psychological patterns

The principle goal of education in the schools should be creating men and women who are capable of doing new things, not simply repeating what other generations have done; men and women who are creative, inventive and discoverers, who can be critical and verify, and not accept, everything they are offered.
—  Jean Piaget

Things I support:

  • dysphoric people (trans or not)
  • getting dysphoric people access to better healthcare
  • getting transitioning people access to better healthcare
  • getting trans people healthcare which presents treatment for dysphoria and transition as options and does not pressure anyone to do anything
  • scientific research into the health risks and long-term effects of various aspects of transitioning (binding, hormone therapy, psychological patterns, etc.)
  • safety and autonomy of trans people
  • detransitioned people

Things I do not support:

  • males in female spaces
  • female spaces being compromised into free-for-all “gender neutral” spaces (while male spaces are left untouched)
  • medically transitioning children
  • lesbians & gay men have to be “open to” dating transwomen/transmen respectively or they’re transphobic
  • lesbians & gay men should “re-examine” their “genital fetishes” (i.e. DIY conversion therapy)
  • presenting medical transition as the only route for dysphoric people
  • pressuring dysphoric and/or gender-nonconforming people to identify as trans
  • erasing gender-nonconforming women like joan of arc from women’s history by claiming they were transmen
  • erasing gay figures like marsha p. johnson from gay rights history by claiming they were trans
  • rapists, murderers and predators who hold (or held) positions of influence in the trans movement (biko, rivers, alok, etc etc)
  • “centering” males in female reproductive rights
  • silencing female issues to cater to transwomen’s feelings
  • silencing victims of male trans people in the interest of “not making transwomen look bad”
  • violent and/or intimidating protests, no-platforming, other intimidation tactics, as an attempt to ban women’s writing, silence women’s dissenting voices, and erase women’s achievements
  • people identifying as trans based on gender stereotypes, outdated notions of “brain sex,” or nebulous feelings rather than sex dysphoria
  • transwomen being allowed to pretend they were not socialized male
  • transwomen being allowed to pretend they do not, and have never held male privilege
  • transmen’s experiences with female socialization and sex-based oppression being silenced and transmen being thrown under the bus in order to make the previous two points appear legitimate
  • pushing false statistics, lies, and strawman arguments to demonize anyone who questions trans theory
  • “TERF”
  • subsequent TERF witch-hunts, block lists, demanding that no one so much as hear what radical feminists have to say and instead blindly accept a strawman version of what we believe
  • ostracizing and bullying of anyone who expresses curiosity about radical feminist ideas, reveals that they’ve read radical feminist blogs, or so much as reblogs memes from radical feminists
  • denial of basic biology
  • denial of basic sociology
  • denial of sex-based oppression
The human talent for pattern recognition is a two-edged sword. We’re especially good at finding patterns, even when they aren’t really there. Something known as false pattern recognition. We hunger for significance, for signs that our personal existence is of special meaning to the universe. To that end, we’re all too eager to deceive ourselves and others, to discern a sacred image in a grilled cheese sandwich or find a divine warning in a comet.
—  Neil deGrasse Tyson, Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey 

prince-a-nonny-mous  asked:

What in someone's chart would indicate a strong connection/strong similarities to their father?

you can look at the 10th house for this sort of stuff (esp if the father was the dominant parent)

like someone with mercury in the 10th house may think a lot like the father, Nep in the 10th may have inherited their  creativity but also addictive patterns or psychological illness. Uranus in the 10th would not so much mimic but self expression would have been encouraged, the father could have assisted this (unintentionally) by some  form of distance, physical or emotional. The Sun in the 10th may reflect the most potent similarities, especially their strength, aura, and aspiration. Moon in the 10th may have experienced role reversal so the father was the emotional provider while the mother worked or was self driven and focused. It helps nurture the person’s feminine and sensitive qualities, Venus in the 10th can appreciate similar art or life experiences, much like the Moon. with Mars in the 10th the person may reflect the father’s intimidation style or mode of aggression, control issues, the base of the person’s anger can emanate from here. Jupiter in the 10th can reflect the father’s spirit for life, but there may have been neglect here, resulting in beliefs that purposely go against what has been taught or imprinted as a child. Saturn in the 10th can reflect the father’s discipline, actually the father’s voice of critique can remain the loudest throughout life, it can almost startle them, they can take on the need for respect and morality, but this may be out of fear. the secretiveness or isolation of the father with pluto in the 10th can disinhibit any relationship or learned qualities to acquire


The conjunction calls for complete integration of the planetary energies involved. Integration is a powerful uniting force, making any conjunction potent and as Isabel Hickey states, “a concentrated massing of energy.” This is often why there is the phrase that a conjunction “can go either way.” We can take the moon, the childhood essence, psychological foundation and emotions of the psyche lining in conjunction to Saturn, the embodiment or karmic law, restriction and excessive internal discipline and criticism. This would be considered a conjunction that leans towards the challenging spectrum, as Saturn weighs heavy on the lunar self, calling for a cold hardening of the soul that grows up too quickly through the constant suppression of emotion. We can then look at the moon in conjunction to Venus. Here we have two feminine energies where the emotions are not restricted but blessed, harmonized, and agreeable. The moon becomes infatuated and encompassing with Venusian equity, aesthetic and artistic sense, and diplomatic and fair temperament. This would be a conjunction leaning on the less difficult side of the spectrum, seeing that these energies fuse very well. Conjunctions to the sun and moon are especially important to consider, having direct contact to the identity, ego and vital force (sun), as well as the psychological patterns, emotions and inner security (moon). 


A collection of eight confessions, hand written and court transcripts, of convicted criminals. It is then reduced to only those sentences were the criminal is talking about his or hers own emotions. The perpetrators personal landscape of guilt is revealed with no descriptions about the actual criminal act. The most extreme act of violence contains something that we can all recognize in ourselves; the inner psychological patterns of reasoning and justification, remorse and/or the lack of it.

Ignas Krunglevičius

Hi :-) 

I’m going to post a little about disordered thinking today and hopefully provide some methods for you to recognise the different types of anxious thinking you may have, and also a little exercise at the end which can hopefully help you combat the anxious thoughts and change them! 

Remember, it may not happen straight away but I fully believe that by knowing the thought patterns you can gradually learn to change them if you wish too :) I realise it’s will be hard; being stuck in a negative thought cycle can sometimes become a crutch that for some, changing them represents a change in their whole sense of self. This can be hard to overcome. Go at your own pace friends, and if it feels uncomfortable - stop. Get yourself something nice and try and again another time. Always remember to reward yourself for any positive changes!! 

Here goes!

Some of the most common examples of distorted, biased or unhelpful thinking are as follows: 

“All or nothing” type of thinking

When we see things as either black or white. If something is not perfect then it must be disastrous. One mistake means complete failure. 

This is completely unrealistic. Life is not that clear cut. There are many shades of grey.

Over Generalisation

Where after one unfortunate event we assume it will happen again, every time. For example, once turned down at an interview we may feel convinced that we have no chance of ever finding a job. 

This will certainly make us feel bad, but there is no justification for seeing one instance as proving a rule.

Mental Filter

This is where people tend to pick out a negative or worrying detail and dwell on it exclusively, thus seeing the whole situation as bad. 

This will certainly make us feel upset, but we will without a doubt be missing out on some positive aspects. 

Discounting The Positive

Anxious people have a strong tendency to say that positive experiences don’t count for some reason. We may say a successful event was a “fluke”!

This makes things seem worse than they are and means that we don’t let ourselves take pleasure from positive events or our successes. 

Jumping to Conclusions

This involves assuming the worst when there is really no real reason to: For instance, expecting failure before having tried. 

Clearly this kind of anxious thinking will only increase anxious feelings. 


When we exaggerate the importance of our own imperfections or errors or fears e.g. “I made a mistake - that’s terrible - I can never show my face here again.” When we turn commonplace misfortunes into disasters, in our minds. 

Remember, we do not think about other people’s mistakes in the same way. 

Emotional Reasoning

Where we believe that, because we feel so afraid, there really must be some danger, or because things feel so dreadful, we believe they really are in a mess. 

It is most often the case that anxious feelings are not realistic.

“Should” Statements 

For instance, thinking we “should” be able to stay calm all of the time or we “must” never get angry. 

Such rigid statements are over-demanding and unreasonable. They cause unnecessary pressure and, very often, guilt. 

Labelling and Mislabelling

This happens when we label ourselves as a “useless person” on the basis of a mistake we have made. When our total idea of ourselves is determined by something we have done or a mistake we have made. 

That makes about as much sense as defining ourselves as “joiners” because we have put a shelf up!! 


Where we tend to assume that where something goes badly, it is entirely our fault. For instance, if our child has a poor report card then we blame ourselves. 

Personalisation usually causes guilt. It leads people to assume complete responsibility for happenings that are almost certainly due to many factors. 


Make a column with three rows. Name these 3 rows as follows:

Anxious thoughts          Thinking Errors           Reasonable thoughts

  1. The next time you feel unmistakably anxious or upset, note what you are thinking. alternatively, imagine you are in a difficult situation or about to do something you dread, bring to mind those thoughts you usually have at these times, i.e the first thoughts you would have. Write your thoughts in the first column under the heading “Automatic Anxious Thoughts”. These are the thoughts or ideas which cause your emotional upset. 
  2. Next, look at these “automatic thoughts” you have writen down and decide what kind of errors you have made. Refer to the previous list of thinking errors. Write in the type of errors in the second column
  3. Now, for the third column. The task is to substitute more reasonable, objective thoughts. It may help to imagine what someone else might say or think, reassuring and sensible. Imagine if you were giving this advice to a friend or somebody else you are close too. The point of the exercise is to train yourself to be objective and reasonable. So you need to believe what you put in column three is accurate. If you are unsure of this, then maybe you could ask a close friend or family their opinion. 

So there we go. I hope this will help you recognise negative thought pattens and help you begin to change them into more ordered and positive thinking. Please feel free to message me if you have any questions. 

The pattern underlying [the creative act] is the perceiving of a situation or idea, L, in two self-consistent but habitually incompatible frames of reference, M1 and M2. The event L, in which the two intersect, is made to vibrate simultaneously on two different wavelengths, as it were. While this unusual situation lasts, L is not merely linked to one associative context, but bisociated with two.

I have coined the term ‘bisociation’ in order to make a distinction between the routine skills of thinking on a single ‘plane,’ as it were, and the creative act, which … always operates on more than one plane. The former can be called single-minded, the latter double-minded, transitory state of unstable equilibrium where the balance of both emotion and thought is disturbed.
—  Arthur Koestler
On “I Didn’t Leave the Democratic Party, it Left Me.”

Without fail, a few times a week I hear someone who claims to have been a Democratic voter say, “I didn’t leave the Democratic Party, the Democratic Party left me.”  This is almost always said as a rationale, a justification for voting for Trump or not voting at all.   It is also almost always said by a white male.  A lot of the times, they either are or were in the manufacturing sector and/or a member of a union.  They blame the loss of jobs in their field that have either affected them and/or their family and friends on the Democratic Party.  They also blame the Party for the decline in union membership and anti-union bills passed in once proud union states like Michigan and Wisconsin.  Whenever I hear these complaints, I ask for specific examples of exactly how the Democratic Party betrayed them.  So far, I haven’t received a single specific from anyone that can’t be disproved by my eight-year-old and Google.  All I get is a reiteration that the Democratic Party left them or right-wing talking points about the Democrats being the party of “corporatists.” When I ask them to explain how Democrats are supposed to push pro-union bills when many union members themselves vote for Republicans or how they are supposed to alter the inevitable changes that arise from globalization, they hem and haw and end up not saying a damn thing.

The Democratic Party didn’t leave these folks.  These folks left the Party for a number of reasons.  One reason is because they, like most Americans, are intellectually lazy, especially when it comes to knowing and understanding how their government works.  They don’t understand or care to understand how laws are made, what can and can’t be done because of legislative rules, what can be legitimately done at any given moment in time due to the makeup of the legislative bodies involved.  This situation isn’t unique to ex-Dems, the far-left also suffers from being severely civics challenged.  They expect, demand, and want FDR-like progress without the very large progressive majorities FDR enjoyed every single term in office.  This same unrealistic demand applies on the state level, as well.  If people who claim to be progressives don’t vote for progressive majorities, then they shouldn’t bitch when things are not as progressive as they’d like.  I know this sounds simple, but it seems to completely elude a whole lot of people.

When I ask these ex-Dems whether or not they voted or Democratic candidates in the 2010 and/or 2014 midterms, they almost always say, “No.”  I don’t know exactly how the Democratic Party left people who didn’t support it.  I really don’t know how allowing Republicans who are anti-union and all for shipping jobs overseas to have power is a reasonable response to wanting pro-union, less globalization.   If I’m ever able to get an answer about this, it usually ends up being something along the lines of, “to teach the Democrats a lesson.”  This is the same stupid mindset from many on the left during the 2010 midterms with regard to what they perceived were sleights with regard to health care and Wall Street reform.  How’d that “teach them a lesson” thing turn out?  As far as I can tell it led to the rise of the Tea Party, Democrats losing many states including blue states like Michigan and Wisconsin, the U.S. House of Representatives and most of the political leverage progressives had.  That wasn’t a lesson.  That was political suicide which was followed by giving Republicans control of the Senate in 2014 and the White House last November.  This is where I sarcastically slow clap and say, “Bra…..fucking….o!”  You wanted the Democratic Party to do things for you but you didn’t do anything for the Democratic Party.

Another reason these people left the Democratic Party is the same reason a lot of people left-racism/bigotry.  To many of these individuals, unions were great until minorities became members.  Public schools were terrific until their kids had to go to school with “those kids.”  Living in the city or suburb adjacent areas was fine until “those people” started moving in.  Make no mistake, White Flight isn’t something unique to conservatives.  Many so-called “progressives” bolted from their neighborhoods once it started getting ethnically diverse.  The beliefs, attitudes, mindset behind progressive White Flight are the same behind, “I didn’t leave the Democratic Party, the Democratic Party left me.”  Anyone who claims differently doesn’t know a damn thing about anything, especially political history, voting patterns, sociology, psychology, belief systems….

The Democratic Party hasn’t won the majority of the white vote since 1964.  Now, why is that?  What happened in 1964 that would cause white voters to turn away from the Democratic Party?  Was it, A) the government outlawing the poll tax?  Or, B) Barry Goldwater winning the Republican presidential primary nomination?  Or, C) the last Looney Tune cartoon produced by Warner Bros.?  Or, D) the passage of the Civil Rights Act by Democratic President Lyndon Johnson?  If you say anything other than, “D” you need to be remanded to third-grade history and can’t come back to the discussion until you pass.  The underlying reason for White Flight, for School of Choice, for whites not voting for the Democratic Party is racism. Full…Fucking…Stop!  When people tell me, “I didn’t leave the Democratic Party, the Democratic Party left me, “ what they often mean is, “An awful lot of people I don’t want in the Democratic Party are a major voting bloc in the Party.”  The same reasons behind conservative and progressive White Flight are why the Democratic Party hasn’t won the majority of the white vote since 1964.  It isn’t because the Democratic Party’s stance on economic issues.  It is because, when push comes to shove, too many white voters don’t want to minorities to have the same rights and privileges they do.

Of course, people aren’t going to come right out and say the reason they no longer support the Democratic Party is because of racial issues. Instead, they come up with nonsense claims like, “I didn’t leave the Democratic Party, the Democratic Party left me” or “Democrats have moved too far to the left.”  This latter claim is used by the right, the media, and so-called “Democrats” who think chasing the white vote is a smart, moral strategy.  Former Democratic Senator from Virginia, Jim Webb is the most recent person making the idiotic claim that Democrats have moved too far to the left.  This shouldn’t come as a surprise to anyone who knows  Webb’s political history. Until 2006 he was a Republican.  I wouldn’t expect anything less from someone with such a conservative background to say something different than Democrats have moved too far to the left.  This is why anyone with an ounce of sense can and should completely ignore anything Webb has to say about the Democratic Party.

The political reality is only one party has moved hard towards their extreme and that would be the Republicans.  Read Eisenhower’s 1956 platform and it sounds like it came out of the 2016 Democratic Convention.  You don’t even need to go back that far to see just how hard to the right Republicans have shifted.  Nixon, Reagan, Bush Sr., even W. wouldn’t have lasted two months running for the Republican presidential nomination in 2016.  This shift to the right by Republicans in Congress is well researched and documented.  Since the early 70s, the majority of Democrats have pretty much stayed in the same just left of center grouping while Republicans in the Senate, but especially in the House have moved sharply to the right.  To say, “Democrats have moved too far to the left” isn’t backed up by the data.  If the gap between the majorities of the two parties was four spots on the political spectrum in the 70s and now it is ten, this doesn’t mean each has shifted three spots.  What has happened is the left has shifted one spot and the right has shifted five.  It is intellectually lazy to look at the difference between four and ten and say, “both sides have moved equally apart.”  There are no Tea Party equivalents on the left.  Jim Webb and others saying, “The Democrats have moved too far to the left,” is complete bullshit.

Progressives love to point out white privilege when it applies to conservatives.  Of course, it is low hanging fruit. What many white progressives are not very good at is recognizing and admitting their own privilege and how their beliefs and actions undermine the very ideology they claim to believe in so strongly. Progressivism is about equality, justice, and fairness with no fine print, no fucking asterisks.  If you aren’t standing up and fighting for the rights of those in society who have been and are denied them to one degree or another, stop pretending you are progressive in order to make you feel good about yourself.  Don’t blame the Democratic Party for being the only one of the two major political parties that stands up for these things because you don’t have the mental or intestinal fortitude to do so yourself.  Don’t say, “I didn’t leave the Democratic Party, the Democratic Party left me,” when what you really mean is, “I’m uncomfortable with the Democratic Party prioritizing the most vulnerable in society over my white privileged ass.”  There are actually white supremacists at the seat of power in our country right now.  So-called “progressives” who aren’t adamantly standing up and fighting for those most at risk from the quasi-fascist right may say they were Democrats, but at best they were fair weather fans who, if they were honest, would say, “I’m perfectly fine with progress as long as it is focused on my wants and needs and not on people who really need it.”  This is what it really boils down to whether progressives want to admit it or not.  If you want social/economic change, you have to vote for the party that is your best chance to get it, not the party that is completely against it.  The more you vote for and elect Democratic candidates, the more they will have power.  The more power they have, the more they can enact change.  It is See Spot Fucking Run for anyone smart enough and honest enough to see it.


Cerise: “Hi Willie! It’s so nice to finally meet you officially in person! I’m Cerise Rosewood!”

Willie: “I’m so pleased to meet your acquaintance, Cerise.”

Cerise: “It’s really nice to be here on this private deck with you. It was starting to get a bit.. Crazy with the other girls. Like there was just so much drama and so many people on such a small, confined boat. I don’t even mind so much being outside right now.”

Willie: “I’m sorry you’re not comfortable here. But I suppose some girl drama is to be expected in these circumstances.”

Cerise: “Oh yes totally. I did my research before coming here. I watched plenty of previous season of the bachelor and read up on social psychology. There are patterns in these things, and I think I’ll be able to recognize them, and use that to my advantage.”

Willie: “Wow I’m impressed. It sounds like you really put a lot of thought into this.”

Cerise Rosewood was made by @pixelatedhedgehogs and you can read her bio here :)

It turns out that an eerie type of chaos can lurk just behind a facade of order - and yet, deep inside the chaos lurks an even eerier type of order
—  Douglas R. Hofstadter, Metamagical Themas: Questing for the Essence of Mind and Pattern.
Len’s Hands

Welp… I don’t want to admit how much time I put into studying Len’s hands and gif-ing them. And yet there’s so much more I could say than even made it into this post, but ah, here’s some analysis of Captain Cold and what his hands say about him, and mostly it’s just a lot of gifs of his hands okay?

Keep reading

The problem with the unconscious is that it is unconscious. We do not know what it is, or how it is working. The willingness to track its manifestations in our biographical patterns and in our compensatory dream life is quite demanding, and most people will simply not make the effort. So the sub-rosa work of their unconscious shadow continues, whether they pay attention or not.
—  James Hollis

anonymous asked:

(abuse cw maybe??) How can one tell the difference between experiencing emotional abuse, misunderstanding something due to lack of social skills bc autism, and rsd bc adhd? For instance, my mom was criticizing me for not knowing whether my floor in my dorm next year is coed or not and I just feel emotionally devastated- and this kind of thing happens with her very often. Is it abuse? autism? rsd? I'm confused. (please tag as #angryradio)

This sounds like RSD which is an extreme reaction to real or perceived rejection. 

Abuse, while taking into account the reaction of the victim, has more to do with the action than how it made the person feel. Emotional/psychological abuse is a pattern of behavior in which one person attempts to control another, whether consciously or subconsciously. If your mom frequently, harshly criticizes you, it could be emotional abuse, however, there is not enough information here to really say if that is the case. 

There is a chance that it is resultant from misunderstanding something due to social difficulties, however, I would still say that the emotions you are experiencing, and the intensity with which you are experiencing them, would still put this into RSD territory. 

With RSD, even slight criticism can be emotionally devastating. Small things become huge for the person with RSD. While the emotional effects can feel similar to the effects of abuse, the actions that led to these feelings generally would not count as abuse. 


Detecting imperius curses

There are patterns of psychological manipulation that have very similar effects as the imperius curse described in Harry Potter. When you’re on the receiving end, it can be very hard to figure out what’s going on and resist.

One way to tell is watching how you change when you’re around someone, especially if you’re not comfortable with the changes. Double especially if they emphatically say that they are not trying to influence you and would never try to influence you.

For instance, if your views change dramatically around someone else in this kind of pattern:

  • You normally think one thing
  • When you’re with this person, your views dramatically change
  • When you’re not with them, you can’t understand why your views changed
  • Or you might even find the views you adopted in their presence repulsive
  • But it keeps happening over and over when you interact with them

Especially if this happens when you try to contradict them:

  • You: I don’t agree with you about x. I don’t see myself that way. I don’t believe that.
  • Them: Why are you telling me that? What makes you think I ever told you what to think?
  • (And then, somehow, you still end up thinking the thing while you’re with them. And not thinking it when you’ve been away from them for a while.)

This can also happen with actions. Sometimes imperius curses mean that being around someone affects what you do. It can mean you do a lot of things you don’t think that you want to do. It can mean being really confused about why you did the things.

Particularly if this happens when you try to avoid doing the things:

  • You: I don’t want to do x.
  • Them: Did I ever say you should? All I did was ask.
  • (Then you somehow still end up doing the thing. And when you’re not with them, you don’t think you want to do the thing and aren’t quite sure how it happened.)

Another pattern:

  • They say they’re not trying to influence you.
  • You try to express a different opinion or desire or choice
  • If you’re trying to express a thought or desire, you don’t get to complete the thought or process why you think it
  • Instead, the conversation drifts into their opinion
  • You end up feeling like you agree, and complying with it
  • It’s not really agreement, because you weren’t really able to think about what they are saying and what you think about it, and why you think what you think
  • It’s being prompted into an emotional state in which disagreeing with their position feels impossible or petty, and in which surrendering is a relief

When you try to express a choice:

  • They pretend that you didn’t express a choice
  • And keep talking about it as though a decision has not been made
  • (And maybe say some things that might be reasonable if you hadn’t already made a choice and expressed your choice)
  • (Or some things that would make sense if you’d asked for their advice)
  • They also say some things that are just prompting you in the direction they want you to go in
  • And somehow, the conversation never stops until you give in to what they wanted
  • (And, often, not until you feel like it was your idea and reassure them that you agree with them, or maybe even thank them for their help)

Another pattern:

  • They say something awful about you in a tone that sounds loving and compassionate
  • The way they speak to you makes it hard to realize that any other opinion is possible.
  • You might end up thanking them
  • (And then possibly getting angry hours or weeks later when the effect wears off)
  • (And being really confused about what happened).

These are a few examples. There are many other ways this can play out.

Changing your opinion in response to someone else’s ideas is not bad in itself. Neither is changing your mind about what you want to do. Those are both important things to do in a lot of situations. The reason that imperius curse effects are bad isn’t that people subjected to them change their opinions or desires. Changing can be good; it’s the *kinds* of changes that imperius curse effects cause that’s the problem.

Imperius curse effects are bad because they short-circuit persuasion and induce compliance. They create emotional prompts that feel like believing something, even if you haven’t actually been persuaded of it. Or prompts that feel similar to wanting to do something, even if you don’t actually want to do it. It makes it hard to tell that the other person ends somewhere, and that your thoughts and feelings matter and might be different from theirs. It’s an intense violation, and it can be hard to detect and resist. I think knowing about the patterns helps some.

tl;dr The effects of the Imperius Curse described in Harry Potter are very similar to a form of non-magical emotional manipulation that happens in the real world. They trick people into feeling like they want things they don’t want, or like they agree with things they don’t agree with. There are some patterns they tend to happen in. Knowing about the patterns can make them easier to detect.