president pro tempore

And there’s another reason beyond age that California Democrats might look to someone besides Feinstein: she has long been one of the more conservative Democrats in the Senate despite representing the state that defines contemporary American liberalism. If you’re a California liberal, you don’t have to worry about her age to think that someone else might be a better advocate for your views.

There are Democrats considering running against her, including Kevin de León, who is currently the President Pro Tempore of the state senate. California uses a “jungle primary,” in which all primary candidates run on one ballot and the top two finishers — usually two Democrats in statewide races — face off in the general election. That means that to win, an opponent would have to beat Feinstein twice. But it hardly seems insurmountable — her approval ratings are reasonable but not great, and she’s not the kind of politician who inspires fervent affection. So what it would take to oust her is an opponent (or opponents) willing to take a risk on upending the status quo.

— 

Is it time for the Democratic Party’s old guard to step aside?

Feinstein is awful. She is consistently on the wrong side of the debate on privacy, surveillance, and war. She’s out of touch, and Californians deserve and need someone who is younger and more connected to the liberal base of the Democratic party. 

I will max out to any serious primary challenger, because she needs to go.

President of the United States for a Day — The Short Presidency of David Rice Atchison.

Until  the 1930’s the terms of US Presidents and many congressmen ended on March 4th.  On the date Zachary Taylor was to be inaugurated in 1849, March 4th fell on a Sunday.  To the deeply religious Taylor, it was inappropriate to the inaugurated on a Sunday since it was the Lord’s Day, a day of religious worship and rest.  As a result, Taylor’s presidency was postponed to March 5th.

For some a question was raised as to who was Commander-in-Chief from noon of March 4th to noon of March 5th.  Both the president and vice president were out of office as well as the Speaker of the House, so according to the rules of succession the powers of the presidency rested in the hands of the President Pro Tempore of the Senate.  For those who are unfamiliar of the title, the President Pro Tem is a senior senator who presides as chairman over the Senate when the Vice President is absent.  At the time the President Pro Tem was Missouri Senator David Rice Atchison.  At 3 o’clock in the morning his friend and colleague Willie Magnum jocularly informed him that he was president, at which point Atchison jokingly named him Secretary of State.  Atchison’s brief presidency ended at 12:00pm on March 15th with the swearing in of Zachary Taylor.  Atchison would later describe his presidency as “the honestest administration the country had ever had.”

Unfortunately Atchison is not considered and never was an official POTUS.  Under the rules of succession only the Vice President can officially become president after the death, resignation, or removal of the president.   All others merely assume the powers of the presidency until the real president returns to power or an election is held.  For Atchison, this power only lasted 24 hours.  Not that it mattered anyway. According to Atchison he spent much of his “presidency” sleeping as he was weary after a four day stretch of non-stop hard work.  His “presidential library”, claimed to be the smallest presidential library in the country, is located in the Atchison County Historical Museum in Kansas.

anonymous asked:

i'm not american so this might be a dumb question but is there a vice presidential line of succession or does maybe the next person in the presidential line move up if there's a vp that dies

No, there isn’t a Vice Presidential line of succession. In the case of a Vice Presidential vacancy, the 25th Amendment, ratified in 1967, allows the President to appoint a new VP who must be confirmed by both the House and the Senate. This has happened twice: in 1973 when President Nixon appointed Gerald Ford to fill the vacancy created when Vice President Spiro Agnew was forced to resign the Vice Presidency, and in 1974 when Ford succeeded Nixon as President and appointed Nelson Rockefeller to fill his vacancy.

A mechanism for filling a vacancy in the Vice Presidency was badly needed. I’ve written about it before, but the Vice Presidency has existed since 1789 and in those 228 years there has been a vacancy in the Vice Presidency for nearly 38 years overall. So, for over 16% of our nation’s history, there hasn’t been anybody in the most important position in the Presidential line of succession. And to point out even more explicitly how crazy that is, think of it this way: every time in American history that a President has died in office or been assassinated, the new President who assumed office didn’t have a Vice President of their own.

This is from an older post on this same subject:

7 Vice Presidents died in office:
•George Clinton died April 20, 1812, leaving the office vacant for 318 days
•Elbridge Gerry died November 23, 1814, leaving the office vacant for 2 years, 101 days.
•William Rufus DeVane King died April 18, 1853, leaving the office vacant for 3 years, 320 days.
•Henry Wilson died on November 22, 1875, leaving the office vacant for 1 year, 102 days
•Thomas A. Hendricks died on November 24, 1885, leaving the office vacant for 3 years, 99 days.
•Garret A. Hobart died on November 21, 1899, leaving the office vacant for 1 year, 103 days.
•James S. Sherman died on October 30, 1912, leaving the office vacant for 125 days.

2 Vice Presidents resigned from office:
•John C. Calhoun resigned on December 28, 1832, leaving the office vacant for 66 days.
•Spiro Agnew resigned on October 10, 1973, leaving the office vacant for 57 days.

9 Vice Presidents succeeded to the Presidency:
•John Tyler succeeded to the White House upon President Harrison’s death on April 4, 1841, leaving the Vice Presidency vacant for 3 years, 333 days.
•Millard Fillmore succeeded to the White House upon President Taylor’s death on July 9, 1850, leaving the Vice Presidency vacant for 2 years, 238 days.
•Andrew Johnson succeeded to the White House upon President Lincoln’s death on April 15, 1865, leaving the Vice Presidency vacant for 3 years, 323 days.
•Chester Arthur succeeded to the White House upon President Garfield’s death on September 19, 1881, leaving the Vice Presidency vacant for 3 years, 166 days.
•Theodore Roosevelt succeeded to the White House upon President McKinley’s death on September 14, 1901, leaving the Vice Presidency vacant for 3 years, 171 days.
•Calvin Coolidge succeeded to the White House upon President Harding’s death on August 2, 1923, leaving the Vice Presidency vacant for 1 year, 214 days.
•Harry Truman succeeded to the White House upon President Roosevelt’s death on April 12, 1945, leaving the Vice Presidency vacant for 3 years, 283 days.
•Lyndon Johnson succeeded to the White House upon President Kennedy’s death on November 22, 1963, leaving the Vice Presidency vacant for 1 year, 59 days.
•Gerald Ford succeeded to the White House upon President Nixon’s resignation on August 9, 1974, leaving the Vice Presidency vacant for 132 days.

There was no provision established for filling a vacancy in the Vice Presidency until the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution was ratified in 1967.  The Amendment allows the President to fill a vacancy in the Vice Presidency by appointing a new Vice President who must be confirmed by a majority vote in the House of Representatives and the United States Senate.

Two Vice Presidential vacancies have been filled under the 25th Amendment. Gerald Ford was appointed to the Vice Presidency by President Nixon following Spiro Agnew’s resignation in October 1973 and confirmed by Congress in December.  In August 1974, President Nixon resigned, Gerald Ford succeeded to the Presidency and President Ford appointed Nelson Rockefeller as the new Vice President.  Rockefeller was confirmed as Vice President by Congress on December 19, 1974.

If any of the Vice Presidents who succeeded to the Presidency prior to the ratification of the 25th Amendment had died in office, the first person in the line of succession would have been – depending on the year – an “Officer” chosen by Congress (1789-1792), president pro tempore of the U.S. Senate (1792-1886), Secretary of State (1886-1947), or Speaker of the House of Representatives (1947-present).

Here are the people who were first in the line of succession to the Presidency due to a Vice Presidential vacancy prior to the ratification of the 25th Amendment:

Presidency of James Madison (Mar. 4, 1809-Mar. 4, 1817)
(Vacancy from April 20, 1812-March 4, 1813 due to the death of Vice President George Clinton. Vacancy from November 23, 1814-March 4, 1817 due to the death of Vice President Elbridge Gerry) 
•Apr. 20, 1812-Mar. 4, 1813: William H. Crawford, president pro tempore of the Senate
•Nov. 23, 1814-Nov. 25, 1814: Langdon Cheves, Speaker of the House
•Nov. 25, 1814-Mar. 4, 1817: John Gaillard, president pro tempore of the Senate

Presidency of Andrew Jackson (Mar. 4, 1829-Mar. 4, 1837)
(Vacancy from December 28, 1832-Mar. 4, 1833 due to the resignation of Vice President John C. Calhoun)
•Dec. 28, 1832-Mar. 4, 1833: Hugh Lawson White, president pro tempore of the Senate

Presidency of John Tyler (Apr. 4, 1841-Mar. 4, 1845)
•Apr. 4, 1841-May 31, 1842: Samuel L. Southard, president pro tempore of the Senate
•May 31, 1842-Mar. 4, 1845: Willie Person Mangum, president pro tempore of the Senate

Presidency of Millard Fillmore (July 9, 1850-Mar. 4, 1853)
•July 9, 1850-July 11, 1850: Howell Cobb, as Speaker of the House, was next in line to the Presidency for the two days following President Taylor’s death since there was no president pro tempore of the Senate, but Cobb was Constitutionally ineligible to be President as he was only 34 years of age.
•July 11, 1850-Dec. 20, 1852: William Rufus DeVane King, president pro tempore of the Senate
•Dec. 20, 1852-Mar. 4, 1853, David Rice Atchison, president pro tempore of the Senate

Presidency of Franklin Pierce (Mar. 4, 1853-Mar. 4, 1857)
(Vacancy from April 18, 1853-March 4, 1857 due to the death of Vice President William R. D. King)
•Apr. 18, 1853-Dec. 4, 1854: David Rice Atchison, president pro tempore of the Senate
•Dec. 4, 1854-Dec. 5, 1854: Lewis Cass, president pro tempore of the Senate
•Dec. 5, 1854-June 9, 1856: Jesse D. Bright, president pro tempore of the Senate
•June 9, 1856-June 10, 1856: Charles E. Stuart, president pro tempore of the Senate
•June 10, 1856-Jan. 6, 1857: Jesse D. Bright, president pro tempore of the Senate
•Jan. 6, 1857-Mar. 4, 1857: James Murray Mason, president pro tempore of the Senate

Presidency of Andrew Johnson (Apr. 15, 1865-Mar. 4, 1869)
•Apr. 15, 1865-Mar. 2, 1867: Lafayette Sabine Foster, president pro tempore of the Senate
•Mar. 2, 1867-Mar. 4, 1869: Benjamin Franklin Wade, president pro tempore of the Senate

Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant (Mar. 4, 1869-Mar. 4, 1877)
(Vacancy from Nov. 22, 1875-Mar. 4, 1877 due to the death of Vice President Henry Wilson)
•Nov. 22, 1875-Mar. 4, 1877: Thomas W. Ferry, president pro tempore of the Senate

Presidency of Chester Arthur (Sept. 19, 1881-Mar. 4, 1885)
•Sept. 19, 1881-Oct. 10, 1881: There was literally NO ONE in the Presidential line of succession until a special session of the Senate nearly a month after President Garfield’s assassination. At the time of Garfield’s death and Arthur’s succession creating a vacancy in the Vice Presidency there were also vacancies in the offices of Speaker of the House and president pro tempore of the Senate.
•Oct. 10, 1881-Oct. 13, 1881: Thomas Francis Bayard, president pro tempore of the Senate
•Oct. 13, 1881-Mar. 3, 1883: David Davis, president pro tempore of the Senate
•Mar. 3, 1883-Mar. 4, 1885: George Franklin Edmunds, president pro tempore of the Senate

Presidency of Grover Cleveland (Mar. 4, 1885-Mar. 4, 1889)
(Vacancy from November 25, 1885-December 7, 1885 due to the death of Vice President Thomas A. Hendricks)
•Nov. 25, 1885-Dec. 7, 1885: At the time of Vice President Hendricks’s death creating a vacancy in the Vice Presidency there were also vacancies in the offices of Speaker of the House and president pro tempore of the Senate. For twelve days nobody was in the Presidential line of succession.
•Dec. 7, 1885-Jan. 19, 1886: John Sherman, president pro tempore of the Senate
•Jan. 19, 1886-Mar. 4, 1889: Thomas F. Bayard, Secretary of State

Presidency of William McKinley (Mar. 4, 1897-Sept. 14, 1901)
(Vacancy from November 21, 1899-March 4, 1901 due to the death of Vice President Garret A. Hobart)
•Nov. 21, 1899-Mar. 4, 1901: John Hay, Secretary of State

Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt (Sept. 14, 1901-Mar. 4, 1905)
•Sept. 14, 1901-Mar. 4, 1905: John Hay, Secretary of State

Presidency of William Howard Taft (Mar. 4, 1909-Mar. 4, 1913)
(Vacancy from October 30, 1912-March 4, 1913 due to the death of Vice President James Schoolcraft Sherman)
•Oct. 30, 1912-Mar. 4, 1913: Philander C. Knox, Secretary of State

Presidency of Calvin Coolidge (Aug. 2, 1923-Mar. 4, 1925)
•Aug. 2, 1923-Mar. 4, 1925: Charles Evans Hughes, Secretary of State

Presidency of Harry Truman (Apr. 12, 1945-Jan. 20, 1949)
•Apr. 12, 1945-June 27, 1945: Edward R. Stettinius, Secretary of State
•June 27, 1947-July 3, 1945: Henry Morgenthau, Secretary of the Treaury
•July 3, 1945-Jan. 21, 1947: James F. Byrnes, Secretary of State
•Jan. 21, 1947-July 17, 1947: George C. Marshall, Secretary of State
•July 17, 1947-Jan. 3, 1949: Joseph W. Martin, Speaker of the House
•Jan. 3, 1949-Jan. 20, 1949: Sam Rayburn, Speaker of the House

Presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson (Nov. 22, 1963-Jan. 20, 1965)
•Nov. 22, 1963-Jan. 20, 1965: John W. McCormack, Speaker of the House

Presidency of Richard Nixon (Jan. 20, 1969-Aug. 9, 1974)
(Vacancy between the resignation of Vice President Spiro Agnew on October 10, 1973 and the confirmation of Vice Presidential nominee Gerald Ford on December 6, 1973.)
•Oct. 10, 1973-Dec. 6, 1973: Carl Albert, Speaker of the House

Presidency of Gerald Ford (Aug. 9, 1974-Jan. 20, 1977)
(Vacancy between Vice President Gerald Ford’s succession to the Presidency on August 9, 1974 and the confirmation of Vice Presidential nominee Nelson Rockefeller on December 19, 1974.)
•Aug. 9, 1974-Dec. 19, 1974: Carl Albert, Speaker of the House

jettcyber  asked:

In reference to your post about how Obama is actually only the 43rd president: What about David Rice Atchison?

DAVID RICE ATCHISON IS OFTEN PURPORTED TO HAVE BEEN “PRESIDENT FOR ONE DAY” BETWEEN THE ADMINISTRATIONS OF JAMES K. POLK AND ZACHARY TAYLOR, BUT THIS IS INACCURATE FOR A NUMBER OF REASONS.

THE REASON PEOPLE BELIEVE ATCHISON WAS PRESIDENT IS THAT HE WAS “PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE” OF THE SENATE ON THE SUNDAY WHEN POLK’S TERM EXPIRED, BUT POLK’S SUCCESSOR, ZACHARY TAYLOR, REFUSED TO TAKE THE OATH OF OFFICE ON A SUNDAY, INSTEAD DOING IT THE FOLLOWING DAY. SOME CONTEND THAT THE PRESIDENT PRO-TEMPORE OF THE SENATE, AS THE HIGHEST IN THE PRESIDENTIAL LINE OF SUCCESSION AT THE TIME, WAS LEGALLY PRESIDENT FOR THE DAY BETWEEN THE END OF POLK’S PRESIDENCY AND THE BEGINNING OF TAYLOR’S.

THE PROBLEM IS THAT THERE WAS NO “DAY BETWEEN” THE TWO ADMINISTRATIONS. FOR THE SAKE OF CONTINUITY OF POWER, THE PRESIDENT-ELECT’S TERM AS PRESIDENT BEGINS WHEN THEIR PREDECESSOR’S TERM ENDS, WHETHER THEY’VE TAKEN THE OATH OR NOT. THE OFFICIAL SWEARING-IN IS NOT A MAGIC SPELL THAT MAKES SOMEONE THE PRESIDENT. IT’S NOT CEREMONIAL, IT’S JUST FOR SHOW. 

ZACHARY TAYLOR BECAME PRESIDENT WHEN JAMES K. POLK’S TERM ENDED. THERE WAS NO “IN BETWEEN,” AT LEAST LEGALLY SPEAKING. ESSENTIALLY, ZACHARY TAYLOR TOOK HIS FIRST DAY AS PRESIDENT OFF. ATCHISON NEVER IDENTIFIED HIMSELF AS HAVING BEEN PRESIDENT, AND IT WAS ONLY IN RETROSPECT THAT THOSE MISINFORMED ABOUT THE MECHANISMS OF PRESIDENTIAL SUCCESSION REASONED THAT HE MAY HAVE HELD THE OFFICE. 

ALSO, EVEN IF THE CONTENTION THAT ATCHISON ACTED AS PRESIDENT ON THE FIRST DAY OF THE TAYLOR ADMINISTRATION WAS TRUE, IT WOULD NOT COUNT HIM AMONG THE OFFICIAL PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES, AS “PRESIDENT” IS A DIFFERENT POST THAN “ACTING PRESIDENT.”

“ACTING PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES” A TITLE HELD BY SOMEONE WHO HAS BEEN DESIGNATED TO ACT AS THE PROXY OF THE OFFICIAL PRESIDENT. IT’S LIKE WHEN A PERSON OFFICIALLY DESIGNATES THEIR SPOUSE OR FAMILY MEMBER AS SOMEONE WHO IS ALLOWED TO MAKE MEDICAL DECISIONS ON THEIR BEHALF SHOULD THEY BE UNCONSCIOUS OR OTHERWISE INCAPABLE OF DOING SO. THEY ACT ON BEHALF OF THE PRESIDENT WITHOUT ACTUALLY BEING THE PRESIDENT

THIS POWER HAS BEEN INVOKED THREE TIMES, AND TWO MEN HAVE SERVED AS “ACTING PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES.” RONALD REAGAN AND GEORGE W. BUSH BOTH APPOINTED THEIR VICE PRESIDENT (GEORGE H.W. BUSH AND DICK CHENEY, RESPECTIVELY) TO ACT AS PRESIDENT WHILE THEY UNDERWENT A MEDICAL PROCEDURE. WHILE BUSH SR. AND CHENEY BOTH CARRIED OUT THE DUTIES OF PRESIDENT, THEY DID NOT ACTUALLY HOLD THE OFFICE AND ARE THUS NOT COUNTED IN THE LIST OF AMERICAN PRESIDENTS. 

anonymous asked:

Is Faith Spotted Eagle the first Native American to earn an electoral vote?

Charles Curtis, the 31st Vice President (under Herbert Hoover, 1929-1933), was one-eighth Native American. He spent some of his early years growing up on a Kaw reservation in Kansas, was a member of the Kaw Nation, and he spoke the Kaw tribe’s language. Vice President Curtis was not only the first Native American to win an Electoral vote, but the first Native American or mixed-race candidate to win a national election – and the only other mixed-race candidate to win a national election is Barack Obama. Curtis was also elected to seven terms in the U.S. House of Representatives, four terms in the U.S. Senate, and served as Senate Majority Leader (1925-1929) and briefly as President pro Tempore of the Senate in 1911.

The Designated Survivor

State of the Union Addresses are one of the few events in which almost every major official from all three branches of government are all in the same place at the same time. Of course, if there was some sort of attack on the Capitol, the entire government could be taken out in a doomsday, nightmare scenario that the government is very cognizant of. That’s why there are important continuity of government plans in effect, including the “Designated Survivor”.

The “Designated Survivor” is an official who is in the Presidential line of succession that the President chooses to stay away from Capitol Hill during State of the Union Addresses. That is done so there is a clear person available to take over if the rest of the people in the line of succession are somehow taken out. The “Designated Survivor” usually stays at the White House, Camp David, or an undisclosed, secure location during the State of the Union Address. A military aide carrying the same “football” briefcase containing nuclear launch codes that accompanies the President actually accompanies the Designated Survivor. The Designated Survivor must be eligible to serve as President.

Continuity of government fears during the Cold War is what originally led to the first usage of a Designated Survivor during the Reagan Administration. Since then, there have been Designated Survivors at each State of the Union Address. After 9/11, there were often two Designated Survivors chosen to stay away from Capitol Hill. Besides members of the Cabinet, the President Pro Tempore of the U.S. Senate (third in line to the Presidency) also sometimes serves as Designated Survivor, but the Speaker of the House (second in the line of succession), of course, sits behind the President during the State of the Union Address.

Tonight’s Designated Survivor is Jeh Johnson, the Secretary of Homeland Security. Interestingly, I’ve also heard that Senator Orrin Hatch, the President Pro Tempore of the Senate, will not be in the Capitol tonight. If so, that means that Senator Hatch – a Republican – would take over as President in case of a doomsday scenario because he’s closer in the line of succession than Secretary Johnson.

DESIGNATED SURVIVORS DURING THE OBAMA ADMINISTRATION
•2009 Inauguration: Secretary of Defense Robert Gates
•February 2009 Address to Joint Session: Attorney General Eric Holder
•September 2009 Address to Join Session: Energy Secretary Steven Chu
•2010 SOTU Address: HUD Secretary Shaun Donovan
•2011 SOTU Address: Interior Secretary Ken Salazar
•2012 SOTU Address: Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack
•2013 Inauguration: Secretary of Veterans Affairs Eric Shinseki
•2013 SOTU Address: Energy Secretary Steven Chu
•2014 SOTU Address: Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz
•2015 SOTU Address: Transportation Secretary Anthony Foxx
•2016 SOTU Address: Homeland Security Secretary Jeh Johnson/Senator Orrin Hatch, President Pro Tempore of the U.S. Senate

anonymous asked:

what do you think about the presidential succession order now?

I have a problem with the president pro tempore of the Senate being in the line of succession.  I understand that the thinking is that there should be someone from both chambers of Congress in the line of succession, but the president pro tem is, by tradition, the senior Senator from the majority party.  That means it is, by tradition, the OLDEST Senator from the majority party.  It’s pretty much a ceremonial position – Strom Thurmond was president pro tem when he was 99 years old.  Is that who we want assuming the Presidency in the midst of a crisis?  Because, let’s be honest, if something happens to the President, Vice President, and Speaker of the House and the Presidency passes to the president pro tempore of the Senate, then we’re in the middle of a pretty serious crisis.

I’m fine with the Speaker of the House being second in the line of succession, but I think the president pro tempore of the Senate needs to go.  (Plus, it’s really annoying to type.)  Since the president pro tem is already a member of the Senate’s majority party, why not just have the Senate Majority Leader be third in the line of succession?  Plus, I like the idea that the Speaker and Majority Leader were not only elected by the people but elected to their leadership positions by their colleagues. (The president pro tempore is technically elected by his fellow Senators to his position, but again, the tradition is to give the job to the senior Senator of the majority party and it hasn’t been challenged in decades)

There are some other Constitutional issues with the line of succession, but since the chance of them happening is so slim, it’s not worth worrying about too much.  I’m okay with the rest of the line of succession, even though it seems pretty random to rank the departments of the Executive Branch by the date they were formed rather than any real-world importance.  Really, if we get far enough down the line of succession that Cabinet members are assuming the Presidency, we’re probably in trouble.

abcnews.go.com
Sen. Daniel Inouye of Hawaii hospitalized: 'For the most part, I'm OK'

“For the most part, I am OK,” Sen. Inouye, D-Hawaii, said in a paper statement issued to ABC News, “However, I am currently working with my doctors to regulate my oxygen intake. Much to my frustration, while undergoing this process, I have to remain in the hospital for my own safety and to allow the necessary observation.”

Inouye serves as President Pro Tempore of the Senate and therefore is third in line for succession to the presidency.

Godspeed to him.