Do you pronounce syrup as “seer-up” or “ser-up”? Route as “root” or “rowt”? Coupon as “Coo-pon” or “Cyoo-pon”? Often as “Offen” or “Off-ten”? Envelope as “En-velope” or “On-velope”? Tag your sign as well :)
uhhhh so i made a fansong of a fanfic for be more chill and i’m the Worst Person You’ll Ever Meet bc of that. the fanfic, goodnight moon, is by @actualbird who is not only actually a bird, but also a blessing upon this earth and i’m in love w their writing. this isn’t the greatest thing but hey bird ur fic got me writing another song after months of not being able to so thanks for that! lyrics under the cut.
So, I came clean about my absolutely dreadful speaking skills a couple weeks ago, right? I made a breakthrough, and it may be obvious to some, but I never, ever noticed or even thought of this since I started studying Japanese in 2014.
When you speak, there’s a relatively easy way to sound a tad more natural.
When you take pauses, you take pauses between clauses. It’s a little difficult to explain, so I’ll just illustrate it.
So, take this sentence –
今日は寒いから、私はジャケットを着ている。kyou wa samui kara, watashi wa jaketto o kite iru. I’m wearing a jacket because it’s cold today. [Because today is cold, I’m wearing a jacket.]
When pronouncing this, you want to put your little breath-pauses (is that a thing?) in this pattern:
今日は / 寒いから、/ 私は / ジャケットを着ている。
So basically, word + particle, word + particle, and so on.
I seriously cannot believe I never noticed this. It’s kind of like a foundational touchstone for sounding more natural.
Anyway, this is called 文節（ぶんせつ）。It kind of reminds me of poetry scansion. Actually, it’s exactly like that. It’s a “basic linguistic unit that comprises a phrase, which are [a sentence’s] smallest coherent components.” So if that helps you, think of it like scansion, but a lot easier than identifying iambic pentameter.
So….yeah. That concludes my post. Have a good Wednesday night, everyone!
Hungarian is notorious for being a very hard language to learn, which
is, of course, partially true. Its grammar and vocabulary are not
only complex, but also quite different to almost all other European
languages (the most well-known exception is Finnish grammar, which
has a number of similar structures). I will try to sum up the most
important concepts in Hungarian that I think could be useful to
anyone who would like to start learning the language.
Part 1. The alphabet and the pronunciation.
The Hungarian alphabet has 44 letters – this may seem like a lot,
compared to the 26 in the English one, but there is a very simple
reason for this. We basically have a separate letter (or letter
combination) for almost every sound that we pronounce. In English,
you have “s” and “h” and then you have to learn how to
pronounce “sh”, because that’s something different. In
Hungarian, if you know the letters of the alphabet, you can pronounce
any common word. The only slight difficulty is that sooner or later,
you will encounter a word that has a letter combination that can not
be pronounced quite so simply. In that case, their pronunciation
will change – but it will happen naturally. For example, the
letters “n” and “j” together (for example in “Menj el!”,
which means “Go away!”) will be pronounced just like “nny” (a
long “ny” sound). So if you try to pronounce words at a normal
speed, these problematic sounds will change on their own.
(However, partly because of this, there are a couple of homophones in
Hungarian – to stick with the example of “menj”, it’s
pronounced exactly the same as “menny”, which means “heaven”.
So pronunciation is pretty straightforward, spelling not so much.)
Here is the full Hungarian alphabet:
a á b c cs d dz dzs e é f g gy h i í j k l ly m n ny o ó ö ő p
q r s sz t ty u ú ü ű v w x y z zs
I’d rather not try to give their pronunciation in writing, because
that is not my forte, but here’s some extra info about them:
- The letters dzs, q, w, x and y are not too common, they are mostly
used in loanwords (and fancy last names). For example: dzsem (jam),
maharadzsa (maharaja), textil (textile), etc. We often spell
loanwords according to Hungarian spelling rules, for example
“software” becomes “szoftver” and “file” becomes “fájl”.
(Not all of them though, for example “e-mail” is commonly spelled
just the same, “ímél” is very rare and actually looks kind of
ridiculous.) The letter “y”, if standing on its own, is most
often pronounced “i”. It’s quite common in fancy last names
(some people have them, whose ancestors were barons or something),
for example “Pesthy” (literally means “of Pest”), which is
pronounced exactly the same as “pesti”.
- The letters j and ly are pronounced exactly the same. They used to
represent different sounds, but those sounds have since merged and
now the only difference is the spelling. It’s actually a challenge
for Hungarian children to learn which word is spelled with which,
because it’s pretty much random. There’s only one rule: words can
not begin with “ly”, except for “lyuk” (which means “hole”)
and its derivatives.
- Don’t be scared by all the vowels! Most of them are just
i (short) – í (long)
o (short) – ó (long)
– ő (long) u (short) – ú (long) ü (short) – ű (long)
a – á and e – é are different though. It’s important to
distinguish them, as there are a couple of words, where the accent
makes all the difference.
“alom” / “álom”
(meaning: “litter” (used in the sense related to animals, not
trash) and “dream”)
(meaning “round” (adj.)/”wheel”/”I ask for”)
Finally, word stress. In Hungarian it’s very simple: the first
syllable is stressed. That’s it.
Okay, so this is the first part of something that I plan to be a series of introductory posts about Hungarian. Any feedback is more than welcome!
Above I show how letters are pronounced at the end of a word/syllable.
Example: 앞 -> 압 밭도 -> 받도 옷안 -> 옫안
However, if the word is followed by a particle or ending that begins with a vowel, or the special verb 이에요 (it is) it is pronounced as written Example: 앞에 ->
When ㅂ, ㄷ, ㄱ comes before ㅁ, ㄴ, ㄹ (ㄹ because it becomes pronounced as ㄴ, you will see the rule by reading further), the letters; ㅂ, ㄷ, ㄱ, are pronounced as: ㅁ, ㄴ, ㅇ: ㅂ -> ㅁ ㄷ -> ㄴ ㄱ -> ㅇ
Example: 합니다 -> 함니다
This rule also applies to any t: ㅌ, ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅅ, ㅆ, and ㅎ Example: 밭만 -> 받만 -> which is then pronounced as: 반만 Because ㅌ is pronounced as ㄷ at the end of a word/syllable, remember? So, when it precedes ㅁ or ㄴit will be pronounced as ㄴ. How do you think 넣네 is pronounced? It’s: 넌네. Because: 넣네 -> 넏네 -> 넌네
When ㄴ is next to ㄹ: ㄴ,ㄹ or ㄹ,ㄴ, ㄴ is pronounced as a double ㄹ. Example: 일년 -> 일련
When a consonant other than ㄴ or ㄹ, the ㄹ is pronounced as a ㄴ. Example: 심리 -> 심니
If the final sound of the preceding syllable is ㅂ, ㄷ,ㄱ then ㅂ, ㄷ, ㅈ, ㄱ, ㅅ are automatically doubled so they sound like: ㅃ, ㄸ, ㅉ, ㄲ, ㅆ. Example: 약방 -> 약빵
ㅎ can leap over a plain ㅂ, ㄷ, ㅈ, ㄱ which makes an aspirated sound: ㅍ, ㅌ, ㅊ, ㅋ: ㅂ + ㅎ or (ㅎ + ㅂ) = ㅍ ㄷ + ㅎ or (ㅎ + ㄷ) = ㅌ ㅈ + ㅎ or (ㅎ + ㅈ) = ㅊ ㄱ + ㅎ or (ㅎ + ㄱ) = ㅋ Example: 좋고 -> 조코
When ㅎ comes before a vowel, it is not pronounced: Example: 좋아 -> 조아
When ㅎ comes before ㄴ it is pronounced as ㄴ Example: 좋니 -> 존니
When ㅎ (ㄶ ㅀ ) + ㅅ it is pronounced as ㅆ Example: 낳소 -> 나쏘 싫소 -> 실쏘 많소 -> 만쏘
When a complex patch’im (final consonants) is followed by a consonant: ㄳ -> ㄱ ㄵ -> ㄴ ㄼ -> ㄹ ㄾ -> ㄹ ㅄ -> ㅂ Example: 값 -> 갑 없다 -> 업따 ㄷ becomes double because ㅂ is the preceding letter.
Further: ㄺ -> ㄱ ㄻ -> ㅁ ㄼ -> ㅂ Example: 읽다 -> 익따 ㄷ becomes double because ㄱ is the preceding letter.
When a complex patch’im is followed by a vowel, the last letter jumps to the next syllable and takes the ㅇ place. Example: 읽어 -> 일거
When ㅄ, ㄽ, ㄳ are followed by a vowel, the ㅅ becomes ㅆ Example: 값이 -> 갑씨
When ㅌ occurs at the end of a morpheme or word and is followed by 이 it is pronounced as ㅊ. Example: 같이 -> 가치
That’s all for this post! Not too bad right? Anyways, I hope this reference post is useful with your Korean studies!
Wonder how Americans say some of the stupid-ass words in the English language, vs everyone else? Even we have trouble sometimes. Other English speakers may enjoy listening to how this California girl does it.
Dearest creature in creation, Study English pronunciation. I will teach you in my verse Sounds like corpse, corps, horse, and worse. I will keep you, Suzy, busy, Make your head with heat grow dizzy. Tear in eye, your dress will tear. So shall I! Oh hear my prayer. Just compare heart, beard, and heard, Dies and diet, lord and word, Sword and sward, retain and Britain. (Mind the latter, how it’s written.) Now I surely will not plague you With such words as plaque and ague. But be careful how you speak: Say break and steak, but bleak and streak; Cloven, oven, how and low, Script, receipt, show, poem, and toe. Hear me say, devoid of trickery, Daughter, laughter, and Terpsichore, Typhoid, measles, topsails, aisles, Exiles, similes, and reviles; Scholar, vicar, and cigar, Solar, mica, war and far; One, anemone, Balmoral, Kitchen, lichen, laundry, laurel; Gertrude, German, wind and mind, Scene, Melpomene, mankind. Billet does not rhyme with ballet, Bouquet, wallet, mallet, chalet. Blood and flood are not like food, Nor is mould like should and would. Viscous, viscount, load and broad, Toward, to forward, to reward. And your pronunciation’s OK When you correctly say croquet, Rounded, wounded, grieve and sieve, Friend and fiend, alive and live. Ivy, privy, famous; clamour And enamour rhyme with hammer. River, rival, tomb, bomb, comb, Doll and roll and some and home. Stranger does not rhyme with anger, Neither does devour with clangour. Souls but foul, haunt but aunt, Font, front, wont, want, grand, and grant, Shoes, goes, does. Now first say finger, And then singer, ginger, linger, Real, zeal, mauve, gauze, gouge and gauge, Marriage, foliage, mirage, and age. Query does not rhyme with very, Nor does fury sound like bury. Dost, lost, post and doth, cloth, loth. Job, nob, bosom, transom, oath. Though the differences seem little, We say actual but victual. Refer does not rhyme with deafer. Foeffer does, and zephyr, heifer. Mint, pint, senate and sedate; Dull, bull, and George ate late. Scenic, Arabic, Pacific, Science, conscience, scientific. Liberty, library, heave and heaven, Rachel, ache, moustache, eleven. We say hallowed, but allowed, People, leopard, towed, but vowed. Mark the differences, moreover, Between mover, cover, clover; Leeches, breeches, wise, precise, Chalice, but police and lice; Camel, constable, unstable, Principle, disciple, label. Petal, panel, and canal, Wait, surprise, plait, promise, pal. Worm and storm, chaise, chaos, chair, Senator, spectator, mayor. Tour, but our and succour, four. Gas, alas, and Arkansas. Sea, idea, Korea, area, Psalm, Maria, but malaria. Youth, south, southern, cleanse and clean. Doctrine, turpentine, marine. Compare alien with Italian, Dandelion and battalion. Sally with ally, yea, ye, Eye, I, ay, aye, whey, and key. Say aver, but ever, fever, Neither, leisure, skein, deceiver. Heron, granary, canary. Crevice and device and aerie. Face, but preface, not efface. Phlegm, phlegmatic, ass, glass, bass. Large, but target, gin, give, verging, Ought, out, joust and scour, scourging. Ear, but earn and wear and tear Do not rhyme with here but ere. Seven is right, but so is even, Hyphen, roughen, nephew Stephen, Monkey, donkey, Turk and jerk, Ask, grasp, wasp, and cork and work. Pronunciation (think of Psyche!) Is a paling stout and spikey? Won’t it make you lose your wits, Writing groats and saying grits? It’s a dark abyss or tunnel: Strewn with stones, stowed, solace, gunwale, Islington and Isle of Wight, Housewife, verdict and indict. Finally, which rhymes with enough, Though, through, plough, or dough, or cough? Hiccough has the sound of cup. My advice is to give up!!!
Hey, everyone! So, on anon’s request and because I strongly feel like I should’ve thought of doing it myself, here is a short post about what the Lingala language is!
Lingala is a Bantu language native to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo, Angola, and the Central African Republic. It has over 10 million speakers, 5.5 millions of which are native speakers. It is not technically an official language, but has a status as national language of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and it is simply recognised as a language of the Republic of the Congo.
The language has been influenced (due to colonisation, ofc) by French, especially (many French words have been borrowed without any transformations, and speakers will sometimes include whole sentences in French in their speech), Portuguese (first contact with an Indo-European language), English, and Dutch. There are four major variations of the language:
Standard Lingala (used in education, news, etc.), Spoken Lingala (day-to-day usage), Kinshasa Lingala and Brazzaville Lingala.
Lingala is mainly an oral language, but it can also be written using the Latin alphabet. However, spelling does vary from place to place, since it hasn’t been standardised. It can also be written using the Mandombe script, which is an artificial script
based on two sacred shapes and intended for writing African languages such as the four national languages of the Congo (which includes Lingala, though it does not actually have enough vowels to write it fully).
The importance of Lingala as a vernacular has grown with the size and importance of its main center of use, Kinshasa; with its use as the lingua franca of the armed forces, and with the popularity of soukous music (a popular genre of dance music from the Congo Basin).
And for good measure, here’s a sample to show you what it looks like. This is a translation of the Catholic version of the Lord’s Prayer, which I simply took from Wikipedia. If you’ve read my last post about pronunciation, though, watch out, because they have marked high tones with an acute accent (the flickidoo over é, as I like to call it) instead of bold letters and a circumflex accent (^) for a raising tone, which my book doesn’t include because this is Standard Lingala, not Spoken Lingala. Also, they marked the differences between the closed [e] and the open [ɛ] E, as well as between the close [o] and the open [ɔ] O.
Tatá wa bísó, ozala o likoló,
bato bakúmisa Nkómbó ya Yɔ́, bandima bokonzi bwa Yɔ́, mpo elingo Yɔ́,
basálá yangó o nsé,
lokóla bakosalaka o likoló
Pésa bísó lɛlɔ́ biléi bya mokɔlɔ na mokɔlɔ,
límbisa mabé ma bísó,
lokóla bísó tokolimbisaka baníngá.
Sálisa bísó tondima masɛ́nginyá tê,
mpe bíkisa bísó o mabé.
Na yɔ́ bokonzi,
nguyá na nkembo,
o bileko o binso sékô.
Unfortunately, Wikipedia does not give me a translation, and I am not familiar with this prayer, so I don’t want to look up something somewhere else that might be completely off; this is just to show you what Lingala looks like.
And I think I’ve said everything that’s good to know if you want to get your first impressions about the language^^ Again, I hope I am not spreading any misinformation, so if someone reading this happens to know I am wrong on anything, feel free to correct it. See you!
5. /all in chinese/ ‘hello I’m EXO’s korean member xiumin/jin min shuo. This year my goal was to talk more, but it didn’t come true. I’m korean, so my chinese isn’t good. I’m korean, but my korean isn’t good either. Why? I don’t know either. But, I can say this sentence: I love EXO, I love you guys.’
so i asked my dad (who is british but knows some french) about the pronunciation of montjoy—
basically it all depends on the production. if you’re doing it super anglicized (and maybe insulting to the french) it’d be mount-joy or mont-joy (pronounced in an english way). the opposite of that is mon-zhwah (how do you spell these things phonetically lol), which is the actual french way of saying it. mon-zhoy (how i say it) is something in between. and besides, “montjoy” is an anglicized spelling anyway, so i’d lean towards the more english pronunciations…
there’s also the matter of the dauphin. how do we pronounce his name? i’ve always said do-fah which is the french way i think. but some people say dow-fin, which is more english, and kind of gets on my nerves tbh
said we could be a thing as soon as everything with Grindelwald is
over but neither you nor I expected to be dragged into another Muggle
war. This isn’t even our war. It’s just another unnecessary fight
between nations. Another unnecessary way of shedding blood. We both
knew that a war with Grindelwald would come but we didn’t expect to
fight in another Muggle war as the last one wasn’t that long ago.
Why don’t they learn?
now I’m lying here, dying. It feels like dying. Everything hurts
and the Healers tell me that something is wrong. They can’t do a
thing. They say a curse hit me. Dark magic. And I regret that I will
not be able to see your face again. Or that of my baby brother. I
wish I could. One last time at least. I want to hold your hand one
last time. I want to see you smile. I want to kiss you, to feel your
lips against mine. Just one last time.
want to see Newton. I want to hear him laugh and tell me about some
creature he saved. I want the both of you by my side while I lie here
in pain—to help me forget the pain for a while. I’m probably dead
before this letter reaches you, so there goes my last wish. Just.
Don’t forget me. Please. I beg you. Don’t forget me. Of all
people it were always you and Newton who were the most important to
me. Please don’t forget me. Please.
wish you were here, holding my hand. It is cold. My hand, that is.
But I feel cold too. My whole body is freezing and I’m shivering. I
want you here in bed with me, keeping me warm, keeping me from
trembling. I want you to hold me. Just one last time.
know I’m rambling and I’m sorry that my last words to you are
somewhat pathetic but I want you to know how I feel. I still love
you, you know? You git.