finger gun back, and Apollo says “bro” and Hermes says “bro” and then Zeus is like “sons” and they all just hug it out in the beautiful scenic fields of Pylos.

And then, many months later, Zeus promotes Hermes to the role of his personal herald and messenger, because nothing says ‘employee of the month’ quite like juvenile petty theft.

My other retellings can be found here; my dedicated mythology blog is here; and my Mythology Mondays Facebook page is here. The latter two links also allow you to follow my progress in writing a whole actual book. Thrilling.

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This is an excerpt from my post, ‘THRACIANS, REAPERS OF THE BALKANS

Sitalces and the Scythians:

Teres’ son and heir, Sitalces, expanded its borders north to the Danube River, west to the Strymon River (Struma) and southwest to the rich Greek trade port colony of Abdera by the northern Aegean Sea. The Greek colonies within the borders of his kingdom paid the Odrysians tribute as well as the occasional gifts of “gold and silver equal in value to the tribute, besides stuffs embroidered or plain and other articles” (Thucydides, 97.3).

By these means the kingdom became very powerful, and in revenue and general prosperity exceeded all the nations of Europe which lie between the Ionian Sea and the Euxine; in the size and strength of their army being second only, though far inferior, to the Scythians.” – The Peloponnesian War by Thucydides, 97.5.

An early threat faced by Sitalces came in the form of a nephew named Octamasades who was of mixed Thracian and Scythian descent. This Octamasades usurped the Scythian throne from Scyles, his half-brother, who was disliked for the fact that he was half Greek, could read and speak Greek, married a Greek woman, built a house in the Greek trade colony of Olbia (north Black Sea coast), as well as publicly practicing the Greek Dionysian sacred rites. Scyles fled into Thrace seeking refuge. Octamasades chased after him but was met at the Danube River by Sitalces of Odrysia who sent Octamasades a message:

Why should we try each other’s strength? You are my sister’s son, and you have my brother with you; give him back to me, and I will give up your Scyles to you; and let us not endanger our armies.” – The Histories by Herodotus, 4.80.3. Both sides agreed and Octamasades beheaded Scylas.

Peloponnesian War (431–404 BCE):

The Athenian-led Delian League succeeded in expelling the Persians from Europe and claimed the coastal regions of the northern Aegean Sea (the Hellespont, Thrace, Amphipolis and the Chalkidikian Peninsula) where they continued establishing colonies. Colonies were even founded deeper into Thrace, Amphipolis for example. One reason for their interest in Thrace was its rich and abundant gold and silver mines. With the Greek triumph over Persia, the Athenians and their allies effectively held dominion over the majority of the Aegean Sea, its coastlines and its islands. We refer to this grand Athenian hegemony as the Athenian Empire.

^ The expanse of the Athenian-led Delian League in 431 BCE, before the Peloponnesian War.

The Athenian empire was now tyrannically imposing their control over allied Greek city states and the rich trade networks of the Aegean Sea but was plagued by rebellions. Sitalces allied himself with the Athenians, promising them aid in Thrace if they helped him conquer the Chalkidikian peninsula (which had recently left the Athenian-led Delian League) which was to the east of Macedon. To this end Sitalces assembled an army of “more than one hundred and twenty thousand infantry and fifty thousand cavalry” (Diodorus, 12.50.3).

many of the independent Thracian tribes followed him of their own accord in hopes of plunder. The whole number of his forces was estimated at a hundred and fifty thousand, of which about two-thirds were infantry and the rest cavalry.” – The Peloponnesian War by Thucydides, 98.3.

Macedon under King Perdiccas II, which impelled the Chalkidikians into rebelling against Athens, was at odds with Athens so Sitalces invaded Macedon in 429 BCE. Sitalces was also spurred to invade Macedon with the purpose of placing Amyntas (Perdiccas’ nephew) on the Macedonian throne; Amyntas and his father were previously driven out from Macedon and sought refuge with Sitalces’ court.

And since he was at the same time on bad terms with Perdiccas, the king of the Macedonians, he decided to bring back Amyntas, the son of Philip, and place him upon the Macedonian throne.” – The Library of History by Diodorus Siculus, 12.50.4.

Sitalces ravaged the lands of both the Chalkidikians and the Macedonians, the latter feared to face this great army so some submitted to the Thracians while others gathered their crops and hid within their strongholds. The momentum waned as Sitalces saw that the Athenians had failed to fulfill their promise to aid the Odrysians with ships and an army, that the harsh winter was wearing down his men and that the Greeks (Thessalians, Achaeans, Magnesians, etc.) were assembling a vast army to repel them. Sitalces and Perdiccas II of Macedon came to terms, the Odrysians retreated and Perdiccas’ gave his sister’s (named Stratonice) hand in marriage to Sitalces’s nephew (Seuthes I). Sitalces, just like his father, died while trying to unify the Thracians (the Triballi killed Seuthes, the Thyni killed his father Teres).

^ Osprey – ‘Men-at-Arms’ series, issue 360 – The Thracians, 700 BC-AD 46 by Christopher Webber and Angus McBride (Illustrator). Plate A: The Invasion of Macedonia. A1: King Sitalces – “The Thracian king is based on archaeological evidence and wears a bronze bell cuirass, bronze Chalkidian helmet, bronze greaves, and a Thracian cloak. He carries two javelins and a kopis. His breast plate is decorated with dragons’ heads, and his helmet with a griffin and palmettos. The helmet comes from an unknown site in Bulgaria and is dated to the second half of the 5th century. The silver harness ornaments come from Binova tumulus in Bulgaria”. A2: Early Odrysian light cavalryman – “This horseman is based on a painting on a 5th century pelike from Apollonia. He carries two javelins, and a pelta is slung on his back. Greek vase paintings show Thracian light cavalry dressed the same as the peltasts, in patterned tunic, foxskin cap, fawnskin boots and long cloak. Other less sophisticated cavalry dressed very simply in a pointed hat and long flowing tunic, and they are indistinguishable from Skythian cavalry. Some 4th century Thracian metalwork shows the cavalrymen bareheaded and with bare feet, a medium-length flowing cloak and simple tunic.A3: Macedonian infantryman – “The Stricken Macedonian infantryman comes from the early 3rd century Kazanluk tomb paintings. He is thought to be Macedonian because of his location on the frieze, and his peculiar hat resembling the kausia of the Macedonian warrior nobility; but he may be Thracian, because the Macedonians do not use oval shields, and because of his similarity to the Thracian warriors on the same painting. He wears a blue cloak and carries a kopis and two javelins. His shield is oval with the top and bottom cut square, like the later Celtic thureos. A 5th century Macedonian infantryman would be carrying a circular wicker shield, animal-skin cloak and wearing sandals (or going barefoot) instead of shoes.

During the Peloponnesian War, thirteen thousand javelin-wielding swordsmen from the Dii tribe (Thracians) were hired by the Athenians to act join in the Sicilian expedition but they arrived too late. The Athenians sent them back to Thrace since they did not wish to be burdened into paying mercenaries they couldn’t make use of. This changed, however, when a series of failures befell them which pressured them into hiring the Thracian mercenaries once again as coastal raiders. When these Dii (Thracian) mercenaries arrived at the Boeotian city of Mycalessus:

“[4] The Thracians, bursting into Mycalessus, sacked the houses and temples and butchered the inhabitants, sparing neither youth nor age, but killing all they fell in with, one after the other, children and women, and even beasts of burden, and whatever other living creatures they saw; the Thracian race, like the bloodiest of the barbarians, being ever most so when it has nothing to fear. [5] Everywhere confusion reigned and death in all its shapes; and in particular they attacked a boys’ school, the largest that there was in the place, into which the children had just gone, and massacred them all. In short, the disaster falling upon the whole town was unsurpassed in magnitude, and unapproached by any in suddenness and in horror.” – The Peloponnesian War by Thucydides, 7.29.4-5.

Their victory was short-lived however since the Thebans (Boeotians from the city of Thebes) rushed to the aid of the pillaged city and utterly slaughtered the Dii (Thracians) mercenaries. The Thebans took back the looted goods and pursued the fleeing Thracians back to their ships where the “greatest slaughter took place while they (the Thracians) were embarking, as they did not know how to swim” (Thucydides, 7.30.2).

those in the vessels on seeing what was going on onshore moored them out of bow-shot: in the rest of the retreat the Thracians made a very respectable defence against the Theban horse, by which they were first attacked, dashing out and closing their ranks according to the tactics of their country, and lost only a few men in that part of the affair. A good number who were after plunder were actually caught in the town and put to death.” – The Peloponnesian War by Thucydides, 7.30.2.

Battle of Sphacteria, 425 BCE:

The famed Athenian politician and general Cleon rallied support from his countrymen by conveying his lack of fear against the Spartans, boasting that he could overcome the Sparta’s within twenty days’ time and declaring that he would achieve this without risking the life of a single Athenian by instead employing foreigners like Thracians peltasts from Aenisas. These Thracians took part in one of the greatest triumphs over the famed Spartans. After the Athenian naval victory over the Spartans (Battle of Pylos, 425 BCE) and its succeeding skirmishes, the remnants of the Spartan forces became stranded on the nearby island of Sphacteria.

^ Osprey – ‘Campaign’ series, issue 261 – Pylos and Sphacteria 425 BC by William Shepherd and Peter Dennis (illustrator). (pg. 78-79).

Here the Spartans were besieged into starvation, dehydration and exhaustion then constantly pursued by Athenian hoplites while being harassed by enemy archers, javelinmen and slingers until they were forced to surrender.

^ Osprey – ‘Campaign’ series, issue 261 – Pylos and Sphacteria 425 BC by William Shepherd and Peter Dennis (illustrator). The Battle on the island: the Spartan last stand (pp. 82–83). “After a fighting retreat over more than half the length of the Island the main Spartan force, depleted by casualties, joined the small garrison in their naturally defended and partly walled stronghold on the highest point at the north end, overlooking the Athenian position across the narrow channel separating Pylos from the Island. For most of the rest of the day they defeated all Athenian attempts to dislodge them. They were much less vulnerable to missile attack and were at last able to do what they did best to beat off efforts to force the position with spear and shield, but they now had little or no water. However, the Athenians could not afford to wait for them to collapse from dehydration because they too had supply problems with their much larger force. Then Comon the Messenian and his mixed, non-hoplite force, managed to work their way round to the rear and scale the cliffs without being seen. They crossed the dead ground in the saddle behind the peak in the centre of the Spartan position and occupied it (1). This is the moment when the small force of about 40 archers, slingers and javelin men attack the defenders from above and behind at a range of 20–30m. ‘The Spartans were now under attack from front and rear and were in the same dire situation, to compare small things with great, as the men at Thermopylae. Just as those men were annihilated when the Persians outflanked them by taking that path, so these Spartans could not hold out any longer now, caught as they were between two fires. They were few fighting many and weakened by lack of food, and they began to fall back with the Athenians controlling every approach to their position’ (IV.37). The Spartans’ weakness would actually have been due to lack of water and probably sheer exhaustion. They may well have had nothing to eat all day but they were not actually starving; Thucydides later mentions that the Athenians discovered a stockpile of food on the Island. In the southern sector the thin Spartan line combining Spartiates (2), perioikoi (3) and Helot attendants (4) is holding firm on the natural and manmade defensive perimeter while the more numerous Athenians hang back as the first missiles find their target. The Harbour with the captured Spartan ships at anchor (5) and the Messenian mainland (6) are in the background to the east.

At the end of this so-called Battle of Sphacteria, 292 Lacedaemonians (Greeks living under the Spartan state) were taken captive, 120 of which were Elite Spartiates (“Spartans”, full citizens of the Sparta) and the rest being either perioikoi (non-Spartan inhabitants of Lacedaemonia) or Helot attendants (serfs). Athens threatened to kill the captives if the Spartans were to set foot in Attica (region around Athens), holding this over their heads until a series of military setbacks and deaths of high leading commanders on both sides (Sparta’s Brasidas and Athens’ Cleon) opened the path to peace in 421 BCE (Peace of Nicias).

^ Osprey – ‘Men-at-Arms’ series, issue 360 – The Thracians, 700 BC-AD 46 by Christopher Webber and Angus McBride (Illustrator). Plate C – Attack on the Triballi Hill Fort, 424 BC. CI: Triballi peltast – “In 424 Sitalkes attacked the Triballi, and died fighting them. Thracians retreat to their hill forts when attacked; Tacitus (Annals, XLVII) later described the bolder warriors singing and dancing in from of their ramparts. Here a Triballi peltast armed with a long spear wears an unusual dappled cow-hide outfit that only partially covered his body, this is taken from an example of Greek illustrated pottery.C2: Odrysian archer – “The costumes on this plate are partially based on a scene on a 6th century Attic amphora showing peltasts, an archer, and a cavalryman in combat. This figure is also based on a 4th century silver belt plaque from north-western Thrace showing an archer with beard, plain conical cap, composite bow, and pattern-edged tunic. He would also have a quiver hanging from the waist belt, and possibly a dagger. The quiver would have held around 100 arrows, and would probably have been made from leather. The decomposed remains of quivers made of some organic material, probably leather, have been found at a tomb near Vratsa.C3: Dii peltasts – “This warrior is armed with a machaira. Many types of curved swords have been found in Thrace, and this example is based on a weapon now on display in a Bulgarian museum. He also carries a circular pelte – as discussed in the text, not all peltai were crescent shaped.

Head over to my post, ‘THRACIANS, REAPERS OF THE BALKANS’, to learn about their culture, religion, weaponry, armors, battle tactics, and their influence on the ancient world. Their history as well, from the tales in the Iliad to the era of the Greco-Persian Wars, the rise of Macedon under Philip II and his son Alexander the Great, and the Roman conquests of the Balkans.

The Song of Achilles: What to Read Next

Did you enjoy The Song of Achilles? Were you sad when it was over? Well, so was I. So now I have book recommendations to ease the pain and heartbreak,* split into fun and helpful categories because the list got kinda** of of hand.

*maybe not heartbreak. sorry.


Predecessors (as in, Madeline Miller probably read some of these)

The Iliad - Well, this choice seems obvious. If you want to know more about Achilles’ badass (silly) deeds, look no further. And if you want a list of every ship that went to Troy, also look no further. For readability, I recommend Robert Graves’ translation; for poetic beauty, Richmond Lattimore’s.

Iphigenia in Tauris - Technically this is a play by Euripides, but I read the lovely retelling of it by Goethe. Were you horrified by the sacrifice of a 12 year old girl to get the winds to blow again? Me too. This is the happy(ish) alternative story, featuring dudebros 5eva Orestes and Pylades.

Keep reading

The Stars and the Sun - a Lucien x Jesminda fanfic

Hey guys! So I was rereading ACOTAR and realized that we never really got a backstory on Lucien and Jesminda, so I decided that I would go ahead and attempt to write a story on these two! Anyways, enjoy!

Part 1;

The sun beat down on Lucien’s back as he made his way through the streets of Pylos, the capitol of the Autumn Court. The streets were crowded today, the citizens having pulled their vendors and other merchandise out to sell on the bright, sunny day. As he walked, several voices called out in greeting towards the High Fae, Lucien responding in an equally welcoming and warming voice. Lately, the citizens had been in good spirits, perhaps in response to the new peace that had settled over the lands.

If his father knew he was spending his time with the commoners and out in the streets of Pylos, he would have probably been beaten and locked in his room.

“Lucien! Lucien!” An overly-energetic voice called out to him, and the High Fae turned around in time to see a young boy bouncing towards him, a wide grin splitting his face. Lucien couldn’t help but chuckle at the look of excitement on the little boys face.

“Why, hello, Philippe,” Lucien greeted, bowing to the boy. Philippe in turn giggled, enjoying the attention from the older Fae. “What’s got you in such a good mood?”

“My friends and I are starting a game!” The boy exclaimed,  “and we wanted to know if you would care to join us?”

Lucien let out a warm chuckle, ruffling the boy’s hair as he did so. “As exciting as that sounds, I unfortunately cannot stay for long. Maybe next time?”

Philippe pouted, before nodding and taking off. “Of course! See ya, Lucien!”

Lucien smiled warmly at the boy before continuing off down the street. As much as he loved spending his time with the locals, and even more so in joining the kids in their games, he could not stay long in fear of being discovered by his brothers or father. He welcomed the fact that he was often overlooked by his family, allowing him to spend his free time wandering the streets and being friendly with the citizens who lived in his court. Even his father’s foul mood couldn’t disrupt the joy he felt when he was with the citizens.

A sudden commotion made him turn towards the sound, alert at the possibility of a threat. The sound was soon followed by cheering, and soon music drifted up from one of the small restaurants on the side of the street. A small crowd had gathered up, and it soon became clear to Lucien that some of the faeries had begun dancing, laughing and twirling in tune with the music. ALthough Lucien had never been a fan of dancing, always hating how awkward he was as he was forced to dance at his father’s parties, he made his way over to the restaurant.

Several faeries had grabbed their partners and were soon twirling around the makeshift dance floor. Lucien dodged around two dancing males, both with wide smiles as they lost themselves in each others’ eyes. He soon found himself grinning widely, fascinated as the people danced and sang with the band.

“What’s a handsome fae like you standing around for, when you could be dancing?” A sweet, feminine voice caught his attention, and Lucien looked towards the source of the sound, watching as a female fae approached him.

Her skin was a beautiful, golden brown color, with wide, brown eyes. Her hair was a flowing mixture of golden, red, brown, all twisted and braided to rest atop of her head. Behind her, folded neatly along her back, was a pair of wings, feathers a soft and freckled brown color. She walked over to stand beside him, lightly bumping him with her shoulder, although he stood nearly a foot taller than she.

She was easily the most beautiful fae he had ever seen.

He quickly averted his gaze, looking back out to the dance floor as the music kicked up. “I’m not one for dancing,” he admitted to her.

She hummed quietly, looking at him with knowing eyes. “It’s actually quite fun, once you get into the hang of things.”

He shrugged. “Not if you can’t dance without stepping on your dancing partner’s feet.”

She laughed, shocking him. He looked down at her in surprise, stomach fluttering as she looked at him with bright eyes. “C’mon, humor me with one dance.”

“Is this your way of asking me to a dance,” he teased, turning towards the smaller faerie. She laughed again, smiling broadly at him.

“Is this your way of accepting my request to dance?” She teased back, grabbing his hand and leading him out onto the dance floor. “Trust me, you’ll enjoy this.”

Lucien complied, too caught up in the joy of the moment to realize that he was actually being forced out into a dance. He looked back down at the female, catching her beautiful eyes. His stomach twisted and knotted itself with butterflies, and he gulped.

He awkwardly placed his hands on her shoulders and hip, and she gave him a reassuring smile, nodding encouragingly at him. He gave her an uneasy smile, before she grabbed his hands. Soon, the two began to twirl in beat with the music, and for once in his life, Lucien found himself actually enjoying dancing.

“See, it’s not so bad, is it?” She teased as they fell into a more relaxed and comfortable rhythm. He found himself reluctantly agreeing with her, humming in response. “My name’s Jesminda, by the way.”

“Jesminda,” Lucien repeated, savoring the sound of her name on his lips. She laughed quietly as he twirled her around, her wings flaring around her in an illusion that caught him as he stared at their beauty.

“Are you going to introduce yourself?” She asked, blinking up at him, a smile playing at her lips. He started, quickly realizing the fact that she had no idea he was a high lord’s son, and one of the most powerful fae in the Autumn Court.

“Lucien,” he replied hesitantly. “My name’s Lucien.”

Her eyes flashed up to his in shock, recognizing him now that she knew his name, and she quickly let go of him, taking a step back. “I’m so sorry, I had no idea!” She backed up, as if she was going to be in trouble. He quickly reached out and grabbed her hand, gently pulling her back towards him. He shook his head, looking down at her.

“It’s ok,” he told her gently, trying to tell her that she was by no means in trouble. “When I’m here, I am no High Lord’s son.”

She looked up at him, unsure at whether or not this was one of the cruel tricks the High Fae of the Autumn Court were known for. He smiled gently at her, offering her his hand in the hope of convincing her to continue dancing with him.

“I don’t understand,” she admitted quietly as they began to pick up their pace again, twirling and losing themselves in the music. He could still see that she was uncertain, and he couldn’t blame her. His family didn’t have the best reputation when it came to ruling. “Why are you here?”

He shrugged, not quite sure himself why he often found himself outside of his family home. “I don’t partake with my brother’s lessons, seeing as I don’t wish for the throne, so I decided that I would do the opposite of them, and spend time actually getting to know the people who lived in our court.”

She nodded, biting on her lip in a way that made Lucien’s stomach flip. The two continued for several moments of silence, until Lucien gently pulled away, concluding the dance.

“Perhaps I could offer you a drink?” He asked, shocking himself as the words left his mouth. She raised an eyebrow at him, gently smiling at him.

“We’ve come a far way with you,” she teased. “First with the dancing, and now asking me to a drink?”

He blushed, before smirking down at her. “Maybe I quite enjoy your company.”

She laughed, before pulling him off to the side and out of the way of the others dancing. “Unfortunately, I have to return to my shift at work, so that means no drinking. Perhaps next time?”

He looked at her in surprise, shocked that she even wanted to meet up with him again. He quickly recovered, grinning cockily at her. “That sounds delightful.”

She beamed up at him. “Great! I’ve gotta go now, but maybe we can catch up later?”

He nodded, now realizing that perhaps he should work on getting back to his own home. “Until next time,” he promised her. She gave him one last grin, before walking away from him, back down the street. He stared as she walked away, before grinning to himself and winnowing back to the Autumn Court palace.

King Nestor’s Cup, Mycenae, c. 1600-1500 BC

This golden goblet was found by Heinrich Schliemann at Mycenae in Shaft IV at Grave Circle A. A similar goblet is described in the Iliad as belonging to Nestor, King of Pylos with, “four handles…around each…a pair of golden doves was feeding. Below were two supports.” While this cup is not four handled, it does include doves on the handles with supports beneath. Schliemann named it “Nestor’s Cup” due to its similarities to the one mentioned in the Iliad.

Schliemann believed that the shaft graves dated to the time of the Trojan War, and identified Shaft Grave V as the tomb of Agamemnon. However, Schliemann’s identification of the shaft graves with Homeric heroes was not accepted by many archaeologists even in his own day. The shaft graves are conventionally dated to c. 1600-1500 BC, some three centuries before the date of the Trojan War (if the war is to be considered as a historical event). Thus the so-called golden “Cup of Nestor” or “Nestor’s Cup” from Mycenae would have been buried hundreds of years before Nestor supposedly made use of it at Troy.
A Warrior’s Grave at Pylos, Greece, Could Be a Gateway to Civilizations
A warrior’s tomb full of precious metals and jewels is expected to give insight into the rise of the Mycenaeans, from whom Greek culture developed.
By Nicholas Wade

“The griffin warrior, whose grave objects are culturally Minoan but whose place of burial is Mycenaean lies at the center of this cultural transfer. The palace of Pylos had yet to arise, and he could have been part of the cultural transition that made it possible. The transfer was not entirely peaceful: At some point, the Mycenaeans invaded Crete, and in 1450 B.C., the palace of Knossos was burned, perhaps by the Mycenaeans. It is not yet clear whether the objects in the griffin warrior’s tomb were significant in his own culture or just plunder.”

Folks! A really cool grave was just discovered (this May!) in Pylos by a team at the University of Cincinnati. Not only are the physical objects unique, but their historical significance is potentially huge!