president franklin

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President Franklin D. Roosevelt speaking in Syracuse at the New York Democratic State Convention in 1936.

FDR’s satirical rebuke against Republicans who opposed Social Security and the New Deal during the 1936 election.

80 years later the very same Republican Party used the same rhetoric unironically to justify taking away health insurance from 20 million Americans.

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February 19th 1942: Japanese internment begins

On this day in 1942, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed executive order 9066 which allowed the military to relocate Japanese-Americans to internment camps. A climate of paranoia descended on the US following the attack on the naval base at Pearl Harbor by the Empire of Japan, which prompted the US to join the Second World War. Americans of Japanese ancestry became targets for persecution, as there were fears that they would collude with Japan and pose a national security threat. This came to a head with FDR’s executive order, which led to 120,000 Japanese-Americans being rounded up and held in camps. The constitutionality of the controversial measure was upheld by the Supreme Court in Korematsu v. United States (1944). Interned Americans suffered great material and personal hardship, with most people losing their property and some losing their lives to illness or the violence of camp sentries. The victims of internment and their families eventually received an official government apology in 1988 and reparations began in the 1990s. This dark episode of American history is often forgotten in the narrative of US involvement in the Second World War, but Japanese internment poses a stark reminder of the dangers of paranoia and scapegoating.

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Angus Hardie Jamerson, one of the first black Marines, has died at age 89

  • Angus Hardie Jamerson, one of the first black U.S. Marines, has died at age 89, the Associated Press reported. 
  • Jamerson, who went by Jay, was a member of the so-called Montford Point Marines
  • They were the first wave of black Marines who served in the U.S. military after President Franklin Roosevelt directed the Marine Corps to accept black recruits in 1941.
  • Jamerson was drafted in 1945, while he was a student at Morehouse College. 
  • He his fellow black Marines trained at Montford Point, a segregated training facility outside of Camp Lejeune in North Carolina. Read more

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75th anniversary of the Pearl Harbor attack

On the morning of Dec. 7,  1941, a Sunday, Japanese bombers flew across Oahu, Hawaii and began their assault.

The attack killed more than 2,300 people, nearly half of them on the battleship USS Arizona. More than 1,100 were injured. After the attack, President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivered a speech before Congress, calling Dec. 7 a “date which will live in infamy.” The U.S. declared war against Japan. (AP)

December 7, 2016, marks the 75th anniversary of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

Photos: (from top) U.S. Navy/National Archives via Reuters, U.S. Navy/U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command via Reuters (3), U.S. Navy/National Archives via Reuters (2)

See more images of Pearl Harbor attack on Yahoo News

anonymous asked:

Were there any Presidents to be sworn in on anything other than a bible?

John Quincy Adams and Franklin Pierce took the oath on a book of laws to represent the Constitution (not sure why they didn’t just use a copy of the Constitution), Theodore Roosevelt didn’t take the oath on anything when he was sworn in following President McKinley’s assassination, and LBJ was sworn in using a Catholic missal because they couldn’t find a Bible on Air Force One when he took the oath in Dallas before flying back to Washington after JFK’s assassination.

The Day Before the Attack…

President Roosevelt studied this map on December 6, 1941. The pencil notations indicate the location of a Japanese fleet that was being tracked by British and American officials. It appeared to be headed towards Thailand or British Malaya.

What FDR and these officials did not know was that another Japanese fleet—operating under radio silence—was steaming, undetected, towards Hawaii at the same time.

Presidents Day fun facts

Today, February 15, is President’s day in the United States! To celebrate, I’ve accrued an interesting bit of information for every American president from Washington to Obama!

George Washington is the only president so far to not be affiliated with any party.

John Adams served as a lawyer for British soldiers charged in the 1775 Boston massacre, despite his own anti-British sentiments.

Thomas Jefferson spoke 6 langauges; English, Welsh, Greek, Latin, French, and Arabic.

James Madison was the shortest president ever, standing 5'4" tall.

James Monroe had the Liberian capital city of Monrovia named after him, as he helped establish the country.

John Quincy Adams was the first president to be interviewed by a female reporter, Anne Royal, who stole the president’s clothes when he went skinny dipping and refused to give them back until he answered her questions.

Andrew Jackson’s birthplace is unknown, but it’s in one of the Carolinas.

Martin Van Buren is the only president to not speak English as his first language, he actually spoke Dutch.

William Henry Harrison died a month after becoming president.

John Tyler has two living grandsons as of 2016.

James K. Polk died the youngest of any president, not counting those that were assassinated.

Zachary Taylor was nicknamed “Old Rough and Ready” because as a soldier, he went into battle in old farm clothes instead of a uniform.

Millard Fillmore is the only president to have never had a VP for their entire presidency.

Franklin Pierce’s wife believed God didn’t want him to become president, since their son died shortly after his election.

James Buchanan sometimes bought slaves just to set them free.

Abraham Lincoln is the only president to have held a patent, on a type of buoy.

Andrew Johnson was the only Southern Senator to stay loyal to the Union during the civil war.

Ulysses S. Grant’s real first name was Hiram.

Rutherford B. Hayes was the first president to use a telephone.

James A. Garfield was the last president to be born in a log cabin.

Chester A. Arthur was accused of being born in Canada during his presidency, and the allegations have persisted to this day.

Grover Cleveland was accused of having an illegitimate child, and his detractors protested by chanting “Mama, where’s my pa? Gone to the White House, ha ha ha!”

Benjamin Harrison was the grandson of William Henry Harrison, and his presidency, although 48 times as long, was just as uneventful.

William McKinley was the first president to ride in an automobile, however, this auto was an ambulance used to transport him after he was assassinated.

Theodore Roosevelt was the first American to receive a Nobel prize, for his role on ending the Russo-Japanese war.

William H. Taft kept a cow at the White House named Pauline to provide fresh milk.

Woodrow Wilson suffered from dyslexia as a child.

Warren G. Harding entered college at age 14.

Calvin Coolidge liked to wear a cowboy hat around the White House.

Herbert Hoover has a comet named after him.

Franklin Roosevelt was diagnosed with polio after falling into the Bay of Fundy while vacationing in Canada.

Harry S Truman kept a sign on his desk that said “The buck stops here” representing how he couldn’t pass on his duties to anyone else. The other side read “I’m from Missouri”, as Truman was very proud of his home state.

Dwight Eisenhower’s reputation as a war hero made him so popular, that both parties asked him to run on their ticket.

John F. Kennedy’s father encouraged him to go into politics and become the first catholic president, which he did.

Lyndon B. Johnson owned an amphibious car that he liked to surprise foreign diplomats with by offering them a ride and then driving straight into a lake.

Richard Nixon could play five musical instruments: Piano, saxophone, clarinet, accordion, and violin.

Gerald Ford is the only president to have never been elected to any executive office, he won both the vice presidency and the presidency by accident.

Jimmy Carter won a Nobel prize in 2002 for his humanitarian work.

Ronald Reagan kept a jar of jellybeans on his desk, and he would eat them whenever he was stressed. When he became president, the Jelly Belly company introduced blueberry jelly beans so the jar on Reagan’s desk could have red, white, and blue beans.

George H.W. Bush served as VP for Reagan, an ambassador to China, and head of the CIA before becoming president.

Bill Clinton originally wanted to be a jazz musician, but was inspired to enter government after meeting JFK in 1963.

George W. Bush is the first president to have run a marathon. In 1993, he completed the Houston marathon in 3 hours, 44 minutes, 52 seconds.

Barack Obama collects Spider-Man comics.

This gif shows all of the US presidents in order of height

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Should America Intervene?

“This nation will remain a neutral nation, but I cannot ask that every American remain neutral in thought as well…Even a neutral cannot be asked to close his mind or his conscience." 

- Franklin Roosevelt, radio address, September 3, 1939

When war erupted, Americans were divided about how to respond. They sympathized with the victims of aggression. But, remembering the horrors of World War I, most wanted to stay out of the conflict. Isolationists argued America should look to its own defenses rather than aid other nations. And neutrality laws passed by Congress during the 1930s prohibited American arms sales to warring nations. The country’s military was also woefully unprepared. All these factors placed limits on FDR’s ability to act.

In the dark months that followed, Roosevelt demonstrated his belief that America’s security depended on the defeat of the Axis Powers. His actions sparked a great national debate. Should the United States remain wholly neutral? Or should it find ways short of war to assist nations resisting Hitler?

The Reluctant Neutral

When World War II erupted in 1939, most Americans felt their nation could safely remain isolated from foreign troubles. But FDR recognized the grave danger the Axis Powers posed to American security. For two years, he pursued a cautious but deliberate policy of aiding Great Britain and, later, the Soviet Union in their war with Germany and Italy.

At every step, the President had to contend with deep-seated American fears about involvement in the war. He also had to manage a growing crisis in the Pacific, where Japan was expanding its empire into China and threatening Southeast Asia.

“It is easy for you and for me to shrug our shoulders and to say that conflicts taking place thousands of miles from the continental United States … do not seriously affect the Americas—and that all the United States has to do is to ignore them… . Passionately though we may desire detachment, we are forced to realize that … every battle that is fought, does affect the American future.”

- Franklin Roosevelt, Fireside Chat, September 3, 1939

That was in 1942. Earlier that year, on February 19, 75 years ago this Sunday, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order, No. 9066, which set the internment into motion. On its face, the order was “neutral,” authorizing the military to designate whole swaths of land as military zones, and evacuate any persons from it as they saw fit.

But behind that facade lay a much darker purpose: to tear 120,000 innocent Japanese-Americans from their homes along the West Coast and relocate them to 10 prison camps scattered throughout the United States.

It didn’t matter, back then, that most of us were US citizens and had never even been to Japan. We were presumed guilty, and held without charge for four years, simply because we happened to look like the people who had bombed Pearl Harbor. For that crime, we lost our homes, our livelihoods and our freedoms.

Every year, on February 19, we Japanese-Americans honor this day as Remembrance Day, and we renew our pledge to make sure what happened to us never happens again in America. I am always amazed, and saddened, that despite our decades long efforts, so many young people today are not even aware that such a tragedy and miscarriage of justice took place here.

[…]

We are an interdependent people, sharing a common bond of humanity. The most pernicious aspect of Trump’s policies is thus the denial of those basic bonds and that humanity. I will not stand for it, and no people of good conscience should.

The internment is not a ‘precedent,’ it is a stark and painful lesson. We will only learn from the past if we know, understand and remember it. For if we fail, we most assuredly are doomed to repeat it.

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This is an annotated draft of the speech President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivered to Congress—and the nation—on Dec. 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. According to the @usnatarchives, Roosevelt dictated the speech hours after the attack, then handwrote changes.

Note at the top of first page, Roosevelt crossed out “world history” and replaced it with “infamy,” coining the phrase that has lived on in history.

Today, we remember the 75th anniversary of the attacks. 

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December 7th 1941: Attack on Pearl Harbor

On this day in 1941, just before 8 am, the Imperial Japanese Navy launched an attack on the American naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. After decades of escalating tensions, primarily over Japanese aggression against China, and Japanese anger over American trade sanctions, the Japanese strike on America’s Pacific Fleet still came as a surprise. In a two hour assault, hundreds of Japanese fighter planes dropped bombs and torpedoes which killed around 2,400 American soldiers and sailors, while 20 naval vessels and 200 planes were destroyed. In contrast, the Japanese suffered just 64 fatalities. The Pearl Harbor attacks were part of a larger, co-ordinated assault against American territories in Guam and the Philippines, and parts of the British Empire. While the strike certainly damaged the Pacific Fleet, vitally important aircraft carriers were spared as they were away from the base, and shipyards remained intact, allowing for swift rebuilding. The next day, following a powerful speech, President Franklin D. Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan. The legislature passed the war measure with only one dissenting vote, cast by pacifist Representative Jeannette Rankin of Montana. America’s declaration of war was immediately followed by further declarations by Japan’s Axis allies Germany and Italy against the United States. Two years in, despite initial isolationist neutrality, America was now involved in the Second World War. The entrance of the United States into the war marked a pivotal turning point in one of the bloodiest wars in human history, as the full might of the American military joined the Allied cause against the forces of Nazi Germany, fascist Italy, and imperial Japan.

“Yesterday, December 7th, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy - the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.”
- President Franklin D. Roosevelt to Congress