pueblo peoples

For more than 700 years, the Ancestral Pueblo people called what is now Mesa Verde National Park home. Their dwellings – elaborate stone communities – blend into the sheltered alcoves of Colorado’s canyon walls. Today, visitors can explore these spectacular cliff dwellings with ranger-guided tours from late spring to early fall. Photo courtesy of Chris Wheeler.

Okay I need to follow more natives so where are my black natives, my Latino natives, dark gorgeous natives, disconnected natives, struggling natives, gay natives, bi natives, trans natives, pan natives, depressed natives, suicidal natives, all beautiful wonderful natives!!! We need to be there for each other and love each other.

Spanish Vocabulary - La historia y el museo
  • la arqueología = archaeology
  • la historia = history
    la historia = (long) story
    el cuento = (short) story
  • la leyenda = legend
  • el mito = myth
  • la mitología = mythology
  • el folclore = folklore
  • la costumbre = custom, tradition
  • la tradición = tradition
  • el pueblo = a people [in some cases it means “population” or “a town”]
  • la tribu = tribe
  • la civilización = civilization
  • la sociedad = society
  • la gente = people


  • el siglo = century
    el siglo XV [quince] = the 15th century
  • el milenio = millennium
    los milenios = millennia 
  • la era = era / age
  • la edad = age
  • el año = year
  • la década = decade
  • la cronología = chronology
  • el sitio = site / place
  • el reino = kingdom
  • el imperio = empire
  • el templo = temple
  • la ciudadela = citadel
  • el palacio = palace
  • la iglesia = church
  • el foro = forum
  • la biblioteca = library
  • el gimnasio = gymnasium / gym
  • el hospital = hospital
  • la universidad = university
  • el coliseo = colosseum
  • el estadio = stadium
  • la fragua = forge
  • la cantera = quarry
  • la cantería = stoneworking
  • la albañilería = masonry [related to el albañil which is is “bricklayer” or “construction worker”]
    la mampostería = masonry [related to el mampuesto which is more like “rough brick” used for stone walls and parapets etc]
  • la granja = farm
    la finca = farm [in the context of “farm” it’s something closer to “estate” or “plantation”… normally la finca is related to “real estate”]
  • la armería = armory
  • el arsenal = arsenal / storehouse
  • el almacén = warehouse [in modern context this would be “department store”, but it used to refer to storehouses and warehouses since almacenar means “to stockpile”]
  • el campo = countryside
  • la villa = villa / country estate [sometimes meaning “villa” as in a vacation home]
  • la panadería = bakery
  • el mercado = market
  • el bazar = bazaar
  • la tienda = shop [or in some cases “tent”]
  • la carnicería = butcher shop
  • el boticario = apothecary [today la botica or la farmacia for “pharmacy” are more common]
  • la sastrería = tailor’s shop
  • la herrería = blacksmith’s / foundry
    [specially related to iron and steel since it’s el hierro; la platería is “silversmith” etc]
  • la fábrica = factory
  • el astillero = shipyard
  • el taller = workshop
  • la presa = reservoir / dam
  • el tesoro = treasure / treasury
  • el banco = bank
  • la banca = banking
  • la tesorería = treasury
    el erario = public funds [sometimes called la Hacienda Pública]
    la Hacienda = treasury [more common today; this is like the ministry of finance or something like that]
  • el acueducto = aqueduct
  • la columna = column
  • la muralla = city wall / large defensive wall
  • la arena = arena / sand
  • el hipódromo = hippodrome / racetrack (for horses)
  • la piedra = stone
  • el metal = metal
  • el hierro = iron (Fe)
  • el estaño = tin (Sn)
    la hojalata = tin-plated
  • el cobre = copper (Cu)
  • el plomo = lead (Pb)
  • el mineral = mineral / ore
    el mineral de cobre = copper ore
    el mineral de hierro = iron ore
  • el carbón = coal
  • la aleación = alloy
  • el bronce = bronze
  • el latón = brass
  • el acero = steel
  • el vidrio = glass
  • el barro = clay
  • el oro = gold (Au)
  • la plata = silver (Ag)
  • la cerámica = pottery / ceramics
  • la Edad de Hielo / La Edad del Hielo = the Ice Age
  • la Edad de Piedra = the Stone Age
  • la Edad de Bronce / La Edad del Bronce = the Bronze Age
  • la Edad Dorada = Golden Age [antiquity; not to be confused with el Siglo de Oro]
  • el artefacto = artifact
  • la herramienta = tool
  • la riqueza = wealth
    las riquezas = riches
  • la pobreza = poverty
  • la guerra = war
  • la paz = peace
  • el ejército = army
  • la marina = navy / marina
    la armada = armada
    la flota = fleet (of ships)
  • la contabilidad = accounting
  • la agricultura = agriculture
  • el negocio = business
  • la ley = law
  • la corte = court
  • el arte = art
    las artes = the arts
    las bellas artes = the fine arts
  • la música = music
  • la ciencia = science
  • las matemáticas = mathematics
  • la astronomía = astronomy
  • el comercio = commerce / trade
  • la religión = religion
  • la filosofía = philosophy
  • la escritura = writing
  • el abecedario = alphabet
  • la cultura = culture


  • el arqueólogo = archaeologist (m)
    la arqueóloga = archaeologist (f)
  • el conservador = curator (m) [sometimes curador]
    la conservadora = curator (f) [sometimes curadora]
  • la exhibición = exhibit, display
  • la exposición = exhibit, display / exposition, exposé
  • el museo = museum
  • la estatua = statue
  • la figura de cera = wax figure
  • el retrato = portrait
  • la pirámide = pyramid
  • la tumba = tomb
    la sepultura = grave / tomb [more formal]
  • el ataúd = coffin
  • el sarcófago = sarcophagus
  • la momia = mummy
  • el dinosaurio = dinosaur
  • el esqueleto = skeleton
  • el remanente = remnant
  • los restos = remains
  • la cestería = basketweaving
    el cesto = basket
  • la artesanía = handcrafting, craftsmanship / craftwork, something made by an artisan
  • el artesano = artisan (m)
    la artesana = artisan (f)
  • la joyería = jewelry
  • la metalurgia = metallurgy
  • la exploración = exploration
  • la colonización = colonization
  • la conquista = conquest
  • la etapa = phase / age / period of time
  • el desarrollo = development
  • el apogeo = apogee / zenith / highest point
  • la caída = fall
  • el dios = god
    la diosa = goddess
    los dioses = gods
    las diosas = goddesses
    Dios = God
  • antiguo/a = ancient / former
    la Antigua Grecia = Ancient Greece
    la Antigua Roma = Ancient Rome
    el Antiguo Egipto = Ancient Egypt
  • la dinastía = dynasty
  • el legado = legacy
  • el gobierno = government


  • excavar = to dig / to excavate
  • descubrir = to discover / to uncover
  • aprender = to learn
  • investigar = to investigate
  • observar = to observe
  • enseñar = to teach / to show, to point out
  • inferir = to infer
  • suponer = to suppose
  • sugerir = to suggest
  • estar de acuerdo (con) = to be in agreement (with) / to agree (with)
  • debatir = to debate
  • construir = to build
  • destruir = to destroy
  • conquistar = to conquer
  • defender = to defend
  • vencer = to defeat
  • perder = to lose
  • emerger = to emerge
  • surgir = to arise / to come about / to spring up / to surge
  • llegar a ser = to come to be
  • enterrar = to bury
  • desterrar = to banish
  • prohibir = to forbid, to prohibit
  • permitir = to allow, to permit
  • castigar = to punish
  • sacrificar = to sacrifice
  • rezar = to pray
  • gobernar = to govern
  • reinar = to rule, to reign
  • celebrar = to celebrate
  • explorar = to explore
  • explotar = to exploit, to take advantage of / to explode, to blow up
  • aprovecharse de = to take advantage of
  • vender = to sell
  • comprar = to buy
  • forjar = to forge, to craft
  • hacer = to do / to make
  • crear = to create
  • yacer = to lie [said of places; as in “it lies upon the river”], to be located
  • vivir = to live
  • morir = to die
  • extinguirse = to die out / to go extinct
  • establecer(se) = to settle (down)
  • desaparecer = to disappear
  • estudiar = to study
  • leer = to read
  • encontrar = to find
  • buscar = to look for


  • el recurso = resource
  • la fuente = source (of information) / fountain, spring
  • la teoría = theory
  • la hipótesis = hypothesis
  • el análisis = analysis
  • la conclusión = conclusion
  • la investigación = investigation
  • la observación = observation
  • la prueba = proof
  • la evidencia = evidence
  • el método = method
8

Amazing Ancient Ruins of the Pueblo People

Ancient Pueblo people were an ancient Native American culture centered on the present-day Four Corners area of the United States, comprising southern Utah, northeastern Arizona, northern New Mexico, and southwestern Colorado. Archaeologists still debate when this distinct culture emerged but the current consensus is around 12th century BC.

They lived in a range of structures, including pit houses, pueblos, and cliff dwellings designed so that they could lift entry ladders during enemy attacks, which provided security. The pictures above feature some of the amazing pueblos and cliff dwellings of these people. The most photographed ruin is the “House on Fire” (picture 1). This ruin, when captured at certain times of the day, resembles a dwelling on fire and is a favorite among photographers.

  • “House on Fire” ruin in Mule Canyon, South Fork, Utah
  • Petroglyph with the prehistoric symbol, flute player Kokopelli
  • Multistory dwellings at Bandelier. Rock wall foundations and beam holes and “cavates” carved into volcanic tuff remain from upper floors
  • Laguna Pueblo dwellers posing for a picture
  • Doorways, Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico
  • Casa Rinconada, Chaco Culture National Historical Park, New Mexico
  • Ancestral Pueblo ruins in Dark Canyon Wilderness, Utah
  • Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park

sources 1, 2, 3

  • People: if you could go anywhere in the world where would you go
  • Me: mi lindo pueblo en México
  • People: really?
  • They'll never truly understand the beauty of being in ones home land

We-wha was a Zuni Pueblo Lhamana who worked as an ambassador for his people to the United States in the 1800s. Lhamana is a third gender in the Zuni culture assigned to male bodied children whose adherents performed traditional women’s work and fulfilled a fundamental role as mediator during conflict. Lhamana falls under the category of Two-Spirit, a more general term used in Native American communities indicating an individual as neither male nor female but an entirely seperate gender. 

Título: “Niña”

© Medusczka

2

I’m FINALLY going to see Les Mis, so I drew this to give it to Carlos Solano, the guy who plays Enjolras in the Spanish version right now C:

(The lyrics are the Spanish translation of the 

[…] will you stand up and take your chance?
The blood of the martyrs will water the meadows of France

verse of Do you hear the people sing.)

The Indigenous concept of the four directions becomes tainted by the creation of a north/south dichotomy, which distorts the Indigenous beliefs of this continent as one land, and the emotional and spiritual connection to the cardinal directions. This distortion allows political and colonial ideas and the competition for resources to create a dissention between nations, pueblos, and peoples, forcing them to put aside traditional beliefs and adopt existing realities which further perpetuate divisions.
The shift for a more Hemispheric approach in Native American Studies challenges and re-thinks regional definitions that have been imposed upon Native people since the arrival of Europeans. The hemispheric approach expands the possibilities rather than limits them. Linguistic patterns that cross all boundaries and borders demonstrate that Native relations were complex and migratory throughout the continent. To limit ourselves to geographic boundaries such as the U.S., chooses to ignore the fact that the Diné (Navajo) people have relations to the Dene people of Canada or that the Zunis believe themselves to be related to Quechua people in Peru and the Hopi people have identified themselves to be related to the Nahua people of México. Oral traditions of how people encountered each other or shared history together are a common trait amongst Native peoples.
—  Indigenous Identity, Spirituality,Activism, and Performance  by Jennie Marie Luna

Ilustración para entrada de unidad.

Lengua Yokot’an, Tabasco.

INEA/SEP

© Medusczka

mofeta-pestosa  asked:

El axtlacuilli luce muy lindo ¿Conoces algún peinado de hombre que sea elaborado? ¿O todos son discretos?

Pues hay varios pero dependen del largo del cabello y también del tocado; anteriormente dependía de la condición y status pero ya no.

Los actores que interpretaron a los personajes en Apocalypto estaban bien caracterizados (por lo menos en cuanto a peinados, estética y atuendos) porque se basaron en códices,murales y crónicas para su interpretación así que básicamente lo que se puede ver en la película o en los codex son los peinados originales usados por los hombres de los pueblos originarios.

 El peinado de rapado en medio de hecho era para las mujeres; los hombres mexicas  que no servían en la guerra  llevaban los cabellos largos al hombro con un fleco al frente, los guerreros -dependiendo de su grado- llevaban un arreglo distintivo a forma de tocado. Desde que nacían hasta los ocho o nueve años llevaban el cabello corto, al cumplir los diez se les dejaba crecer un mechón de pelo en la nuca llamada mocuexpaltia. Llegando a la adolescencia su cabellera ya era larga y si a esta edad eran capaces de capturar a un enemigo, ya sea solos o con la compañía de alguien se les cortaba ese mechón como símbolo de su logro. Pero se le dejaba crecer un mechón sobre la sien derecha que con el tiempo cubría la oreja. Dependiendo del número de cautivos que hacían se les recompensaba con diferentes adornos que demostraban su poder y valentía.

@dapart tiene un blog interesante porque en sus ilustraciones retrata a la perfección tocados, maquillaje, peinados y vestuario de los indígenas antiguos. Deberías seguirlo.

Because of the repression of two-spirit roles, many American Indians and people of indigenous descent look to the past and present for traces of these roles or for inspiration that could help to re-create two-spirit ways. I trace my matrilineage to the seminomadic Rarámuri of my grandmother’s pueblo, Namiquipa, Chihuahua, and have noted that contemporary Rarámuri ethnography confirms continued two-spirit roles, such as that of the na’wi or man-woman. Concho, Apache, and Pueblo Nations also held sway over northern Chihuahua and likely interacted with the Rarámuri. The Rarámuri may have also made use of the trade routes that reached far into the Southwest and into Central Mexico from Paquimé centuries after the turn of the first millennium. Some archaeological records indicate a complementary rather than a hierarchical gender system at Paquimé from 1200 to 1450 c.e. and at other ancient pueblos of the Southwest. While Christine S. VanPool and Todd L. VanPool suggest that these complementary genders may have been echoed among ancient Paquimé dwellers, they find no decisive archaeological proof that speaks for or against two-spirit presence at Paquimé. What do the direct descendants of related ancient Pueblo cultures have to say about two-spirit ways?

Contemporary Native American historiographical debates help explain why Mexican and Spanish-era Southwestern literatures do not record the two-spirit traditions that later U.S. oral ethnographies show. Referring to Pomo survival of historical Russian, Spanish, and Euro-American attempts at genocide on the Pomo Nation, queer Pomo scholar Greg Sarris interrogates both historical relationships of non-native authors with their native subjects and the relationship of contemporary readers with these texts. Whether the author is a Spanish priest of the sixteenth century or a gay white activist recovering “his” gay American roots through Native American experience, Sarris reminds readers that “representatives from the dominant culture exploring the resistance of subjugated people are likely to see little more than what those people choose or can afford to show them.” For this reason contemporary indigenous authors may provide gender insights that could not have been shared easily during more homophobic periods of colonization. Historical native informants were sources of wildly clashing narratives about “sodomy” and transgendered ways. Depending upon the methodology and political stance writers choose, two-spirit histories can be interpreted as being nonexistent, oppressed, or exalted.


Working from oral tradition, Laguna Pueblo author Leslie Marmon Silko makes positive two-spirit statements that would have been very difficult to make during Spanish colonization. Silko confirms that Pueblo history is based upon stories and that “a great deal of the story is believed to be inside the listener; the storyteller’s role is to draw the story out of the listeners. The storytelling continues from generation to generation.” In this sense Pueblo history is ultimately best understood inside a storied Pueblo cultural context not available to nonPueblo peoples and researchers. While Silko demonizes two gay characters in Almanac of the Dead: A Novel, she articulates her own enthusiastic version of Laguna Pueblo two-spirit peoples in Yellow Woman and a Beauty of the Spirit: “Before the arrival of Christian missionaries, a man could dress as a woman and work with the women and even marry a man without any fanfare. Likewise, a woman was free to dress like a man, to hunt and go to war with the men, and to marry a woman. In the old Pueblo worldview, we are all a mixture of male and female, and this sexual identity is changing constantly. In sacred kiva ceremonies, men mask and dress as women to pay homage and to be possessed by the female energies of spirit beings.”


A key element in this discourse is to note that all Pueblo are a mix of masculinity and femininity. Therefore it is not abnormal for anyone to express both masculinity and femininity in appropriate community arenas. By expressing complementary genders in one body, two-spirits exercise flexible gender rights that everyone can utilize as well when the need arises. Silko further notes that Pueblo men in sacred kiva spaces can become possessed by female spirits, momentarily and appropriately embodying mixed gender energy. Although Christianity and colonial laws made these fluid gender realities difficult to express publicly, this fluidity survives in oral traditions and among some Pueblo traditionalists. Given Silko’s celebration of the power and honor of female creativity in her Laguna Pueblo tradition, it is not surprising that men who commit to female ways would also be honored or that reversed female to male identification could also find a home in the Pueblo world. Community and partnership, not gender stratified domination and submission, are the values that she transmits about Pueblo marriage, noting that married people were free to have sex with other people if they so chose. Again Silko’s sources are mainly the oral traditions that she has gleaned from her own family and her medium of transmitting this two-spirit history is storytelling.

—  Gabriel S. Estrada , “Two-spirit Histories in Southwestern and Mesoamerican Literatures,” Gender and Sexuality in Indigenous North America, 1400-1850 (2012)
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Mesa Point trail, Boca Negra Canyon, Petroglyphs National Monument, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.

The following are segments from information signs around the trail:

Due to extended periods of drought, the Pueblo people searched for permanent sources of surface water that would sustain their agricultural lifestyle. Many people settled along the Rio Grande which provided an ample supply of water and fertile farmland. […] 

Petroglyphs represent a valuable record of cultural expression and human occupation in the Rio Grande valley. They have deep spiritual significance to modern Pueblo groups as well as other indigenous people such as the Diné (Navajo) and the Apache. Similar images continue to have value in contemporary ceremonial life for many Southwestern tribes.

The associated meanings of some petroglyphs are known by a few Southwestern tribal groups, while the direct meanings of other images have been lost over the centuries. […] Identification of some petroglyphs is based on interpretations by today’s Pueblo people. We cannot say for certain what all images represent, nor is it appropriate for modern Pueblos to reveal the meaning of an image to others. Various Pueblos have differing opinions on meanings and any single images may have complex or multiple meanings based on its context.

Photos courtesy & taken by Lisa Jacobs.

Título: “He llegado” (Poema de Nezahualcóyotl)

© Medusczka

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