pulmonary system

6 Ways to Improve Your Study Habits That Are Backed by Science

Study in the same format that your test will be.

The research: In a study done by Morris & Coworkers, participants’ retrieval performance, which was a rhyming task, depended on whether or not their encoding task was that of processing for meaning or for rhyming.  In other words, participants who had an encoding task that required processing for rhyming had a better retrieval performance than did participants who had an encoding task that required processing for meaning. This is known as transfer-appropriate processing.

How it applies to your studying: If you know your exam is going to be exclusively short answers, then study by answering short answers and not by completing practice multiple choice tests. If you know a set of terms will be tested in a matching format, then create a study guide that involves you having to match terms to definitions or examples.

Match the context.

The research: Godden and Baddely really worked hard to prove their point about encoding specificity.  They had half of their participants study, or encode, underwater while diving and half study on land.  Recall for all participants was underwater and those from the diving condition had a higher recall than those who studied in land.

How it applies to your studying: Study in the same room that your exam will be in.  If your exam is in the same room as your class, it’s even more beneficial.

Match your internal state.

The research: Eich and Metcalfe measured the impact of state-dependent learning by having subjects listen to happy or sad music and think thoughts that matched the mood of the music.  They rated their mood and once it reached “very pleasant” or “very unpleasant”, the encoding aspect of the study began and they studied lists of words.  The participants returned two days later, followed the same procedure to put them in happy or sad moods, and were then given a memory test.  Those whose mood at retrieval matched their mood at encoding had higher rates of recall. 

How it applies to your studying: Try to match your moods when studying with your mood during your exam.  This does not mean stress yourself out at all times, but if you’re relaxed and content when studying and during the exam, that is better than being sad while studying but content during the exam. 

Relate the material to yourself.

The research: Rogers and coworkers presented participants with a question for 3 seconds and then a word who then had to answer if the word answered the question or not.  Questions included “Printed in small case? Rhymes with happy? Means the same as happy? Describes you?”  During recall tests, subjects remembered 25% more words that they had rated as describing themselves, as compared to only 5% recall for size, 8% for rhyme, and 14% for meaning. This is known as the self-reference effect.

How it applies to your studying: Try to find things in your material to remind them of you.  For instance, I had an exam on the endocrine system recently and my dog has an endocrine disorder so I related the flow of hormones to my dog. By writing this article, I’m relating long term memory to myself in preparation for my Cognition exam. 

Use visual images.

The research: Bower and Winzenz used paired-associate learning (a list of word pairs is presented) and later presented only the first word.  Participants were tasked with recalling the word it was paired with.  One group was instructed to silently repeat the pairs while the other group was told to make a mental image of the word pairs interacting.  Subjects who created visual mental images remembered twice as many word pairs than those who silently repeated words.

How it applies to your studying: Assign different concepts to different things in the room.  This works whether you are studying in the exam room or if you’re studying in your dorm.  If I were doing this for my bio exam, I’d “hang up” the idea of the systemic and pulmonary circuits of the heart in my closet, put the idea of homeotherms and poikilotherms on my key hook, and microwave the concept of action potentials, etc.


The research: Muller and Pilzecker had two groups of participants; one group learned one list of words and immediately learned a second list while the other group learned one list of words, waited six minutes, and then learned the second list.  When asked to recall the first list of words, the six minute delay group were able to recall 48% more than the immediate group.  By having a delay, it allowed for the formation of a stable memory of the first list, otherwise known as consolidation.

How it applies to your studying: Study in chunks of time.  Don’t stay up all night studying! Not only is it bad for your health, but it also disrupts the consolidation of memories.  Instead, study for smaller amounts of time and take short breaks.  Take a 15 minute walk, stretch, read a book, watch a Youtube video, etc.  But don’t study all in one shot.  A 48% increase in recall could do wonders for your grade!

Cardassian Animals

I was just playing around with what one might see at a Cardassian zoo, and thought you guys might get some enjoyment out of it.  Some of these animals are mentioned in canon, but I mostly came up with the descriptions.  I also came up with a term for an animal that is somewhere between mammal and reptile - tUrn’hU (warm scale), inspired by @feltelures and @tinsnip Kardasi, thought the concept itself is mine.

Vole (tUrn’hU) – small, six-legged creature with a scattering of hair and sharp teeth, poor eyesight, minor “spoon” on the head, spends most time underground or in other dark places, often considered a “pest,” common across most of Prime·       

Regnar (reptile) – small reptile, usually found in the desert and surrounding areas, blind, capable of blending into the environment, very fast, population unknown due to speed and “cloaking” ability·        

Zabu (mammal) – large domesticated mammal, similar to a cow, used in agriculture for both its meat and its milk, which is especially prized for the thick, sweet cream that can be made from it, large hump around shoulders which stores reserves during times of draught and food scarcity, very sturdy animal, able to survive in most environments, variations found across Prime·     

Măgath (reptile) – snakes, ranges in size, coloration, temperament, can be either venomous or non-venomous, various subspecies found in all regions of Prime. 

Common Garden Kut Măgath – medium sized black snake often found in gardens, eats small rodents, lizards, and insects, non-venomous, fairly non-aggressive unless directly threatened. 

Roklan – the largest species of snake native to Cardassia Prime, found only in the jungles of the Southern continent, non-venomous, but extremely rare due to habitat loss.

Cova - medium to large snake found in the lower mountainous regions and rocky outcroppings, coloration ranges from sandy to red to brown, often has bands or speckles to help it camouflage, very thick body, highly venomous, venom causes seizures and distress on the pulmonary system, a single bite can kill an adult Cardassian, the venom has been known to have been harvested by the Obsidian Order for use in toxic agents, vulnerable (pronounced sho-vah)   ·        

Taspar (bird) – small avian species found in less arid regions of Prime, colorful, known for its beautiful song, most common along the coastal regions, but has been known to colonize cities where water is plentiful·        

Regova (bird) – avian species found primarily in the desert and surrounding areas, four legs and two large wings, powerful jaws and talons for attacking prey and defending their nests, females are particularly aggressive, especially when nesting or guarding recently hatched young, feathers are generally rust colored with a shiny black beak and large black eyes, vulnerable due to eggs being harvested for food·        

Riding Hound (mammal) – canine like animal, approximately the size of a horse with a long snout and a tufted tail, large, tufted paws good for moving on desert sands and rocky areas, colors range from light gray to black, mostly domesticated, though can be willful, originally used for transportation, but now mostly kept for sport and enjoyment, common·        

Dwarf Riding Hound (mammal) – a miniature version of a Riding Hound, approximately the size of a goat, domesticated and very docile, originally breed to pull carts and plows, now used for children’s riding and enjoyment, greater range of color and coat patterns than full size Riding Hounds, common·        

Kovabug (insect) – a small, hard-shelled insect known for its beautiful coloration, the outer shell is a deep blue with hints of green in the sunlight, the shell splits to deploy the wings underneath, which make a pleasant humming sound as the insect flies, highly prized by Cardassian children, who often collect the colorful discarded shells when the insect molts, common in most regions with decent vegetation·        

Urall (mammal) – a largish herbivore, prized for its hide, which is used to make high-end leather, extinct in the wild, but kept by a small handful of artisans who produce the leather for the Cardassian elite ·        

Flayers (tUrn’hU) – extremely dangerous predatory animal, found in the desert, sand colored fur and scales with deep gray forehead “spoon,” large, piercing fangs, excellent eyesight and hearing, armored back and ridges along spine and around eyes, six legs, prey on everything from gettle to zabu, have been known to even attack and kill adult Cardassians, hunt in small packs of 5-10 members, but can be cannibalistic, vulnerable·        

Gettle (mammal) – smaller pack animal, grazers that live off of the sturdy grasses that grow on the outskirts of Prime’s many deserts, reddish-brown colored fur with a white underbelly, all have spiraling black horns, though the males are larger than the females, have become extremely rare due to poaching·        

Onyx Beetles (insect) – named for their color, commonly found in gardens, will often burrow underground and eat the roots of plants, common·        

Sleg Corgan (reptile) – large reptile native to the lower regions of the Northern continent, carnivorous, but has also been known to scavenge on deceased prey, incredibly well adapted to food scarcity, it eats only twice a year, known for slow movement, except when hunting, and spends most of its time completely motionless, rare·        

Utoxa (bird) – water fowl, found primarily along the coast near Lakarian City and Culat during the warm winters in that area, will migrate to the equatorial region during the cooler months, long turquoise feathers with dark blue underbellies and webbed feet, fish eaters, vulnerable·        

Scottril (tUrn’hU) – related to the vole, six legs and a small forehead “spoon,” lives primarily in city sewers and other dark, damp areas, colors range from dark brown to black, limited eyesight, but extremely keen sense of smell, common ·        

Toj’Lath (tUrn’hU) – ancient ancestor of the modern Cardassian, about half the height of an adult Cardassian, but very broad, similar ridge structure and coloration, though it has more blue highlights and scaling, highly intelligent, has a series of horns that start on the bridge of the nose, which increase in size as they run up to the hairline, strong prehensile tail, unlike most tUrn’hU, the “egg horn” never drops off, but stays in the place of the forehead “spoon,” revered by the Hebitians and often depicted on ancient tombs and religious artifacts, rare·        

Hekant (mammal) – a small, herbivorous mammal with long ears, known for its downy coat, mostly domesticated and used for meat and fur, though there are still some wild varieties found in various regions of Prime, selectively bred for a variety of colors and coat patterns, sometimes kept as pets, common  ·        

Rhirzum (mammal) – a large feline with elongated fangs, also found only in the jungles of the Southern continent, however, fossil evidence suggests that this species used to be found across Prime, only known mammalian species on Prime to have developed venom, which can be sprayed and is akin to acid, causing severe pain, scarring, and blindness, it is believed that their venom was diluted with other compounds by the Hebitian clergy and when ingested produced trance-like states, rare due to habitat loss·        

Thăv’os (tUrn’hU) – a medium sized, horned animal with six legs and a very faint forehead “spoon,” found in the upper regions of the mountains, remarkable at climbing the steep cliffs, the bones of its legs were extremely thin, but very solid and were often harvested to be used as writing implements, primarily covered in light gray scales, but has a mane of white, feathery hair on its head, chest, and shoulders, vulnerable ·        

Vompăt (mammal) – a small, domesticated animals with a long, furry body and four short legs, extremely friendly and curious, make excellent pets, common·        

Zeryd (bird) – a large avian animal, two pairs of small, non-functional wings, but has two long, extremely powerful legs ending in two clawed toes, a kick can disembowel most prey and they will eat almost anything, including carrion, tearing off chunks of flesh with their razor sharp beaks, both males and females are covered in shiny, black feathers, despite being found in more arid regions of Prime, rare·        

Arafta (tUrn’hU) a moderately sized animal found only on a small island off the Southern continent peninsula, it is covered in beige armored scales, though it also has a smattering of fur, it spends most of its life in the trees, where it uses its claws to dig into the bark for insects, though it will also eat fruit, lives in small family groups, intelligent and curious, but extremely rare due to limited habitat


Coelacanths are lobe-finned fishes, that look somewhat like limbs. Known from the Devonian to Recent that were long considered extinct, until the discovery of two living species in deep marine waters of the Mozambique Channel and Sulawesi. Despite extensive studies, the pulmonary system of extant coelacanths has not been fully investigated.

Since its rediscovery in 1938, scientists doubted the existence of a lung in the living species West Indian Ocean coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) when compared with fossil species. 

Now, an international team of researchers confirm the presence of functional lungs at early embryonic stages; these lungs lose function and become vestigial lungs in adulthood. The finding sheds light on how ancient relatives may have lived about 410 million years ago.

Coelcanths is a heavily built fish living in rocky environments between 110 and 400 m deep in the coastal waters of the Mozambique Channel and of Sulawesi. This large animal (up to 2 m long) is ovoviviparous. The young develop in the oviduct of the female, which can give birth to 26 live pups of about 35 cm long. Juvenile coelacanths (below 80 cm long) are rarely observed or caught.  

The presence of a large calcified sheath in the abdominal cavity of fossil coelacanths has been known since the 19th century but was previously regarded as either an ‘internal osseous viscus’ (unknown internal organ), a bladder or swimbladder.  Only recently this organ has been formally described in fossils coelacanths as a pulmonary organ composed of large and rounded calcified plates, positioned ventrally relative to the gut, and with a single anterior opening under the opercle.  The parallel development of a fatty organ for buoyancy control suggests a unique adaptation to deep water. 

Three-dimensional reconstructions of the pulmonary complex of West Indian Ocean coelacanth (L. chalumnae) at different ontogenetic stages.

Once you've had your Glenn, O2 is your friend!

So everyone knows patients with congenital heart disease have low sats. The first thing people joke about cardiac units is how no one freaks out over a kid with sats in the 70s. But is that entirely true? And why do we allow sats to be so low?!

Sats in the 70s are generally only ok for single ventricle patients. We like them to sat between 74 and 85 percent. Where does that number come from? Blood coming from the lungs is 100% saturated with oxygen, blood from the body is about 50% saturated. (50 + 100) / 2 = 75, which represents perfect mixing of blood (single ventricle patients will have mixed blood until surgically corrected).

Why don’t we stick them on a nasal cannula and shoot their sats up to the 90s!? That would be great, right? Aren’t higher sats better? Not for these babies! Oxygen decreases pulmonary vascular resistance, allowing more blood to flow into the lungs. For a baby with mixed blood to get a sat of 95 means that they have almost 3x the amount of blood going to their lungs ….which means much less blood is going out to their bodies. Uh oh! That’s how you put a baby into shock! While low sats are obviously not an ideal way to live, there’s not much you can do about it until surgically palliating the defect or transplanting a new heart. Being blue is better than being grey! 

It’s for this reason that it’s very dangerous to put a baby with single ventricle physiology on 100% oxygen and all of these patients should have a blender in their rooms. The Glenn procedure is the second surgery in correcting single ventricle anomalies and the first to begin the separation of systemic and pulmonary circulations…hence the phrase, “once you’ve had your Glenn, O2 is your friend!” 

More MCAT Biology Review

4-Chambered Heart

    1. Deoxygenated blood returns to the heart: superior/inferior vena cava → right atrium
    2. Deoxygenated blood gets pumped to the lungs: right atrium → right ventricle → pulmonary artery → lungs
    3. Blood arrives at the lungs and gets oxygenated.
    4. Oxygenated blood returns to the heart: lungs → pulmonary vein → left atrium
    5. Oxygenated blood gets pumped to the body: left atrium → left ventricle → aorta
  • Blood going through the heart including the valves
    1. Vena cava
    2. Right atrium
    3. Tricuspid valve
    4. Right ventricle
    5. Pulmonary valve
    6. Pulmonary artery
    7. Lung
    8. Pulmonary vein
    9. Left atrium
    10. Bicuspid (Mitral) valve
    11. Left ventricle
    12. Aortic valve
    13. Aorta
  • Systolic and diastolic pressure
    • blood pressure = pressure blood exert on the walls of the blood vessel.
    • systolic pressure = blood pressure when blood is being pumped (the ventricles are contracting).
    • diastolic pressure = blood pressure when blood is not being pumped (the ventricles are relaxing).
  • Pulmonary and systemic circulation
    • Pulmonary circulation = heart → lungs → back to heart = oxygenates blood
    • Systemic circulation = heart → body → back to heart = delivers oxygenated blood to body
    • Pulmonary circulation = shorter than systemic circulation = less resistance = less blood pressure.
    • Systemic circulation: vasodilation when oxygen levels are low → more blood flow to oxygen-starved tissue.
    • Pulmonary circulation: vasoconstriction when oxygen levels are low → less blood flow to low oxygen/blocked alveoli → more blood flow to good alveoli where gas exchange can occur.

September 13th, 2015
This is the cardio pulmonary vein system.
It turned out super well. Like damn. It will be so worth the tiny scraps of paper I will find all over my room for the next 2 months.

I didn't find the Fountain of Youth, but I found the Fountain of Eternal Beastliness

Last week there was an outpatient who was ordered by his doctor to wear a heart monitor for a while.  I was the one who set up that heart monitor.  The patient was in his 80’s and was to have this done because he had a low heart rate.  I checked it, it was in the low 60’s, high 50’s, kind of low but really not something I would be overly concerned about, I’ve seen it before.  But obviously the doctor was concerned and better safe than sorry. 

So I lead him to the setup room.  I get his info.  He has no pacemaker, only on a few medications, no cardio pulmonary symptoms, pretty good for an elderly man his age.  So then I have him take off his jacket and shirt to hook up the monitor, and that’s when my jaw dropped, because he looked something like this…

He was totally jacked! I kid you not, it was like someone took an old man’s head andstuck it on a well toned, well defined, muscular athletic body.  No wonder his heart rate is so low. He doesn’t have heart problems, he probably has a super efficient cardio pulmonary system. He is a human beast!

I asked him what he did to be in such great shape.  He used to run, but not anymore because of his joints.  He still swims every other day.  He has his own farm which he owns and operates, and he spends most of his days lifting big stones, moving logs, splitting wood, and herding his cattle.

Of course genetics plays a part of it, but he proves Sir Isaac Newton’s dictum, “objects in motion stay in motion”.  Despite his age, he never stopped moving, he’s not slowing down much, and he’s certainly not going quietly into the night. Elderly people tend to loose muscle mass and bone density, some of it natural but a lot of it is simply from lack of use.  Few people actually die of old age, it’s not like people have a ticker that stops at some point.  Most people die of specific things, like heart failure, respiratory failure, disease, cancer, etc.  Often this is caused by disuse.  I’ve seen it many times even though I have been working in medicine for a short time. I’ve seen it caring for elderly friends and family.  People retire, then they lead this sedentary lifestyle, spending days watching The Price is Right and John Wayne Westerns, only leaving the house to catch the early bird special at the local Old Country Buffett (many elderly people have a crappy diet too).  So because of disuse, their muscle mass and bone density decreases. Heart and respiratory efficiency decreases.  The effectiveness of the immune system decreases, energy levels drop off.

Then a fall happens, because less muscle mass makes a person weaker and screws up balance.  With less bone density, bones are broken, especially hips.  So an elderly person breaks a hip. Then the person is laid up in the hospital, usually on heavy painkillers and sedatives, so the person isn’t doing a lot of deep breathing.  So then pneumonia sets in. This leads to further damage of the lungs, which leads to damage of the heart, which damages every other system, until eventually the person dies. So from adopting an inactive lifestyle, a whole cascade of events is set into motion which leads to death.  I’ve seen this many times.  It’s been proven by medical science, elderly people who remain active live longer, healthier, and happier than those who do not.  The same can be said with the brain, stop challenging it and it atrophies, then dementia sets in. The same can be said for most organ systems.  If you don’t use it, you lose it. I seriously doubt the man I mentioned would break a hip if he fell.  I bet if you hit him with a baseball bat, he would break you!

I have found the Fountain of Youth, but it’s not filled with water, it’s filled with large rocks that need lifted, logs that need moved, wood that needs split, and cattle that needs a rustlin’.

Never Again 360

Research from the National Science Foundation refutes theories suggesting that dinosaurs had pulmonary systems more like modern-day reptiles than birds. “The pulmonary air-sac systems of dinosaurs and birds exhibit striking similarities, including predicted regions air of sac integration into the skeleton. The air sacs act like bellows to move air through the rigid lungs.”

Credit: Nicolle Rager Fuller, National Science Foundation

Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a form of a congenital heart defect that enables blood flow between two compartments of the heart called the left and right atria. Normally, the right and left atria are separated by a septum called the interatrial septum. If this septum is defective or absent, then oxygen-rich blood can flow directly from the left side of the heart to mix with the oxygen-poor blood in the right side of the heart, or vice versa. This can lead to lower-than-normal oxygen levels in the arterial blood that supplies the brain, organs, and tissues. However, an ASD may not produce noticeable signs or symptoms, especially if the defect is small.

A “shunt” is the presence of a net flow of blood through the defect, either from left to right or right to left. The amount of shunting present, if any, determines the hemodynamic significance of the ASD. A “right-to-left-shunt” typically poses the more dangerous scenario.

During development of the fetus, the interatrial septum develops to separate the left and right atria. However, a hole in the septum called the foramen ovale allows blood from the right atrium to enter the left atrium during fetal development. This opening allows blood to bypass the nonfunctional fetal lungs while the fetus obtains its oxygen from the placenta. A layer of tissue called the septum primum acts as a valve over the foramen ovale during fetal development. After birth, the pressure in the right side of the heart drops as the lungs open and begin working, causing the foramen ovale to close entirely. In approximately 25% of adults, the foramen ovale does not entirely seal. In these cases, any elevation of the pressure in the pulmonary circulatory system (due to pulmonary hypertension, temporarily while coughing, etc.) can cause the foramen ovale to remain open. This is known as a patent foramen ovale which is a type of atrial septal defect.

Healing with Beryl

Color: Pink, golden, yellow, green, white, blue

Appearance: Prismatic crystals, may be transparent and pyramidal, all sizes

Rarity: Readily available in most forms but may be expensive

Source: US, Russia, Australia, Brazil, Czech Republic, France, Norway

Healing: Beryl aids the organs of elimination, strengthens pulmonary and circulatory systems, and increases resistance to toxins and pollutants. It treats the liver, heart, stomach, and spine, and heals concussions. Beryl is a sedative stone. As an elixir it can be used to treat throat infections. 

Position: Place as appropriate or use for scrying. 

(Source: The Crystal Bible by Judy Hall)

It is now time for Maria's shitty worldbuilding headcanons about the kappa race, their anatomy, their morphology, their society, in the touhou universe

Ok, so. First things first, let’s remind ourselves what a kappa originally is.

The kappa is that one japanese monster that looks like a cross between a monkey/human and a turtle. They’re known for being massive assholes, drowning people in the water they live in and are eating cucumbers. When they’re not eating cucumbers, they’re eating humans’ souls from… the asshole. The very special asshole. How impressive!

You all know that our boy Jun'ya Oota aka ZUN loves to make his characters cute human girls. All of them. No exception. And the kappa doesn’t escape to the rule of BECOMING THE MOE. If some species in touhou project have multiple representatives (Suika and Yuugi for Onis, Aya, Hatate, and Momiji for Tengus…), we only have one, fully named kappa known in touhou: Nitori Kawashiro (the rest of the kappas being storiless, unnamed background characters in touhou 13.5: HM). And dang she’s cute.

Seriously though, when did THIS

Became HOTTER than THIS

Well, I won’t answer this question, but I will try to pull off my headcanons about the kappa species in touhou. I will talk about how i imagine their anatomy, their morphology and how they work as a society (because most kappas in the myths are solitary).

DISCLAIMER: These are only my opinions on the matter and I’m not ZUN himself, so they can be wrong. Feel free to disagree or to agree with them.

I’ll put everything under a readmore for your well being! Now, let’s go for a journey into Gensokyo.

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