Empress Zita (1892-1989), Crown Prince Otto (1912-2011), and Emperor Charles (1887-1922), pictured at Emperor Franz Joseph’s funeral. An earlier photo of Otto and Charles is used as this blog’s avatar.
November 21 1916, Vienna–The Emperor Franz Joseph had acceded to the throne of Austria at the age of 18 during the last period of great upheaval in Europe–the revolutions of 1848. He had brought the Empire largely intact through the events of 1848 and 1849, wars with Italy and Prussia, and the Augsleich which created the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
After nearly 68 years on the throne, he commanded a great personal loyalty among most of his subjects, and still largely had absolute authority in all matters, especially in Austria. On the evening of November 21, he died after a brief bout of pneumonia at the age of 86. His death was a blow to Austro-Hungarian morale after a year of disasters. It hit the troops on the Isonzo especially hard; this was Franz Joseph’s fourth war against Italy (and its predecessor, the Kingdom of Sardinia). Even though Austria had lost territories in the previous wars, they had largely been successful against the Italians on the battlefield.
The new Emperor was Franz Joseph’s grandnephew, the Archduke Charles, who had become heir after the assassination of Franz Ferdinand that sparked the war. He thought of himself as a reformer, and wanted to solve many of the social and national issues that were untouchable while Franz Joseph was on the throne. Paramount, of course, was the war, which Austria-Hungary needed to survive intact if Charles was to keep his throne. Charles, perhaps influenced by his Italian wife, Zita of Bourbon-Parma, was in full agreement with Foreign Minister Burián’s plans for a negotiated peace, and within days had asked him to continue with all haste.
*most of my knowledge comes from School and a deep love of German culture which led to many trips to the library and the internet.*
Alright Hetalia fandom. I know you get this a lot, but Germany is Holy Roman Empire. Now before you start attacking me and getting angry saying, “Well, you only want that to be true for GerIta.” NO. That is not true whatsoever. I honestly don’t care if they ever do find out. But Germany is Holy Roman Empire.
No, lets begin why.
1) The Holy Roman Empire was composed mostly of what is today Germany, Austria, Northern Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and what was then Prussia. Now, let’s eliminate Austria and Northern Italy because we already know that they’re separate people. Let’s also eliminate Belgium, seeing as she’s a girl. And we can also get rid of the idea of Switzerland being part of this seeing as he’s far older and looks nothing like Holy Rome.
But for the most part, the HRE was made up of German States.
2) (On more of a history stand point). Like previously state, the Holy Roman Empire was made up of German states each individually ruled by German princes. Otto Von Bismark was a Prussian leader who basically organized Germany and unified it as a country. He tried to get Prussia in on the deal, but the King was too stuck up to unify with the German states.
So, Germany is made up of German states previously controlled by HRE. Interesting.
4) I know a lot of people will say that Holy Rome technically died when he was defeated by France during the Napoleonic Wars. That’s a fair-ish point to make and can see how that would make sense. However, the Napoleonic wars technically didn’t destroy much of the HRE, just as a title. The Emperor was taken down and the country was no longer unified.
So, the HRE wasn’t technically killed, just seriously injured. The name is gone, but the culture of the HRE is still alive.
5) The Holy Roman Emperor(s) were mostly Frankish, aka, German.
6) Now I’m going to go into some more obscure things that prove that Germany could be (cough-is-cough) HRE.
✧ Empress Elisabeth of Austria and her family Spam [34/50] ✧
Original diamond star of Empress Elisabeth after the design of the former court jeweller Rozet & Fischmeister. Elisabeth not only owned one set of 27 diamond stars; two versions of the famous stars are kept to date. One type originates from the court jeweller Jakob Heinrich Köchert and is wrought with a pearl in the middle, a second type without a pearl was made after the design of the court jeweller Rozet & Fischmeister. Some stars have been given away to court ladies and still reside in the ownership of their descendents. One set of 27 diamond stars has been passed on inside the family. This is how the stars are reproduced in a photograph that shows the bride dowry of the Archduchess Elisabeth (also referred to as Erzsi), the daughter of Archduke Rudolf, on the occasion of her wedding with Otto Prince Windisch-Graetz in the year 1902.
Emperor Charles Crowned as King Charles IV of Hungary
Charles IV of Hungary takes his coronation oath to defend the lands of the Crown of St. Stephen.
December 30 1916, Budapest–Franz Joseph had been greatly beloved throughout his empire after a 68-year reign. His successor, his 29-year-old grandnephew Charles, lacked the devotion that Franz Joseph had attracted, and was eager to quickly legitimize his reign. Hungarian PM Tisza was more than eager to oblige, and arranged for his coronation as King of Hungary on December 30, just more than a month after his accession to the throne. This was only the second coronation in Hungary since the Augsleich raised Hungary to be on equal status with Austria within the empire, and Tisza assured Charles that a swift coronation would be viewed favorably in Hungary, signalling Charles’ interest in defending Hungary’s interests within the empire.
Tisza also had less lofty political interests in mind when arranging a swift coronation. Part of the coronation included an oath to defend the integrity of the lands of the Crown of St. Stephen; this ensured that Charles could then take no action to reduce the size of Hungary without breaking this oath. The death of Franz Joseph had brought hope to many that the Dualist Austro-Hungarian system could be reformed. South Slavic peoples hoped that the Kingdom of Croatia (which was within the Kingdom of Hungary) could be expanded to include Dalmatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, then in Austria. Earlier in the war, this seemed possible, as Austria could be compensated by parts of Russian Poland; however, the promise of an independent Poland made in November foreclosed this idea, and the coronation oath prevented Croatia from being split off from Hungary to become a separate part of the Empire.
The oath also frustrated Czech ambitions; although most of the Czech people lived in Austria, many were clamoring for unification with the Slovak people in Hungary. Finally, it also prevented any peace deal made by Charles from giving away any Hungarian land. While this was relatively unlikely, as Hungary only bordered defeated Serbia and Romania, it still further tied Charles’ hands as he attempted to bring his country out of the war.
Part of the wardrobe worn by Crown Prince Otto at the coronation; these were on display in the United States in a 2015-2016 exhibition of Habsburg artifacts that toured Minneapolis, Houston, and Atlanta.
Bismarck, painted in his seventy-fifth year, is depicted seated, and turned slightly to his left. He wears the white uniform of the Magdeburg Cuirassiers’ Regiment no. 7. Displayed across his breast is the yellow ribbon of the Order of the Black Eagle; the cross of that order is visible at his right hip. Pinned across his left side are a number of indecipherable medals. His gloved hands are held loosely in his lap. The cuirassier’s helmet has been pushed upward to reveal the Chancellor’s face with its distinctive bushy brows and mustache. Early accounts indicate that this portrait was based on studies made from life in the winter of 1889-90. One of over eighty portraits of Bismarck, this picture is almost identical to a portrait in the Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, Munich. The latter, measuring 119 x 96 cm, is signed and dated “F. Lenbach/Friedrichruh 1890.”