prehistoric life


‘Vikings: Rediscover The Legend’ British Museum and York Museums Trust Partnership Exhibition, Yorkshire Museum, York, 20.5.17. This temporary touring exhibition brings together some of the most important Viking artefacts and hoards from the UK and it also includes some great VR technology to give you a better understanding of temporary Viking encampments. The exhibit runs until November 2017.

The history of the world video is funny as all hell, but I also can’t help but think of the loads upon loads of research bill wurtz had to do to make it. Not even counting the science of how the universe and earth were created and the prehistoric building of life. He took care to go over more than what a world history class would in an entire semester without being 100% eurocentric like it so often is.


Llangefni Eisteddfod Stone Circle, Anglesey, North Wales, 13.5.17. A modern stone circle that is now devoid of any atmosphere thanks to its situation amidst a housing estate, industrial unit and next to a supermarket car park! This is a real shame because a few carefully planted trees could cure all that.


Sharks have an extraordinary evolutionary record dating back over 400 million years. They have been an eyewitness to evolution in the seas and still patrol waters all over the globe today. 

Stethacanthus, otherwise known as the ‘ironing board shark’, first appeared around 380 million years ago during the Devonian period and continued to thrive for the next 60 million years. Stethacanthus mostly had an outline similar to modern sharks although they had a distinctive anvil-shaped dorsal fin with small sharp spikes covering the crest. The function of this odd fin is unknown but it is only present in males, so it most likely played a role in courtship and competition. 

Stethacanthus was a reasonable sized shark for its time, yet it was smaller in comparison to most modern sharks being around 70cm to a metre in length. Its size probably restricted its diet to fish, cephalopods and possibly even trilobites that inhabited the reefs. Stethacanthus also had other features uncommon in other sharks, the tail fin was almost symmetrical compared to most other sharks which have a larger upper lobe. They also had distinctive fin whips projecting from the pectoral fins. Once again the function of these fin whips is unknown as they are absent in modern sharks but they likely played a role in mating.
The small stature of this shark may give the impression that it was a agile, deadly swimmer but this is unlikely to be the case. The long fin whips and rough dorsal scales likely hindered streamlined locomotion through the water making them slow-moving.

Stethacathus is not only infamous for its strange morphology, but because a handle of fossils are so brilliantly preserved allowing us to confidently reconstruct the whole animal and even identify its sex. This is a rarity amongst sharks, usually only their teeth survive the tests of time as their bodies are composed mainly of cartilage which is quick to decompose after death.


Duncraigaig Bronze Age Cairn, Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, Scotland, 15.4.17.  This substantial cairn features two chambers. The second decentralised chamber was used to bury large numbers of people at a later point. The site also features a small but detached cist cairn (penultimate image)


Whilst we all know that modern elephants are beautiful and remarkable creatures, few may be familiar with the order of which they are from, Proboscidea. Proboscidea not only contains the elephantids, but a whole range of diverse mammals, some reaching magnificent sizes and each one more intriguing than the last.


Deinotherium quite literally means “terrible beast” and they trawled the savannah-like Miocene landscape. Deinotheriums most striking feature is certainly its menacing downward facing tusks, a complete skull found in the nineteenth century measured at just under a metre in length, the skull also showed very deep nasal bones suggesting it had a much wider and shorter trunk than modern elephants. The reason for the unusual orientation of the tusks has been debated, perhaps they were purely for attracting mates or maybe they had a vital role in stripping tree bark to eat. Deinotherium was quite a bit larger than modern elephants standing a whopping 4 metres tall (almost as tall as a double decker bus) and weighing in at an estimate 11-14 tonnes.

Palaeoxodon namadicus 

Palaeoxodon namadicus, otherwise known as the Asian straight-tusked elephant lived during the pleistocene. Little is known about these species and whether it is a species on its own rather than a subspecies within Palaeoxodon antiquus, yet is is known from a thigh bone over 5 foot in length which indicates a possible height of over 4.5 metres which would make Palaeoxodon namadicus the largest land mammal to have ever existed surpassing Deinotherium and Paraceratherium.


Gompotherium is another highly unusual member of the proboscidea. Gompotherium stood around 3 metres high and had 4 tusks extending straight from its jaw, the two bottom tusks are flattened and shovel-shaped leading to suggesting that they were used in digging and finding food. Gompotherium is believed to be the first of the proboscideans to escape its homeland and migrate towards north america, mammoths would eventually evolve from the shovel-tusked creature. Although they are unfamiliar to most, they were very successful and flourished in north america for over 10 million years (during the miocene and pliocene). Their demise coincides with the rise of todays modern elephants, perhaps they were outcompeted to extinction.


Stegodon stood at around 3.5 metres tall and weighing in a 12 tonnes, however it is not this beasts size that is hard to comprehend, but its enormous tusks which could reach a whopping 3 metres in length. Stegodons thrived in the golden age of elephants 11 million years ago, exactly when they died out is a mystery, some believe they contained to roam across north america as little as a few thousand years ago.


Mammoths are amongst the most recognisable prehistoric creatures, they were extremely successful and thrived during the ice age thanks to their masses of fur, migration patterns and small ears. They died out around 4500 years ago when the ice age came to an end, although it is widely thought that humans contributed to their reduction in numbers as we fed on their meat, wore their fur and used their immense tusks and skin for shelter. The largest known species of mammoths could reach 4 metres in height and weigh up to 7 or 8 tonnes and they travelled in herds much like modern elephants. Incredibly well preserved specimens have been found across the world in peat bogs and permafrost preserving skin, hair and some organs in immaculate condition, this has led to multiple projects hoping to bring back the mammoth, although this is still highly controversial.


All modern elephants are the only relic from the glorious evolutionary history of the proboscideans that we have left. They can reach 4 metres in height and weigh up 7 tonnes. Their tusks are used in competing for mates as well as for feeding and the trunks, perhaps the most recognisable feature of any animal, are analogous to human hands, they are used to grab things, communicate and sense their environment. Elephants travel in close herds led by a matriarch and have been shown to display emotions of grief when a valued member dies, their social structure is incredibly sophisticated and complex, when a matriarchs reign is over, their is a specific order of individuals to take her place, usually the eldest daughter. Separate families of elephants have even been known to form bonds with each other and socialise in passing.
Elephants have long been attractive to humans, their skin has been sold, their tusks highly valued for decoration and medicine. Elephants have been relentlessly hunted by humans, so much so that in in the twentieth century their numbers declined by 74% in ten years. Over the last few decades multiple conservation efforts have been put in place to save these magnificent creatures from extinction, their population numbers have shown slight increases since the efforts began.

The proboscideans have been, and are still, one of the most remarkable groups in the animal kingdom. They have been incredibly successful since their first appearance over 40 million years ago, with only the elephants remaining we must save these wonderful animals from extinction for future generations to see and to continue the reign of one of the most spectacular dynasties in the animal kingdom.

I love crocheting the curly tentacles of this ammonite! What other colors should I make? I love that they’re prehistoric so we don’t know what color their tentacles were- leaves lots of room for creativity :) 

Check ‘em out here if you’d like!