What It’s Really Like to Work in Hollywood*

(*If you’re not a straight white man.)

The statistics are unequivocal: Women and minorities are vastly underrepresented in front of and behind the camera. Here, 27 industry players reveal the stories behind the numbers — their personal experiences of not feeling seen, heard or accepted, and how they pushed forward. In Hollywood, exclusion goes far beyond #OscarsSoWhite. (Interviews have been edited and condensed.) By Melena Ryzik

[image:a headshot of Wendell Pierce next to a quote that reads “A casting head said: “I couldn’t put you in a Shakespeare movie. They didn’t have black people then.” Wendell Pierce“

I came across this article in my Twitter feed this morning, and I highly recommend checking it out. Stories like this are a big part of why I do what I do; for example, linking people to primary documents that demonstrate there was a large Black British population during Shakespeare’s “Then”.
This belongs to you. Fabris’s Sienza d’Arme, the best rapier book ever, yours free.
I have the enormous privilege of owning an original copy of Salvatore Fabris’s Sienza e Pratica d’Arme, printed in 1606. I bought it from Sr. Roberto Gotti, of Brescia, in 2014. It is in incredibly…

Boosting the signal. <3

After serving as artillery captain for awhile Hamilton was chosen to be Washington’s aide-de-camp, a position which he filled for four years. This is his commission and oath of loyalty in accepting that position.
At Least 3,000 Died During Residential School Attendance: Research

TORONTO - At least 3,000 children, including four under the age of 10 found huddled together in frozen embrace, are now known to have died during attendance at Canada’s Indian residential schools, according to new unpublished research.

While deaths have long been documented as part of the disgraced residential school system, the findings are the result of the first systematic search of government, school and other records.

“These are actual confirmed numbers,” Alex Maass, research manager with the Missing Children Project, told The Canadian Press from Vancouver.

“All of them have primary documentation that indicates that there’s been a death, when it occurred, what the circumstances were.”

The number could rise further as more documents — especially from government archives — come to light.

The largest single killer, by far, was disease.

For decades starting in about 1910, tuberculosis was a consistent killer — in part because of widespread ignorance over how diseases were spread.

“The schools were a particular breeding ground for (TB),” Maass said. “Dormitories were incubation wards.”

The Spanish flu epidemic in 1918-1919 also took a devastating toll on students — and in some cases staff. For example, in one grim three-month period, the disease killed 20 children at a residential school in Spanish, Ont., the records show.

While a statistical analysis has yet to be done, the records examined over the past few years also show children also died of malnutrition or accidents. Schools consistently burned down, killing students and staff. Drownings or exposure were another cause.

In all, about 150,000 First Nations children went through the church-run residential school system, which ran from the 1870s until the 1990s. In many cases, native kids were forced to attend under a deliberate federal policy of “civilizing” Aboriginal Peoples.

Many students were physically, mentally and sexually abused. Some committed suicide. Some died fleeing their schools.

One heart-breaking incident that drew rare media attention at the time involved the deaths of four boys — two aged 8 and two aged 9 — in early January 1937.

A Canadian Press report from Vanderhoof, B.C., describes how the four bodies were found frozen together in slush ice on Fraser Lake, barely a kilometre from home.

The “capless and lightly clad” boys had left an Indian school on the south end of the lake “apparently intent on trekking home to the Nautley Reserve,” the article states.

A coroner’s inquest later recommended “excessive corporal discipline” of students be “limited.”

Acting Aboriginal Affairs Minister James Moore, speaking in Vancouver, called the deaths a “horrific circumstance” of the Indian residential school system.

“The residential school fact of Canada’s history is a Canadian tragedy,” Moore said.

The records reveal the number of deaths only fell off dramatically after the 1950s, although some fatalities occurred into the 1970s.

“The question I ask myself is: Would I send my child to a private school where there were even a couple of deaths the previous year without looking at it a little bit more closely?” Maass said.

“One wouldn’t expect any death rates in private residential schools.”

In fact, Maass said, student deaths were so much part of the system, architectural plans for many schools included cemeteries that were laid out in advance of the building.

Maass, who has a background in archeology, said researchers had identified 50 burial sites as part of the project.

About 500 of the victims remain nameless. Documentation of their deaths was contained in Department of Indian Affairs year-end reports based on information from school principals.

The annual death reports were consistently done until 1917, when they abruptly stopped.

“It was obviously a policy not to report them,” Maass said.

In the 1990s, thousands of victims sued the churches that ran the 140 schools and the Canadian government. A $1.9-billion settlement of the lawsuit in 2007 prompted an apology from Prime Minister Stephen Harper, and the creation of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.

The research — carried out under the auspices of the commission — has involved combing through more than one million government and other records, including nuns’ journal entries.

The longer-term goal is to make the information available at national research centre.

Moving Images Series: A Happy Piece of Institutional History

In 1980 the Museum's Dawn of a New Day exhibition celebrated the 40th anniversary of the 1939 Fair with Saturday screenings of rare footage taken by hobbyist and film enthusiasts. In keeping with the amateur film tradition, the Museum’s Educational Department operated an informal screening space where fair veterans showcased their footage to the general public. The films were a treasure trove of primary sources reflecting the perspectives, hopes, and excitement of American families who attended the Fair.

Several of these wonderful films are now available on the web thanks to a collaborative project between the Queens Museum,  Northeast Historic Film, and the George Eastman House funded by the Council on Library and Information Resources.

–Richard Jung Lee, Archival Fellow


A Letter to the Editor: Cinema Clubs and the World of Tomorrow by LANCE BIRD in  the Journal of Film and Video, Vol. 38, No. ¾, Summer-Fall 1986, pp. 39-45

Screen capture from a 1939 World’s Fair home movie. Queens Museum Gift of Charles Locasto, 1987.1.2WF39

See what’s happening on home movie day:

View 1939-1940 World’s Fair home videos from the Queens Museum:

I want to help out fellow ap european history students and my teacher posts a ton of resources for us. I also found some blogs too!


Video Series


Feel free to add more. But good luck everyone!!!


Today, November 20th, marks the anniversary of the beginning of the Native American occupation of Alcatraz Island. The occupation, carried out from November 1969 to June 1971, was initiated by the Native American group Indians of All Tribes (IAT), and quickly joined by other individuals and groups, like the American Indian Movement (AIM). It is widely considered “the cradle of the modern Native American civil rights movement.” Veterans of the 19-month occupation would go on to play important roles in other Native organizations and campaigns. 

The initial 79 occupiers hoped to establish a Native-controlled cultural center, and to hold the American government accountable for its historical and ongoing oppression of Indians. 

The full text of the Alcatraz Proclamation, released by the IAT at the beginning of the campaign, after the cut. 

For more information, see this archive of primary documents associated with the Alcatraz occupation, this article, and the Wikipedia article.  This Indian Country Today article includes embedded video of original footage and of two documentaries, “We Were There: AIM and Alcatraz” and “The Mouse That Roared.”

Keep reading


Paper currency issued by Massachusetts in 1776. The engraving for the plates to print this money was done by Paul Revere. The value of the money is one shilling and six pence, and the back has the Pine Tree design (the Pine Tree was an important symbol for New England and was on some of the earliest flags).


First World War Primary Source Documents

Our perspectives on the First World War have been informed by one hundred years of scholarship. But what did people living at the time think? Some primary source documents for your reference: 

Find further resources from us here on Tumblr, at the First World War Centenary Hub on our UK website, World War I: Commemorating the Centennial on our US website, Oxford Journals World War I Virtual Issue, the University of Oxford First World War activities, the World War I Centenary: Continuations and Beginnings resource center from the University of Oxford and JISC, Bodleian Libraries' Oxford World War I Centenary Programme, and more to come throughout 2014. 

What resources would you add to a list of primary source documents from the First World War?

Lucy MacKeith has started a research project tracing Black History in Devon, England. The map is explored in this document, which offers a brief exploration of primary documents, artworks, and records. It is downloadable and translates well into an educational handout.

Further exploration and thematic writing is available here on the following topics:

Primary Document: Lincoln as “The Federal Phoenix” in the British Press

On December 3rd, 1864, the influential British magazine Punch published an anonymous poet artfully lamenting President Lincoln’s recent reelection. Entitled “The Federal Phoenix,” the poem compares Lincoln to the mythical bird that transcended death by rising from the ashes. Within the context of 1864, the “ashes” embody the destruction of Lincoln’s previously held values—the bird “burns up itself” in a “holocaust huge of rights, commerce, and credit.” (The Lincoln Anthology, 99-100)  in other words, “OLD ABE,” and the principles he espoused, has been doused and burned in the service of re-election, leaving “a new Phoenix, from o’er the Atlantic” (The Lincoln Anthology, 49) in his place. This poem was also accompanied by the attached engraving by John Tenniel—illustrator for Alice in Wonderland—depicting Lincoln as a bird ascending over burnt logs bearing the labels “Commerce,” “United States Constitution,”  “Free Press,” State Rights,” “Habeas Corpus” and “Credit.”


When Herodotus, surnamed “The Father of History”
   (We are not informed who was History’s mother),
Went a travelling to Egypt, that region of mystery,
   Where each step presented some marvel or other,

In a great city there, called (in Greek) Heliopolis,
   The priests put him up to a strange story—rather—
Of a bird, who came up to that priestly metropolis,
   Once in five hundred years, to inter its own father.

When to filial feeling apparently callous,
   Not a plume ruffled (as we should say, not a hair rent),
In a pot-pourri made of sweet-spice, myrrh, and aloes,
   He flagrantly, burnt, after burying, his parent.

But Pomponius Mela has managed to gather
   Of this curious story a modified version,
In which the bird burns up itself, not its father,
   And soars to new life from its fiery immersion.

This bird has oft figured in emblems and prophecies—
   And though Snyders ne'er painted its picture, nor Weenix
Its portraits on plates of a well-known fire-office is,
   Which, after this bird’s name, is christened the Phœnix.

Henceforth a new Phœnix, from o'er the Atlantic,
   Our old fire-office friend from his brass-plate displaces;
With a plumage of greenbacks, all ruffled, and antic
   In Old Abe’s rueful phiz and Old Abe’s shambling graces.

As the bird of Arabia wrought resurrection
   By a flame all whose virtues grew out of what fed it,
So the Federal Phœnix has earned re-election
   By a holocaust huge of rights, commerce, and credit.

This poem, and image, further reflects the various notions of “liberty” that Europeans applied to their interpretations of the Civil War. Much like William Stuart’s correspondence to British Foreign secretary John Russell, there seems to be an elision of “liberty” as it relates to slavery and a greater focus on Lincoln’s curtailment of free trade, commerce and habeas corpus. In part, this economic orientation certainly reflects Britain’s reliance on slave-produced cotton and the disruptive effect of the Union blockade. But it also may indicate a wider conservatism among the British—valuing the established order of states rights, free trade and the iconic Common Law precept of Habeas Corpus over radical social and political change.


Holzer, Harold, Ed., The Lincoln Anthology: Great Writers on His Life and Legacy from 1860 to Now. New York: Library of America, 2009

Image: “Abraham Lincoln Civil War Caricature ‘THE FEDERAL PHOENIX’ December 3, 1864,” History Gallery,

Mr. Seller, who plans to announce the student program at a news conference Tuesday, has agreed to sell tickets to the foundation for $70 each — about half the $139 current average ticket price for the show. The foundation, in turn, will make tickets available to students for $10 each — the denomination that has Hamilton’s face on it — because school officials have advised that paying a nominal admissions fee encourages students to take such activities more seriously.

Mr. Seller said that about 17,000 students would attend student-only Wednesday matinees, supplemented by educational programming at the theater the same morning. Another 3,000 would join regular ticket-buyers at other Wednesday matinees, with the educational component presented in their classrooms. He said the student performances would earn back their cost, but would not make a profit. […]

The curriculum will be put together by the nonprofit Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, which plans to create a website with copies of the primary documents that undergird the show’s book and lyrics, and teaching materials about Hamilton and the founding fathers.

The institute’s executive director, Lesley S. Herrmann, said the initial round of students would be drawn from advanced placement history classes at Title 1 schools — those where a high percentage of students qualify for free or reduced lunches — in all five boroughs. She said the students would be invited to create their own artistic responses to Hamilton’s life, and the best ones would be performed for other students.

“The first time I saw the show, I was lamenting that the audience was all your usual theatergoers,” said Ms. Herrmann, who has seen “Hamilton” three times. She said she would count the project as a success “if we’ve inspired a young generation to take history seriously, to get personally involved in it, and someday to serve the country as Hamilton did.”


Slavko Vorkapich
Cinematics–Some Principles Underlying Effective Cinematography
published in Cinematographic Annual, Vol. 1, 1930.
Via, here.

It was a joy to find this while doing primary document research.  With particular affection for something that I’ve been saying about film for years, but which S.V., Hollywood’s master of montage, arrived at over a half century before my birth:

A perfect motion picture would be comparable to a symphony.  It would have a definite rhythmical pattern, each of its movements would correspond to the mood of the sequence and each individual phrase (scene) would be an organic part of the whole.

At the end, after rhapsodizing the power and potential of the moving image, after arguing convincingly that cinema’s inherent intermingling of space and time makes it the artform of the age of the Relativity, and after reminding action filmmakers that the pause is also a part of the rhythm, he urges everyone to chill out about the emergence of sound.  It’ll become a “creative instrument” in time, he reassures us, and it did.  Same goes for the shocking newness of today.  Give it time.

ardatli replied to your link:

I’ll always remember what one of my Anthropology TAs told us back in undergrad: “‘Ceremonial’ is a placeholder word for 'we don’t know what the fuck is going on here.’”

I know, right?? And it gets even more ridiculous when you realize that the above is written about real people, much less actions or objects in art from a thousand, or ten thousand years ago.

And in art history, it’s not uncommon at all to see recent writing on a topic, have someone cite a translation of a primary document, then you have a look at the translation and it’s from like, 1850. :| And I’ve actually heard people say, “oh, there’s no reason to revisit them, they’re still good/fine/accurate.”

I’m like…words in English don’t even mean the same thing anymore since these translations were made but okay.