Mary McLeod Bethune (1875-1955) was an
American educator, stateswoman, philanthropist, humanitarian and civil rights activist.
She was a national advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt and was
acknowledged by both President Calvin Coolidge and President Herbert Hoover for
her knowledge on child welfare.
Mary’s parents were
former slaves, but she was able to go to college with the help of benefactors. After she was told that black missionaries
were not needed, she started teaching, and set up a private school for
African-American students in Daytona Beach (Florida) to promote education of
African-Americans. Using donations she developed the school into a college and
later into a university.
Still in remarkably good shape, the Fort Henry Club was first built in the 1850s as the Howell Mansion. By the year 1890, the mansion was turned into a club for the wealthy of West Virginia to gather and socialize in. Some of the club’s famous guests have included Jimmy Stewart, President Herbert Hoover, Charles Lindbergh, Babe Ruth, and Walter Pidgeon.
Membership slowly declined, however, and by the year 2011, the building was completely abandoned. The building is owned by people who plan to restore it, however, no efforts have been made.
This image depicts members of the Allen Life Guards. It was taken in the brickyard near Virginia Street in August, 1930, prior to the group’s departure for the Tuskegee Institute and Washington, D.C. The troop were greeted by President Herbert Hoover and granted official Boy Scout charters. Guardmaster Clarence Mathews mortgaged his home in order to finance the trip.The guards were named for the founder of the African Methodist Episcopal Church denomination, Richard Allen. Most of the people in the image have been identified. Erik Overbey Collection, The Doy Leale McCall Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of South Alabama.
This is worth seeing even if you know all about it, its still a good reminder and a caution that the first time US Fascism lost, but is back again. Could it be because they did nothing to the plotters.
The “Business Plot” (also the Plot Against FDR and the White House Putsch) was an alleged political conspiracy in 1933 wherein wealthy businessmen and corporations plotted a coup détat to overthrow United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1934, the Business Plot was publicly revealed by retired Marine Corps Major General Smedley Butler testifying to the McCormack-Dickstein Congressional Committee. In his testimony, Butler claimed that a group of men had approached him as part of a plot to overthrow Roosevelt in a military coup. One of the alleged plotters, Gerald MacGuire, vehemently denied any such plot. In their final report, the Congressional committee supported Butler’s allegations of the existence of the plot, but no prosecutions or further investigations followed, and the matter was mostly forgotten.
On July 17, 1932, thousands of World War I veterans converged on Washington, D.C., set up tent camps, and demanded immediate payment of bonuses due them according to the Adjusted Service Certificate Law of 1924. This “Bonus Army” was led by Walter W. Waters, a former Army sergeant. The Army was encouraged by an appearance from retired Marine Corps Major General Smedley Butler, who had considerable influence over the veterans, being one of the most popular military figures of the time. A few days after Butler’s arrival, President Herbert Hoover ordered the marchers removed, and their camps were destroyed by US Army cavalry troops under the command of General Douglas MacArthur. Butler, although a self-described Republican, responded by supporting Roosevelt in that year’s election.
In a 1995 History Today article Clayton Cramer argued that the devastation of the Great Depression had caused many Americans to question the foundations of liberal democracy. “Many traditionalists, here and in Europe, toyed with the ideas of Fascism and National Socialism; many liberals dallied with Socialism and Communism.” Cramer argues that this explains why some American business leaders viewed fascism as a viable system to both preserve their interests and end the economic woes of the Depression.
Her Majesty with 12 U.S. Presidents: Herbert Hoover, Harry S. Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama. 🇬🇧🇺🇸
i have a lot of really bad musical theatre misconceptions i’ve had mainly stemming from the fact i usually listen to cast albums without knowing the show first, but not all of then are 100% my fault.
“Am-scray punk! She’s the King of New York” I thought ‘Am-scray’ was literally a character’s name, Katherine’s name (who I only knew as “girl Newsies character,
“I was louder than the crack in the bell” I must have listened to that 4-5 times before I stopped thinking it was “kraken the bell”, like the sea monster thing.
I thought Anything Goes was about lesbian sailors (at least one). Then I thought it was about a lesbian love triangle (based on a pronoun change in a single-song clip).
Because the most popular Spring Awakening clip was “Bitch of Living”, for a long-ish time I thought Ernst was Bobby Maler (because of how the song is set up). I also thought it took place at boarding school for a pretty long time despite evidence it didn’t.
I originally didn’t want to see the Les Mis 2012 movie because I thought the whole thing was in SPANISH, not even French, I saw it 8 times in theatres after though.
“Corner of the Sky” was one of the first few musical theatre songs I heard as a really young kid (maybe 5-ish) and I always heard the lyrics as “colander of the sky”, like those strainers and I thought they were talking about giant metal bowls with tiny holes in them.
I don’t remember which song but sometime in RENT, someone says something like “AZT break” and I thought it meant like “AZ tea” like an iced tea break, and honestly I didn’t find out otherwise until at a GSA meeting when my advisor told us.
In Avenue Q in “My Girlfriend Who Lives in Canada” there’s that line “…and sucks like a Hoover” and until the other day I didn’t realise that Hoover referred to a vacuum? I thought it referred to President Herbert Hoover? I presumed that it was a double entendre in which Rod is saying that Hoover’s political beliefs suck.
One of our followers asked us to make a post on the Mexican Repatriation:
Basically, 2 million people of Mexican descent were forced to leave the United States and were deported to Mexico from 1929 to 1939. Around 60% of these people were U.S. citizens. This is called the Mexican Repatriation.
There are many causes for the Mexican Repatriation but I’ll address just a few important ones. Mexicans had been coming in increasing numbers to the United States, especially California, since the Gold Rush in 1848 and even up to the 1920’s when the United States was in an age of relative prosperity aka the Roaring 20s.
(Mexican Immigration Records- United States Congress Report)
Then came the Great Depression from 1929 - 1945 where unemployment dropped and the American economy collapsed. Many middle and lower class Americans lost their jobs.
A philosophy prevalent during this time period was called Social Darwinism. This promoted the idea that people should so anything they can to succeed and that economic success meant one was a “fit” human. Social Darwinism legitimized a lot of the greed during that era that actually caused the Great Depression.
Racism and xenophobia were also common at the time of the Great Depression and that was reinforced by bad economic conditions because Mexican immigrants were seen as an economic burden because they were taking jobs and using public resources.
With all of these factors in mind, President Herbert Hoover authorised the Mexican Repatriation Program where The Immigration and Naturalization Service would raid places with high populations of Mexicans such as California, Texas, Colorado, Illinois, and Michigan. They would arrest and deport people in those communities with no due process. Because of that many legal American citizens were deported to Mexico just for being Mexican.
The Mexican Repatriation Program is not talked about in American history, so we have a responsibility to talk about it and make it known. It is a huge blot on our nation’s history but we have to acknowledge it to make sure it never happens again. Many of the recent immigration statements in the United States reflect the xenophobia and racism in the 1920s and 1930s that led to the Mexican Repatriation. This is not a new issue. Let’s make sure history does not repeat itself.
On this day in 1932 the infant son of famous aviator Charles Lindbergh,
Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Jr., was kidnapped. The child was taken from
his family home in East Amwell, New Jersey in what became known as ‘The
Crime of the Century’. A ransom note was left at the scene which
demanded $50,000 from the infant’s wealthy family. The case attracted a huge media following and even
President Herbert Hoover declared he would “move Heaven and Earth” to find the
child. However, in a sad turn of events for which the nation grieved, the child’s body was found on May 12th 1932 not far from
their home. The investigation into the crime lasted until 1936, when
Bruno Richard Hauptmann was found guilty of the murder and executed.
1. 1854: Pro-life Americans establish the first major anti-slavery party. The Republican Party is born.
2. 1862: Pro-life politicians are the first to abolish slavery in Washington, D.C. They are Republicans.
3. 1863: Pro-life politicians issue the Emancipation Proclamation, in order to set all slaves free. They are Republicans.
4. 1865: Attorney John Rock (a registered doctor), becomes the first black member of the Supreme Court bar. He is a Republican.
5. 1870: Pastor Rhodes Revels becomes America’s first black Senator. He is a Republican.
6. 1872: Louisiana gives America her first nonwhite Governor. He is a Republican.
7. 1872: By now, the first seven African-Americans are in the U.S. Congress. They are all Republicans.
8. 1884: John Lynch, a Congressman, becomes the first black to preside over a national convention. He is a Republican.
9-11. The 1890s: During his stint as New York City Police Commissioner, Teddy Roosevelt is the first leader to open doors to women – and the first to welcome Jews in the department. But there’s more. Teddy becomes the first to introduce standardized pistols to the force, in order to protect innocents. He is a Republican.
12. 1901: Teddy Roosevelt, a balanced conservationist, becomes – according to Time 2006 – the first President “to make environmentalism an issue.” He is a Republican.
13. 1901: President Roosevelt upsets Democrats when he invites the first African-American to dine in the White House. He is a Republican.
14. 1906: President Roosevelt becomes the first American to win the Nobel Peace Prize. He is a Republican.
15. 1916: Jeanette Rankin becomes America’s first congresswoman. She is a Republican.
16. 1916: Also – according to Gov. Thomas Judge — Rankin becomes the first “woman in the world to be elected to a parliamentary body.” She is a Republican.
17. 1921: Pro-life politicians are the first to establish and back the controversial Dyer Anti-Lynching Laws. They are Republicans.
18. 1925: Florence Khan becomes the first Jewess to serve in Congress. She is a Republican.
19. 1938. Former President Herbert Hoover becomes the first statesmen to rebuke Adolph Hitler in person. He is a Republican.
20. 1943. Hoover is the first major statesmen to back the controversial Emergency Committee to Save the Jewish People of Europe, which finally convinces President Roosevelt, the Democrat, to create a War Refugee Board, in order to rescue Jews. He is a Republican.
21. 1950: Joseph Mc Carthy, a great patriot, delivers his famous Wheeling speech and is the first Senator to publicly blow the whistle on the largest nest of Red Fascists in the State Department. History will vindicate the Senator. He is a Republican.
22. 1953: Former Catholic Congresswoman Clare Luce Booth becomes the first female ambassador to a major world power. She is a Republican.
23-5. 1954: On his 30th anniversary, as FBI Director, the liberal Associated Press, Washington, acknowledges that J. Edgar Hoover is responsible for three firsts. Before his time there was no “fingerprint file , no crime detection laboratory , no training program , and no prestige.” He is a Republican.
26: 1955: President Eisenhower becomes the first President to appoint an African-American (E. Frederic Morrow) to an executive position on the White House staff. He is a Republican.
27. 1957: Eisenhower becomes the first President to order troops to protect black students at Central High, Arkansas. He is a Republican.
28. 1957: Eisenhower’s Civil Rights Bill makes him the first President to strongly back black voting rights and protections in the post-war period. He is a Republican.
29. 1959: Hiram L. Fong becomes the first Asian-American Senator. He is a Republican.
30-1. 1964: Margaret Chase Smith (not Hillary Clinton) is the first woman to run as a U.S. Presidential candidate for a major party. She is a Republican. (Note: Smith is also the first female to be elected in the U.S. House and Senate too.)
32. 1964: Hiram L. Fong becomes the first Asian presidential candidate. He is a Republican.
33. 1964: Barry Goldwater is the first person of Jewish ancestry to run as a U.S. presidential candidate for a major party. He is a Republican.
34. 1964: The Grand Old Party is the first (and only) party to strongly back the Civil Rights Act (83%). Thank God for the Republicans.
35. 1971: Herbert Choy becomes the first Asian-American to serve on the federal bench. He is a Republican.
36. 1971: Romana Acosta Banuelos becomes the first Hispanic-American Treasurer of the U.S. She is a Republican.
37. 1971: Senator Strom Thurmond, a former member of the racist Democratic Party, renounces his past, and becomes the first southern Senator to hire an African-American, in a senatorial office. He is a Republican.
38. 1973: Henry Kissinger becomes the first Jewish U.S. Secretary of State. He is a Republican.
39. 1985: Significantly, Reagan becomes the first world leader to describe five dictatorships (Cuba, Iran, Libya, Nicaragua, and North Korea), as “outlaw states run by the strangest collection of misfits, loony-tunes and squalid criminals since the end of the Third Reich.” (Loud cheers and laughs.) He is a Republican.
40. 1988: Reagan becomes the first President to sign legislation which acknowledges that – under FDR, the Democrat – Japanese internment camps were based upon “race prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure of political leadership.” He also offers a formal apology and compensation to survivors. He is a Republican.
41. 1988: Lauro F. Cavazos, the former Secretary of Education, becomes the first Hispanic-American to serve as a U.S. Cabinet Member. He is a Republican.
42. 1989: Julia Chang Bloch becomes the first Asian U.S. ambassador. She is a Republican.
43-4. 1990: Antonia Coello Novello becomes the first woman and the first Hispanic-American to become a Surgeon General of the U.S. She is a Republican.
45. 2001: Elaine Chao becomes the first Asian-American Cabinet Minister. She is a Republican.
46. 2001: Colin Powell becomes the first African-American Secretary of State. He is a Republican.
47. 2001: The late Lieutenant Colonel Roosevelt becomes the first and only President to receive the Medal of Honor, America’s highest military award. He was a Republican.
48. 2005: Alberto Gonzales becomes the first Hispanic American Attorney General of the U.S. He is a Republican.
49. 2005: Condoleezza Rice becomes the first African-American female Secretary of State. She is a Republican.
50. 2008: John McCain looks like he will become the first President born outside of the continental United States, in the Panama Canal Zone. He is a RepubliCAN.
Democrats need to stop using the “Parties switched sides” excuse, because they certainly did not. Liberals have been wrong since the beginning.
Today’s theme is #architecture for #MuseumWeek. The National Archives Building was completed in 1937–but it was a challenging building to design! It was more than an office space for workers; it would store the most valuable records of the government.
This called for installation of specialized air-handling systems and filters, reinforced flooring, and thousands of feet of shelving to meet the building’s archival storage requirements.
New York architect John Russell Pope was chosen to design the new building. He suggested moving the planned location (it had already be relocated twice) to the block it is now built on. This meant demolishing Center Market, which had been erected in 1871 and held approximately 700 vendors. Excavation for the new building began on 1931.
The builders needed to protect the foundation from possible flooding from the Old Tiber Creek bed, which runs under the National Archives Building. Contractors drove 8,575 piles into the unstable soil before constructing a huge concrete bowl as a foundation.
On February 20, 1933, departing President Herbert Hoover laid the cornerstone of the building. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed legislation on June 19, 1934, creating the National Archives as an independent agency, and 120 National Archives staff members moved into the uncompleted building on November 5, 1935,
Almost as soon as Pope’s original design was complete, a project to fill the Archives’ interior courtyard began, doubling storage space from 374,000 square feet to more than 757,000 square feet!
In 1937 the National Archives Building was complete.
Three inscriptions encircle the building. The south side reads: “The ties that bind the lives of our people in one indissoluble union are perpetuated in the archives of our government and to their custody this building is dedicated.”
Do you think Bush Sr will break the record for oldest president?
He’s heading in the right direction!
George H.W. Bush turned 92 last weekend, so he’s closing in on the two longest-living Presidents in American history: Gerald Ford, who was 93 years, 165 days old when he died on December 26, 2006, and Ronald Reagan, who died on June 5, 2004 at 93 years, 120 days. Bush 41 joins Ford and Reagan as the only American Presidents to reach the age of 92. Jimmy Carter, who is a few months younger than Bush, has a chance at breaking the record, too. He turns 92 on October 1st.
John Adams – who was the longest-living President for nearly 200 years until Reagan surpassed him in 2001 (he’s now been surpassed by Ford, Bush, and Carter, as well) – lived long enough to see his son, John Quincy Adams, elected President himself in 1824, he died while his son was in office. George H.W. Bush not only lived long enough to see his son, George W., elected to the Presidency, but he lived through both of George W. Bush’s terms, and is nearing the end of the second term of his son’s successor. That’s pretty remarkable.
Jimmy Carter has been adding to a Presidential longevity record every day since 2012 and it will be difficult for any of his successors to break it – the longest life after the Presidency. Since Carter was a relatively young President and was defeated for his bid for a second term, he left the White House in 1981 at the age of 56 years old. Carter broke Herbert Hoover’s record for the longest life after leaving office in 2012. Hoover was 54 years old when he left office in 1933, and lived another 31 years, 231 days. Carter’s life after the White House has spanned nearly 36 years. For some people, that part of their life would be called “retirement”, but it’s impossible to define what Jimmy Carter has been doing since 1981 as “retirement”.
Bush 41 and Carter led remarkably active lives until the past few years. Bush 41 rarely travels anymore, largely due to a form of Parkinson’s disease which has left him wheelchair-bound. President Carter and his wife, Rosalynn, continued one an incredible pace as activists for various causes throughout the world until late last year when President Carter was diagnosed with cancer and announced that he would begin to “slow down” – an announcement he made during a book tour.
I’m not sure if Bush or Carter will break Ford’s record as the longest-living President in American history or not (Ford surpassed Reagan just a few weeks before he died), but they’ve come a long way, literally and figuratively. Both Bush and Carter have enjoyed remarkably good health for most of their lives, but both have also faced some scary health challenges over the past few years.
As I mentioned, President Bush began traveling less and less over the past decade due to the form of Parkinson’s disease that has left him in a wheelchair. (It is worth nothing that being confined to a wheelchair has resulted in Bush 41 becoming legendary for his flamboyant socks.) Bush’s most serious health challenges were in late-2012 when he was gravely ill with pneumonia. The 41st President’s illness was serious enough that his family was in contact with the Military District of Washington – the military command responsible for Presidential funerals – to keep everyone updated about any arrangements. Fortunately, Bush’s health bounced back and when he turned 90 years old in June 2014, he went skydiving (from a helicopter!) to celebrate. It was the eighth time he had made a jump – his first jump, in 1944, was to escape his plane after he was shot down by the Japanese while making a bombing run in the Pacific during World War II. Bush can break Gerald Ford’s record as longest-living President on November 24, 2017.
Jimmy Carter hasn’t spent his long life after the White House jumping out of planes, but he’s spent plenty of time and traveled millions of miles inside of them for dozens of important reasons – usually to save lives and advance human rights. After leaving office in 1981, Carter and his wife created the Carter Center and have devoted their “retirement” to fighting diseases, building homes for the needy, delivering clean water, health care, and medicine to people who had no access to it, observing elections, and resolving conflicts. For his efforts, Carter was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002, and he is the first to admit that he’s done far more for people after he left office than he was able to do during his four years as President. Carter worked and traveled at a blistering pace until he turned 90 years old and, even then, didn’t truly begin to slow down until he was diagnosed with melanoma. In August 2015, Carter announced that his cancer had spread to his brain and liver, and that he was immediately undergoing surgery and beginning to receive treatment. It was really the first time Carter announced any serious health issues own his own, but his father, mother, brother, and both sisters all died of pancreatic cancer. Six months later, President Carter announced that he no longer needed treatment and that he was cancer-free, and, as of June 2016, the 39th President was back on the road working to guarantee human rights around the world. Carter can break Ford’s record as the longest-living President on March 15, 2018 (if Bush hasn’t already done so).
Between George H.W. Bush’s skydiving and dope sock swag, and Jimmy Carter’s Wolverine-level healing powers, don’t be surprised if they outlive all of us.
,My ass, as of late has been increasingly worried as I’ve been replying to comments on the Fine Bro’s reaction channel’s video ‘GENERATIONS REACT TO ELECTION.’ the more people i see for trump, the more unsafe I personally feel. So before election tomorrow, if this can change ANYONE’S MIND, i’m gonna post it and hope to god you all make the right decision tomorrow.
“Trump is for peace, Hillary is for war.”
Donald trump has openly stated that he wants to bomb syria and other countries. Hillary, who has experience working with other countries as her duty as Secretary of state calls for, is pro negotiation Trump DOESN’T support a cease fire (aka a document which halts all fighting on both sides.) with Syria. In 2002 he was pro iraq invasion (He wanted the war in Iraq to happen) which is supported by his book “The America we deserve.” and his appearance on the Stern Howard show. How does Donald plan on getting rid of Isis? By Bombing the ENTIRE country and taking their oil. Children, women, innocent people massacred. He wants to go to war with north Korea and doesn’t believe in Humanitarian intervention
“He said that years ago. Does it matter? It was just locker room talk.”
Of course it fucking matters. Let’s think about this, okay? Donald had NO IDEA he was being recorded in that trailer. Which means he spoke his actual, honest opinion. He legitimately thinks that he can grope and assault women and they won’t say anything because he’s famous. Let us also be reminded, that on October 13th, he went to trial for raping a thirteen year old girl. Lawyers don’t go to trial unless they have significant evidence that will actually prove their case. It matters because we already live in a society PLAGUED by rape culture. People like Brock Turner will THRIVE in that type of environment. “She shouldn’t have dressed like that if she didn’t want it.” “She said yes while she was drunk.” “She was staring at me.” the old fashion excuses will come back once again with this type of environment and We Don’t Need that.
“Bill Clinton did it too!!”
Is Bill Clinton running for fucking president? No. What her husband may have done (as parties have both agreed that the advances were consensual) shouldn’t be reflected on Hillary’s capability in the oval office. If that was the case, should we look at how Melania Trump illegally worked as a model in the US?? Should we look at how Melania Trump plagiarized Michelle Obama’s speech? Should we base Donald’s ‘capabilities’ off of What Melania’s done? of course fucking not. Many of you wouldn’t even dare, So why are we doing that for Hillary? Why are we saying that Hillary, isn’t capable of being a president because of what her Husband COULD’VE done.
Being a history buff, I’d like to point out that our former president Herbert Hoover was closely tied with business and gave big businesses tax breaks, allowed big business free reign, lowered income taxes for the wealthy and raised protective tarrifs (taxes) on outsourcing goods. Foreign countries stopped buying from us, the lower and middle class were picking up the slack with income taxes and employees wages were cut drastically. These policies are what led us to the Great Depression. Now, let’s put this in our terms; Donald Trump is a wealthy business man, who doesn’t pay his own taxes, would continue to give tax breaks to his own large business and even employed immigrant workers to build his buildings.
There are SO many things wrong with the Trump campaign. From the misogyny to the support of conversion therapy, to the racism, the racial profiling and the general treatment of POCs in america. Hillary was cleared TWICE by the FBI on her emails, her capabilities SHOULDN’T be based upon her husband. Hillary has more experience with foreign policy and genuinely wants to be a president for the people. While I’m not a huge Hillary fan, it’s ridiculous to sit there NOT vote for her because of Emails that she’s been cleared on, or because of what her husband has done. And for those voting third party, please, think of all the POC you’ll be throwing out of this country. Think of all the LGBTQA+ people who won’t make it through conversion therapy. Think of all the children who will have to sit and face the after math of your decision to vote for someone we all know is going to have an OVERWHELMINGLY lower support? If this were the primaries, i’d say go for it; If this were any other election where OUR LIVES didn’t depend on it, I would say do you. But I’m begging you. Be with her tomorrow and save MILLIONS of lives.
9 of the 20 most watched television shows last year were about law enforcement in some capacity solving crimes (so was #21). All starred mainly white characters. This builds up an emotional connection with real life cops who would otherwise be strangers, and makes people feel like the lives of police are actually as action packed as they are on TV. One of the very first police procedurals, 1932’s The Beast of the City, was filmed because President Herbert Hoover told MGM head Louis Meyer that he had a social responsibility to help people become accustomed to and supportive of the police. “If the police had the vigilant, universal backing of public opinion in their communities, if they had the implacable support of the prosecuting authorities and the courts-I am convinced that our police would stamp out the excessive crime which has disgraced some of our great cities,” he said. Media moguls have understood this since and acted to some degree consciously to focus their efforts on selling these dramas to us in order to keep up our love affair with the law. It’s within this context that our attempts to hold the police accountable for their actions take place.
Is Faith Spotted Eagle the first Native American to earn an electoral vote?
Charles Curtis, the 31st Vice President (under Herbert Hoover, 1929-1933), was one-eighth Native American. He spent some of his early years growing up on a Kaw reservation in Kansas, was a member of the Kaw Nation, and he spoke the Kaw tribe’s language. Vice President Curtis was not only the first Native American to win an Electoral vote, but the first Native American or mixed-race candidate to win a national election – and the only other mixed-race candidate to win a national election is Barack Obama. Curtis was also elected to seven terms in the U.S. House of Representatives, four terms in the U.S. Senate, and served as Senate Majority Leader (1925-1929) and briefly as President pro Tempore of the Senate in 1911.