psych-science

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Here’s a clearer version of my ADHD info graphic
Happy ADHD awareness month everyone!!

The Schizo’s

Schizophrenia is a familiar term within the mental health community. While the diagnosis itself is relatively rare when compared to the general community, schizophrenia has become a misconceived and blanket term for a variety of different diagnoses.

In reality there is: schizophrenia, schizoid, schizotypal, schizophreniform, and schizoaffective disorder. Sadly, and all too often, these disorders and their distinct differences are not recognized. So without further ado, here is a <brief> breakdown of the different disorders and their specific diagnoses/symptoms:


Schizophrenia: Easily the most recognized and commonly-used term, schizophrenia is diagnosed when a client has at least 2 of the following symptoms:

  1. Delusions
  2. Hallucinations
  3. Disorganized Speech
  4. Disorganized of catatonic behavior
  5. Negative Symptoms

At least one of the symptoms has to be delusions, hallucinations or disorganized speech. Additonally, schizophrenia is only diagnosed if symptoms have been present for at least six months.

Schizophreniform: Literally the exact same as schizophrenia, however symptoms have been present for less than six months but at least one month.

Schizoaffective: Again, all the same criteria of schizophrenia, except there must also be evidence of an intermittent (it’s not always present) mood disorder. A mood disorder may consist of a major depressive episode, a manic episode, or a mixed episode - in which both depressive and manic symptoms present. The most common example I have seen/used is somebody with symptoms of Bipolar and Schizophrenia (it’s quite a fun combination, as you can imagine).

Schizotypal: This is actually a chronic personality disorder first and foremost. Therefore most of the symptoms affect - you guessed it- the individual’s personality.  The official diagnosis criteria include:

  1. Significant impairments in personality functioning as shown by:
    1. Impairments in self functioning:
      1. Identity: Confused boundaries between self and others; distorted self-concept; emotional expression often not congruent with context or internal experience.
      2. Self-direction: Unrealistic or incoherent goals; no clear set of internal standards.
      3. Impairments in interpersonal functioning: i.e. empathy, romantic interest
    2. Pathological personality traits in the following domains:
      1. Psychoticism - eccentric behaviors, cognitive dysregulation, and unusual beliefs or experiences
      2. Detachment - i.e. withdrawal
      3. Negative Affectivity - i.e.anhedonia, “void of emotions”

Schizoid: Once again, a personality disorder. The criteria for this disorder, according the DSM-5 are:

  1. Significant impairments (i.e., mild impairment or greater) in self (identity or self-direction) and interpersonal (empathy or intimacy) functioning.
  2. One or more pathological personality trait domains OR specific trait facets within domains, considering ALL of the following domains.
    1. Negative Affectivity
    2. Detachment - few, if many personal/close relationships
    3. Antagonism
    4. Disinhibition vs. Compulsivity
    5. Psychoticism (explained above)


And of course with just about any and every disorder in the DSM - these symptoms can not be the result of drugs/alcohol/medications, and they must have some sort of impairment on the individual’s social or occupational functioning in order to be a qualifying diagnosis.


Sources: THE DSM-5.

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NASA sets its sights on 16 Psyche, an asteroid containing $10,000 quadrillion in iron

  • Somewhere in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, a giant asteroid measuring 130 miles in diameter orbits the sun.
  • The asteroid, 16 Psyche, is unique: While most have icy or rocky bodies, this one is made of primarily iron and nickel, much like Earth’s core.
  • All the iron on 16 Psyche could be worth around $10,000 quadrillion — or $10,000,000,000,000,000,000, or $10 quintillion. To put that in perspective, the combined gross domestic product of every country in the world totaled around $74 trillion in 2015.
  • Now, NASA is gearing up to send a spacecraft to 16 Psyche. Its goal is to better understand how Earth and other terrestrial planets came into existence and developed layers like cores, mantles and crusts. Read more (5/25/17)

follow @the-future-now

Statistics of Convicted Serial Killers

An article published through Le Moyne College in Syracuse presented the following compiled statistics in regards to convicted serial killers:

- 42% suffered physical abuse as children
- 74% suffered from psychological abuse
- 35% witnessed sexual abuse as children
- 43% suffered through sexual abuse

Source: Modern-Day Serial Killer by Don Rauf

anonymous asked:

Hi Jo! I always see people complaining about 8am classes and I jsut don't get it I mean I've been taking 7am classes since i was 11 so 8am ones sound like heaven to me ???

u poor soul  well, honestly, it kinda depends on what kind of people are complaining about 8am classes (hs or uni) 

bUT tbh your question can be answered by psych and Science! but i think it’s is kinda like 

okay so humans are adaptable, right? we’re flexible and we can change and get used to things quickly- especially when it’s beneficial or helpful to us or when we like the thing. so when people know what it’s like to not have to get up early in the mornings, when they’re forced to, they don’t like it. 

so 8 am classes are miserable bc we wake up and then go to school, of all things and we’re used to 8 am classes and we don’t like it. it’s the same for us like for you, except an hour earlier, it’s like we would be super envious of nyone who only had to start classes at 9? 

smh idek if i’m making any sense lmaooo sorry i can’t answer your question properly bb

youtube

Synesthesia allows people to hear color or taste numbers, and maybe even remember some things better than the average person.

youtube

SciShow Psych is here! Let’s start by tackling the question of whether psychology is even science in the first place.

009/100 days of productivity ✨

Oct.18.16

The contents of the purse today as I tackle my Thursday classes. I actually usually bring in a backpack but today I decided to not bring a laptop and downsize to my purse.

Inside:
-Hobonichi Scheduler
-Psych Textbook
-psych & science notebook
-various pens
-3 packs of Mildliners
-Coach Wallet
-Tic Tac
-3 kinds of pens
-iPhone Charger

The Older Studyblr Crowd: A Masterpost

I’ve had a lot of requests to recommend older/ post-grad studyblrs. Since I follow so many wonderful people, I decided to make a quick lil list for anyone else who is looking for upperclassmen and “older“ crowd! I went through my follower list and made a note of everyone who appeared to be an upperclassmen/graduate student or was above the age of 22. They are as follows:

Graduate/Ph.D students:
darastudies // tulluly (art history) // habitsandlaw (post law) // journeyunderthestars // study-read-study (bilingualism) // chemistrynerd2020 (organic chemistry) // catscaffeineandnotebooks (creative writing/ poetry) // iwasborntostudy (hospitality management) // post–grad (medieval lit) // caffeinebooks (history) // howtophd (history) // ivrileague (biotech engineering) // ratheralotofacademicambition (literature) // psychblrrrr (psych) // mk-studies (social justice) // gilmore-esque (accountancy) // phdadventurerer // claireeatsnotes (illustration) // caffeinatemystudies (middle east studies) // lerudite (history) // back-to-college (eng lit/language) // sammasankappa (textile technology)  // runandstudymore (accounting) // styleinthestacks (library science/public history) // la-studieuse (art history) // @caffeinatedcraziness (chemistry) // curiousgradstudent (art history) 

Med/Law school:
throughtheeyesofamedstudent (4th yr med) // procaffeinator (law) // justanothermedblr (3rd yr med) // ladykaymd (4th yr med) // living-that-library-lifestyle (4th yr law) // survivingmalcolmhell (law) // studiousmedic (3rd yr med) // ofbooksandbookers (law) // stealthoscopes (vet) // qui-plume-a-guerre-a (1st yr law) // echymosis (4th yr med) // lawslayer (law) // study-wisely (3rd yr med) // inthecompanyofbooks (3rd yr med) // slytherinmd (2nd yr med) // soraya-lawblr (law) // @ashpiringtobebetter (2nd yr med) 

Upperclassmen:
me-mine (photography) // griffindor95 (neuroscience) // averagemedgirl (biology) // ceeejstudies (visual arts) // femalebryan (art history) // findthederivative (Biochem/math) // studypops (comm/business) // othertypist (English/German) // yarelichem (Chem) // maddiestudiespsychology (psych) // mqrlene (computer science) // n0ell333 (history) // cumlaudeorbust // studybox (accounting) // juniorincollege (psych) // jazstudies (english) // writtencoffeestudies (psych) // studylikebatman (psych) // longingtolearn (geography/bio) // raindropsonstationery (bio/film) // doctor-muffin (pre-med) // studyingsinger (music performance/classical studies) // studyingqt (foreign languages) // studyhardxx (language/lit/media science) // antropobitch (anthropology) // study-you-fools (history) // thetinyanthropologist (anthropology) // thekidatthebackoftheclass (genetics) // studymountains (neuroscience) // studis (music) // kourtnis-study-spot (psych) // feminist-bibliophile (psych) // seatreading (asian studies) // dissertationstudyblr (multimedia journalism) // kit-kat-studies (bio) // literallystudying (english lit) // hermione-ing (math/philosophy) // meliglossos (classics) // willy-brandt (sociology) // speedofwrite (dietics/nutrition) // tomorrowstriplethreat ( east asian studies/film) // @lena4point0 (accounting) // @cheystudies (poli sci) // @madsurvivorvsfinalyear (psych) 


Other 22+
jbeestudies // booksandiphones // butmagicisinthedoing // lawteastudy // addictedtostudying // learning-isbeautiful // ragent89 // liberalartssociety // imlearninglanguages // moonlitestudies // kiki4psych // @nsfacademia 

This is not a complete list; if anyone wants to be added to this list or would like me to edit their entry, please send me a message! Just let me know what your academic level is (junior, med school, etc.) and major if applicable. Thanks! 

PLZ NOTE: this is in no way made to exclude high school/lower division college studyblrs. This community is awesome for high school/new college students in that they can get together and support each other to be studious and smart. I love it! Sometimes it’s hard for older students and upperclassmen to find each other, so I figured I’d make an accessible list for everyone! xox

Psychopaths vs. Sociopaths

Something I have noticed a lot, whether it be on this site or in the general public, is an overwhelming misunderstanding of the terms ‘psychopath’ and ‘sociopath’ and how both terms relate to the diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD).

ASPD, first and foremost, is an extremely hard diagnosis to receive. The person’s antisocial behavior had to have begun, at the latest, by age 15 (although you cannot actually be diagnosed with ASPD until 18). Additionally, the individual must present with 3 or more of the following symptoms:

  • Failure to conform to social norms - with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by performing acts that are (or would be) grounds for arrest
  • Deceitfulness - lying, conning, manipulation, etc.
  • Impulsivity
  • Irritability and aggressiveness -  physical fights, assaults, etc.
  • Reckless disregard for safety of self or others
  • Consistent irresponsibility - failure to sustain a job, interpersonal relationships
  • Lack of remorse - indicated by being indifference towards hurting, mistreating

In addition to all of this, there has to be evidence of a Conduct Disorder in the individual as a child, whether it was formally diagnosed or not.

Society and pop psychology have both oversexualized and overgeneralized the terms psychopath and sociopath. Though the two terms seem similar, their commonalities lie in the shared diagnosis of of ASPD. Both indicate a pervasive disregard for others, as well as deception and manipulation. But contrary to popular belief, a psychopath or a sociopath is not necessarily a violent person, and there are distinct differences between the two personality types.

PSYCHOPATHS

Psychopathic tendencies are generally believed to have some sort of genetic predisposition, or physiological brain differences. Research has indicated that psychopaths have underdeveloped components of the brain which are responsible for emotion regulation and impulse control.

Psychopaths generally have a hard time forming genuine emotional attachments. They tend to be artificial and shallow in their interactions and are manipulative if they want something. There is rarely a “guilt” component to their thought process.

Psychopaths tend to be seen as charming, trustworthy, and have no issue holding a steady income or even having families, or seemingly normal lives.

When a psychopath engages in criminal behavior, they tend to do so in a way that minimizes any sort of risk to themselves. They are generally careful planners to ensure evading getting caught.

SOCIOPATHS

Unlike their counterparts, sociopaths are generally believed to be products of their environment or upbringing. They are generally more impulsive, nervous, erratic, “big picture” than psychopaths. While sociopaths usually have some difficulty in forming individual relationships, they tend to form attachments and leadership roles over like-minded individuals. Even with these attachments, they have a general disregard for society.  “Normal” aspects of life such as family or steady work are not as easy for sociopaths.

They are usually uneducated, and drifters. They are disorganized and spontaneous, and appear disturbed.

When a sociopath commits a crime, they tend to be more impulsive and largely unplanned with little regard for any repercussions (towards themselves or anyone else). They become easily agitated, and are more prone to outbursts.

Is there any Evo Psych that isn’t complete horse shit?

Coarsely worded, but I mean this as a serious question for the rest of Science Tumblr, because from my experience every piece of evolutionary psychology I’ve come across is junk science drummed up to give societal inequities ‘scientific explanations’. Basically the same way a lot of human biological science has always operated, but updated for the post-eugenics era and walled off in its own little field to churn out studies on why poc are intellectually inferior and the ‘evolutionary basis’ for why women love the color pink.

There’s a new bit of odium making the rounds on the news sites (don’t you just love how journalists snap up these little ‘science’ tidbits and regurgitate them to the masses in the most disgusting light possible?) under the variations of the headline, “Women Evolved Homosexual Behavior to Please Men According to Science!” I’m not linking to either the study (which is deeply flawed) or the article (which is trash) because I don’t want to give either any press, so here’s a screenshot of one such headline

The headline is meant to be sensationalist, which many headlines about new scientific studies usually are. It’s not clear if whoever wrote this article read/understood the actual study, BUT said study isn’t much better. For one thing it makes the mistake of viewing human sexual behavior only in terms of reproduction (a mistake in the case of many species, not just humans, since sexual behavior is used for many dynamic social purposes). For another, it was trash.

But my original question still stands. Is there any evolutionary psychology out there that isn’t a tire fire? Are there evolutionary psychologists doing good work, not just grafting biological determinism onto what are actually sociological problems? 

Two New Missions to Explore the Early Solar System

We’ve got big science news…!

We’ve just added two more science missions to our lineup! The two selected missions have the potential to open new windows on one of the earliest eras in the history of our solar system – a time less than 10 millions years after the birth of our sun.

The missions, known as Lucy and Psyche, were chosen from five finalists and will proceed to mission formulation.

Let’s take a dive into each mission…

Lucy

Lucy, a robotic spacecraft, will visit a target-rich environment of Jupiter’s mysterious Trojan asteroids. Scheduled to launch in October 2021, the spacecraft is slated to arrive at its first destination, a main asteroid belt, in 2025. 

Then, from 2027 to 2033, Lucy will explore six Jupiter Trojan asteroids. These asteroids are trapped by Jupiter’s gravity in two swarms that share the planet’s orbit, one leading and one trailing Jupiter in its 12-year circuit around the sun. The Trojans are thought to be relics of a much earlier era in the history of the solar system, and may have formed far beyond Jupiter’s current orbit.

Studying these Trojan asteroids will give us valuable clues to deciphering the history of the early solar system.

Psyche

The Psyche mission will explore one of the most intriguing targets in the main asteroid belt – a giant metal asteroid, known as 16 Psyche, about three times farther away from the sun than is the Earth. The asteroid measures about 130 miles in diameter and, unlike most other asteroids that are rocky or icy bodies, it is thought to be comprised of mostly metallic iron and nickel, similar to Earth’s core.

Scientists wonder whether psyche could be an exposed core of an early planet that could have been as large as Mars, but which lost its rocky outer layers due to a number of violent collisions billions of years ago.

The mission will help scientists understand how planets and other bodies separated into their layers early in their histories. The Psyche robotic mission is targeted to launch in October of 2023, arriving at the asteroid in 2030, following an Earth gravity assist spacecraft maneuver in 2024 and a Mars flyby in 2025.

Get even more information about these two new science missions HERE

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com

The Stay-Awake Man

For the majority of us, the mere idea of a night without a wink of sleep, followed by a full day at work would be a nightmare in itself. Many of us would probably experience drowsiness and irritability, the usual side effects of a lack of sleep. Radio DJ, Peter Tripp, was by no means an exception. In 1959, 32 year old Tripp had taken the pledge to attempt to say awake for longer than 200 hours whilst broadcasting his radio show, in order to raise money for charity. The effects of prolonged sleep deprivation had been studied in little detail, so throughout the stunt, Tripp was accompanied by researchers to assure he wasn’t putting himself in physical danger but also to keep him awake. Through the majority of the ordeal, Tripp managed to perform well and maintain his personality for his listeners, however off air his mental state began to deteriorate. He became increasingly irritable and after the 100th hour, he struggled to perform simple tasks such as reciting the alphabet. By 120 hours, Tripp began to hallucinate and grew increasingly paranoid, seeing flames in his draws and faces of his friends on objects in the room.

His hallucinations were eventually explained by the phenomena that his brain had began to go into Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep cycles, whilst his body remained awake. REM sleep occurs in cycles lasting approximately 90 minutes and takes up around 20% of our time asleep. During REM, the pulse increases and breathing becomes irregular. More interestingly, the majority of vivid dreams occur during REM sleep, thus Tripp’s hallucinations were actually dreams being experienced in a conscious state. Many of his friends say the experiment permanently damaged him, as shortly afterwards he both lost his job and divorced his wife.

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A Collection of Some of the World’s Deadliest Plants

1. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) – Initially, most people wouldn’t think of tobacco as a “deadly” plant. However, it is the most widely grown commercial plant in the world. All parts of the plant contain the toxic alkaloids nicotine and anabasine, and can be fatal if eaten. Despite its dangers, nicotine from tobacco is widely consumed around the world and is addictive. Tobacco use causes more than 5 million deaths per year.

2. Water Hemlock (Cicuta maculata) – the sister plant of hemlock, water hemlock is widely considered to be the deadliest plant in North America. Fun fact:  water hemlock greatly resembles Queen Anne’s lace and it is actually sometimes confused with parsnips or celery. Where normal hemlock contains the toxin coniine (which causes paralysis), water hemlock contains cicutoxin and cicunol. These toxins cause extremely violent and painful convulsions, cramps, and tremors.

3. Deadly Nightshade (Atropa belladonna) – Deadly nightshade is actually part of the same family that comprises both the tomato and potato. It contains the poisons solanine, atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine. A dose of around two to five berries is usually sufficient to kill an adult. Fun fact:  Belladonna means ‘beautiful lady’; it refers to the 17th century practice of women putting a small extract of belladonna in their eyes to dilate their pupils and make them more attractive.

4. White Snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) – A seemingingly innocuous plant, white snakeroot is a North American herb which contains the toxin trematol. This plant is a favorite among livestock, and the toxins can pass from the animal ingesting to their meat/milk, causing indirect poisoning. Despite the symptoms of tremors, violent vomiting, delirium, and weakness from being ingested, it gets it name due to the fact that it can be an effective cure from snake bites.

5.  Rosary Pea (Abrus precatorius) – Also known by the names: jequirity, paternoster pea, crab’s eye, precatory bean, Indian licorice or Jumbie bread. These beans actually contain a poison 100x more deadly than ricin, known as abrin. This is a common plant throughout the tropics and even as far north as Florida. These brightly-colored beans have a variety of uses including as the rattling beans inside maracas and in jewelry (hence the name rosary beads). Fortunately the bean has a very tough protective coating.

6. Oleander (Nerium oleander) Oleanders are a beautiful plant known for their eye-catching flowers. Despite being a common ornamental plant, all parts of the oleander plant are deadly. It contains lethal cardiac glycosides known as oleandrin and neriine. Ingesting oleander can cause vomiting, bloody diarrhea, erratic pulse, seizures, coma, and death. Another fun fact: the term ‘oleander’ actually derives from Italy and translates to “ass killer” (I’m guessing the bloody diarrhea contributed to that).

7.  Lily of the Valley (Convallaria majalis) – Lily of the Valley is common throughout Northern Europe and America. Its pretty appearance is deceiving, it is a deadly, poisonous plant containing a whopping 38 different cardiac glycosides. Highest on the list would be the toxin convallatoxin . Symptoms of poisoning can include severe headache, nausea, vomiting, slow heart beat and excessive urination.

8.Manchineel (Hippomane mancinella) – This particular fruit-bearing tree is common in coastal regions, such as Florida, South and Central America. It is considered to be the world’s deadliest tree. The Manchineel tree bears toxic apples, and produces a sap (which contains the toxin phorbol) known to cause painful blisters upon contact with skin. Even burning the wood from a Manchineel tree can cause blindness. Natives used to use the sap on their arrowheads. Common symptoms of poisoning include: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and seizures.

9. Suicide Tree (Cerbera odollam) – Most commonly found in areas such as India and Madagascar,  it contains the powerful alkaloid, cerberin, which causes an irregular heartbeat, which can be fatal. Once used as a form of trial in Madagascar (if you survived its effects, you were innocent) it was outlawed as a punishment in the mid-19th century. The plant has also been referred as the perfect murder weapon. Its flavor can be disguised by spices when served in food (I am not promoting this in any way!!). The toxins from this tree claim approximately 50 lives a year.

10. Aconite (Aconitum napellus) – Also known as monkshood and wolf’s bane (Thank you, Professor Snape). It contains the aptly-named toxin, aconitine. It commonly referred to as the “queen of poisons”, and probably the most poisonous plant in Europe. Just touching the plant can cause severe and immediate symptoms, and ingesting is often fatal. Immediate effects include a burning in the mouth. This is followed by drooling, vomiting and diarrhea. As the poison progresses symptoms include numbness, tingling, irregular heartbeat and respiratory failure. The toxins in this plant were long-used in preparing arrows for hunting and warfare.