prefix & suffix

Top 10 Btvs Quotes

Buffy the Vampire Slayer is without question the defining piece of media of my life. I watched it as it aired all throughout my adolescence and it profoundly shaped my life and self in so many ways from big to small (hell, even the way I talk and randomly slap together prefixes and suffixes as a phrase called for can be traced back to Buffy).

While it has its issues, the show taught me to believe in myself, to keep going, to treasure my weirdness and the strange and awkward things that don’t fit are the best things about me and what makes me me. It showed me that superheroes come in all shapes and sizes, with and without capes, in and out of the spotlight. It defined the kind of person I wanted to be and I know there’s a whole generation of people that feel the same.

In honor of the 20th anniversary here’s a list of my personal top ten most meaningful Buffy quotes. There are a billion and fifty amazing, quotable moments and these aren’t even necessarily my favorite. These are the ones that meant the most to me, the ones that stuck with me and I think of when I need them.

“No weapons, no friends, no hope. Take all that away and what’s left?”
“Me”


“I’m the thing the monsters have nightmares about.”


"Seize the moment, ‘cause tomorrow you might be dead.”


“To forgive is an act of compassion, Buffy. It’s-it’s… it’s not done because people deserve it. It’s done because they need it.”


“I made it up. I’m making it all up. So what kind of hero does that make me?”


Originally posted by i-want-to-b-found

“No guy is worth your life, not ever”


“When I say ‘I love you,’ it’s not because I want you or because I can’t have you. It has nothing to do with me. I love what you are, what you do, how you try. I’ve seen your kindness and your strength. I’ve seen the best and worst of you. And I understand with perfect clarity exactly what you are. You’re a hell of a woman.”


“I guess I just realized how amazingly screwed up they all are. I mean, really, really screwed up, in a monumental fashion. And they have no purpose that unites them so they just drift around, blundering through life until they die… which they… they know is coming, yet every single one of them is surprised when it happens to them. They’re incapable of thinking about what they want beyond the moment. They kill each other, which is clearly insane. And yet, here’s the thing – when it’s something that really matters, they fight. I mean, they’re lame morons for fighting, but they do. They never… never quit. So I guess I will keep fighting too.”


“They’ll never know how tough it is, Dawnie. To be the one who isn’t chosen. To live so near the spotlight and never step in it. But I know. I see more than anybody realizes because nobody’s watching me. I saw you last night. I see you working here today. You’re not special. You’re extraordinary.”


Originally posted by amythegloriouspond

“The hardest thing in this world is to live in it. Be brave. Live. For me.”

Hey! You people seem to like my premedblr introduction to: latin anatomy vocab post (body parts, direction and location, movements). Therefore I’m making part 2,  mainly to help myself revise, but also for anyone else who is premed/interested in anatomy. I tried to translate as accurately as I could, but please bear in mind my first language is not English. This one is all about other frequently used anatomy vocab.

  • accessorius - accessory
  • aditus - entrance
  • ala - wing
  • alveolus - sac
  • angulus - angle
  • apertura - opening
  • apex - tip, point
  • arcus - arc
  • area - area
  • basis - base
  • canalis - channel
  • canaliculus - small channel
  • capitulum - small head
  • capsula - capsule
  • cartilago - cartilage
  • caverna, cavum - cavity
  • cavitas - cavity
  • circulus - circle, circuit
  • cisterna - container
  • colliculus - small mamelon
  • columna - column
  • condylus - condyle
  • cornu - corner
  • corpus - body
  • cortex - cortex
  • cranium - skull
  • crista - ridge
  • crus - shoulder
  • dorsum - back
  • ductus - channel
  • eminentia - mound
  • fascia - cover
  • fasciculus - bundle (of fibers)
  • fissura - fissure
  • folliculus - follicule
  • foramen - opening
  • fornix - vault
  • fossa, fovea - hole, small hole
  • frenulum - frenulum
  • fundus - bottom, base
  • glandula - gland
  • glomerulus - ball
  • hilus - gate
  • impressio - print
  • incisura - cut
  • intestinum - intestine
  • junctura - conjunction, connection
  • labium - lip
  • lacuna - fissure
  • lamina - plate, layer
  • ligamentum - ligament
  • lobus - lobe
  • margo - margin, edge
  • meatus - corridor
  • medulla - marrow
  • membrana - membrane
  • membrum - limb
  • musculus - muscle
  • nucleus - nucleus, core
  • orbita - orbit, eye
  • orificium - opening
  • os (gen.-ossis) - bone
  • os (gen.-oris) - mouth
  • ostium - opening
  • palatum - roof of mouth
  • papilla - nipple
  • paries - wall
  • pars - part
  • plexus - plexus, plaited
  • plica - crease
  • portio - part
  • porus - opening
  • processus - entrance
  • prominentia - projection
  • radix - root
  • ramus - branch
  • recessus - recess
  • regio - region
  • rete - web, network
  • rima - fissure
  • septum - septum
  • sinus - gulf
  • situs - location
  • spatium - area
  • spina - thorn
  • stria - gutter
  • sulcus - furrow
  • tela - tissue
  • tendo - tendon
  • tractus - track
  • trigonum - triangle
  • truncus - trunk
  • tuba - tube
  • tuber - mamelon
  • tuberculum - small mamelon
  • tuberositas - tuberosity
  • tunica - cover, coat
  • valva, valvula - valve
  • vas - vessel
  • vertex - top, peak
  • vesica - bladder
  • vestibulum - vestibule
Language Breakdown: Xhosa

Whether you know about Xhosa directly or not, you may be aware of the existence of several languages that use clicking sounds as consonants as well as the usual sounds found in most languages. Xhosa has three basic clicking sounds, represented by the letters X, C, and Q, and each of these sounds has several variations, indicated by consonant clusters. Xhosa actually has very few clicking consonants when compared to languages like Jul’hoan, (Botswana and Namibia) which has 48 clicking consonants. 

The presence of the clicks is sort of odd from a historical standpoint: Xhosa is part of the Nguni family, which is in turn part of the larger Bantu language family. Most Bantu languages do not have clicks, including the language Xhosa is thought to have developed from. However, San languages (from the larger Khoisan language family) do contain clicks and therefore it is likely that Xhosa had heavy San influence during its development. Most Bantu languages completely overwhelmed earlier languages and it is interesting to note that this was not the case with Xhosa. 

Xhosa is spoken in the southeastern part of South Africa and is related to Zulu, the most widespread Nguni language in South Africa. It is an official language, one of eleven, and has the second largest speaker base, with about 16% of the population listing it as a first language. It is used in primary education in areas where it is a majority language, and it is taught in universities and secondary schools as a foreign language. Most people in South Africa know more than one language because the nation is so large and ethnically and linguistically diverse.

Aside from the clicks, Xhosa is an aggluntinative language with many prefixes and suffixes. Most people who speak Indo-European languages are familiar with the concept of noun gender or different classes of nouns with different endings. Xhosa has 15 of these classes, which seems overwhelming. (Speakers of Xhosa, if you are out there, let me know. Most people I have talked to say that their noun cases do not bother them and they do not notice, but maybe Xhosa speakers will have a different answer.) 

The only reason I know about Xhosa is because of the South African comedian Trevor Noah, who hosts the American tv staple The Daily Show. A few years ago, he sang a Xhosa song that uses all three clicking sounds on the British panel show QI, and the clip is pretty funny.

Also, if you want to hear somebody speaking, rather than singing, this video shows off all the clicks pretty well. 

40 Useful Esperanto Prefixes and Suffixes

Prefixes

Bo-  Related by marriage: Patro - Father. Bopatro - Father-in-law.

Dis- Separation from one place: Sendi - To send. Dissendi - Broadcast.

Ek- Commencing an action: Dormi- To sleep. Ekdormi - To fall asleep.

Eks- Former/Ex-: Reĝo - King. Eksreĝo - Ex-King/Former King.

Fi- Dirty/Pornographic: Menso - Mind. Fimenso - Dirty mind

Ge- Male and female together: Patroj - Fathers. Gepatroj - Parents (of which one is male and the other female.)

Mal- The direct opposite: Bona - Good. Malbona - Bad.

Mis- Wrong/Mis-: Kompreni - To understand. Miskompreni - To misunderstand.

Pra- Primitive/Distant relation: 1. Arbaro - Forest. Praarbaro - Primitive forest. 2. Onklino - Aunt. Praonklino - Great Aunt.

Re- Repition/Re-: Kanti - To sing. Rekanti - To re-sing/To sing again.


Suffixes 

-Aĉ- Bad/Dislike: Infano - Child. Infano - Brat.

-Ad- Action, particularly prolonged or habitual: Naĝo - Swim. Naĝado - Swimming.

-Aĵ- A physical object, opposed to an abstract idea or a product made of the root word: 1. Konstruo - Construction. Konsruo - A Building. 2. Glacio - Ice. Glacio - Ice cream.

-An- Member: Klubo - Club. Klubano - Club Member.

-Ar- Group: Arbo - Tree. Arbaro - Forest/Wood.

-Ebl- Possibility/-Able/-Ible: Vidi - To see. Videbla - Visible.

-Ec- Abstract quality/-Ship/-Ness: Amiko - Friend. Amikeco - Friendship.

-Eg- Big: Domo - House. Domego - Mansion.

-Ej- Where something happens: Koncerto - Concert. Koncertejo - Concert Hall.

-Em- Possessing a ceratain quality/-Ful: Ludo - Play. Ludema - Playful.

-End- Must be: Leva - Washed. Levenda - Must be washed.

-Er- Part of a greater whole: Akvo - Water. Akvero - Drop of water.

-Estr- Head/Boss: Hotelo - Hotel. Hotelestro - Hotel manager/Hotel boss.

-Et- Small: Domo - House. Dometo - Cottage.

-Id- Children of living creatures: Hundo - Dog. Hundido - Puppy.

-Ig- To render/-Ify: Blanka - White. Blankigi - To whiten/To bleach.

-Iĝ- To become: Amiko - Friend. Amiki - To become friends

-Il- Tool: Kudri - To sew. Kudrilo - Sewing needle.

-In- Feminine: Porko - Pig. Porkino - Female Pig.

-Ind- Worthy of: Legi - To read. Leginda - Worth reading.

-Ing- Holder: Kandelo - Candle. Kandelingo - Candle Stick.

-Ism- Doctrine/-Ism: Budho - Buddha. Budhismo - Buddhism. 

-Ist- Prefession/-Er: Dento - Tooth. Dentisto - Dentist.

-Obl- Multiplication/-Ple: Tri - Three. Triobli - Triple.

-On- Fraction/-Th: Du - Two. Duono - Half.

-Op- In groups of: Kvar - Four. Kvarope - In groups of four.

-Uj- Container: Mono - Money. Monujo - Wallet/Purse.

-Ul- Person: Juno - Youth. Junulo - Young person.

-Ĉj- Affectionate (Maculine): Patro - Father. Paĉjo - Daddy.

-Nj- Affectionate (Feminine): Patrino - Mother. Panjo - Mummy/Mommy.


Hi so that was a list of 40 affixes from Esperanto, which I’m learning at the moment. I hope this helps some people. I think I got all or at least most of them. But I did leave out -Um- because it’s irregular and weird and… stuff. This is my first post so please be merciful, and if you’ve actually read this boring explanation, well then thanks.

Norwegian / old norse names and places

Every now and then I come across a book, movie, TV-series, fanfic, game or whatever, that mention a fictional “Norwegian” or “norse” place or person, and it just sounds so wrong it makes me either cringe or ROFL. Really. I still haven’t recovered from the 1995 X-files episode, “Død Kalm”, which took us to the port of “Tildeskan” where we met “Henry Trondheim”, “Halverson” and “Olafsson”. 

Hopefully this list will keep others from being that “creative” with names. :)

Keep reading

Any time someone tells you that “asexuality” is a stupid term because “isn’t asexuality about single organism reproduction and not someone’s sexual attraction?” …well… here’s what a PROFESSIONAL LINGUIST has to say about that bogus:

Words have definitions that are created by how a population uses them, not by what you see in a dictionary. Now, words might have roots and prefixes and suffixes that help build the meaning of the word, but ultimately what is important is how the word is actually used by native speakers of that language. So how a population uses a word is how a word receives its meaning or meanings.

It’s also to note that word meanings change over time; there is very little which is static in a language, but languages are constantly, always morphing. Those changes are valid and completely, utterly a part of the contemporary language. Once upon a time people scoffed at how “pants” was shortened from “pantaloons.” But nobody in today’s society would disagree that “pants” is a widespread, very real word of the English language. Words are simply what are used by a contemporary native speaking population of a language.

A dictionary is not an omniscient authoritative source of a language. A dictionary is not a prescriptive means by which to prove whether or not something is a word. A dictionary is an imperfect, human-created document regularly updated to record how a population currently uses a word. It’s an observational record, not a book of rules.

BUT… because dictionaries are records of things that change, the dictionaries’ definitions are very often outdated or incomplete.

So, yes. The dictionary does provide us a scientific term of the word asexuality related to single organism means of reproduction, and that term is still of course relevant in scientific discourse. That still is a meaning of asexuality, yes. But words often have multiple legitimate meanings (ex: bat meaning an animal, sports equipment, whacking something aside, or a way of moving one’s eyelashes). All of those meanings are equally valid so long as they are used by the population of English native speakers. The fact that a very, very large population of native English speakers uses “asexual” to mean “an individual who is uninterested in sex, or who has very little or no sexual attraction”… means that this is indeed a valid meaning of the word asexual! 

Linguist approval for the fact ASEXUALITY IS A REAL WORD ABOUT A REAL QUEER THING!

And if anyone tries to argue with a professional linguist because you think you have some authority and knowledge about your own language, well…

You might have a human body, but that doesn’t make you an expert in biology. You wouldn’t argue with a biologist about the chemical processes that occur within the stomach and other parts of the human digestive tract.

You might be able to see the sun and moon rise and set every day, but that doesn’t make you an expert in astronomy. You wouldn’t argue with an astronomer who tells you how the planets orbit around the sun. In fact, your personal, first-hand experiences of planetary bodies might lead you to make incorrect conclusions, like the earth being flat or the sun rotating around the planet.

Similarly, you might be able to speak a language, but that doesn’t make you an expert in linguistics. Many native speakers’ intuitions about their own language are wrong. For example, most English speakers don’t realize that the “t” in “star” is actually a different sound than the “t” in “tie.” So if you want to argue with me, a professional linguist, you can go and kiss my shiny grad degrees that pronounce me a literal expert in the field.

Asexuality is valid, friends. There is a reason why the term is so widely used by human beings: it’s because so many of us have similar, shared experiences in which we do not feel sexual attraction, or little sexual attraction, or have no or little interest in having sex. Humans don’t make up words that have no use in society. We use words because they are needed to explain something that is a real experience to us. The reason why the word “asexual” ACTUALLY DOES MEAN THE QUEER THING is because we humans have a need for this term to describe a widespread, common, legitimate, valid, understandable, real human experience.

You keep being rad, my fellow ace angels.

Asexual linguist signing off.

8 Russian things even Russians get wrong sometimes
  • Struggling to remember where to put the stress in words? It’s a pain in the ass for us too. Догово́р/догово́ры (not до́говор/договора́, contract(s)), жалюзи́ (not жа́люзи, blinds), катало́г (not ката́лог, catalogue), краси́вее (not красиве́е, more beautiful), звони́ть –> он звони́т (not зво́нит, [he] calls)
  • Одеть/надеть: одеть (to dress) is often used instead of надеть (to put on). You should say Я надеваю рубашку (I put on my shirt), not Я одеваю рубашку
  • The endings тся/ться: ться in verbs that answer the question что делать? (that is, are in the infinitive) and тся in those that answer the question что делает? (in finite forms)
  • Ложить/класть. Oh man, this is the most irritating one. Always say класть (to put), ложить can only be a part of a word with a suffix or prefix: ложиться (to lie down), or наложить (to lay)
  • You aren’t supposed to use the word нету, and use нет instead of it, but almost everyone (exept grammar nazis) uses it and I do too: нету has only the meaning there is none/[I] have none/[I] don’t have any, as in: У тебя есть ручка? – Нету (Do you have a pen? No, I don’t). Нет just means no
  • Следующий, the next one, делающий, the one who does, знающий, the one who knows, but будущий, the future one for some reason
  • Some say Сколько время? (literally How much time?) instead of Сколько времени? or Который час? (What time is it?)
  • The suffixes н and нн: you just need to follow this simple little algorithm to choose between them

… or flip a coin

Opinion on learning Russian

I’m a native Russian speaker even though I wasn’t born in Russia nor ever lived there. I was born to a Russian-speaking family abroad. My environment was multilingual so I had to simultaneously juggle 3 different languages daily to get about. I had the privilege of studying 3 additional languages during high-school and college years, and thus even though my level of command of all these 6 languages varies greatly, I’ve gained enough experience to reach certain conclusions and give advice to aspiring learners.

The Russian language definitely is not easy. The Cyrillic alphabet is simple and quick to grasp, but the phonetics with their soft, neutral and hard sounds, the 3 genders, the multitude of cases, tenses, prefixes and suffixes, may prove too hard to swallow, especially for learners with a western background. It is absolutely a very difficult language, and one that has quite a temper of its own. For despite the abundance of grammatical rules present, too few of them can provide structural explanations to the language’s chaotic nature.

However, the difficulty of the language is justified by its immense versatility and wealth of ability to express things, moods, emotions which I found to be hardly expressible in any of the other languages I’ve encountered. Russian is foremost a very natural language, that is, a language which is very deeply and intimately connected to nature, as though pagan, less so to cold mathematical logic. Which is why it has the ability to adapt and work in seemingly unworkable ways. Its vocabulary and proverbs have numerous spiritual and religious connotations, whereas its ability to restructure, morph or even invent new words opens limitless poetic potential. And more so, it is to no lesser extent also an imperial language, as it has as though a sponge absorbed the linguistic and proverbial traits of many Asian and European cultures.

It is a language I have spoken since early childhood, and it is a language which I still, still, struggle greatly to master and understand. And yet, as I continue to coexist with it, I continue getting caught off guard and awed every time I discover or realize something new about it.

Learning Russian is a very ambitious and difficult undertaking, and should not be taken lightly. For even if you would learn some of its grammar and vocabulary, you would still be far off from fully grasping its spirit. But those who would develop their skill to the point of fully appreciating Russian poetry, would absolutely never regret the time and effort spent. For they would discover not only an entirely new way of speaking the world, but also an entirely new way of seeing the world.

royalpeko  asked:

(A question for the admin) Is it difficult to program bots like this? Ive been looking through quite a few bots on here and other sites and it seems very interesting, though i doubt i could do it myself.

nope it is not hard at all. i 100% can not program for shit. i use a visual editor and cheap bots done quick to post to a twitter account with ifttt handling cross-posting it to tumblr. 

the code itself is super simple, it just has 4 things: base meme text with one or more slots in it, short meme text that gets slotted in, and then suffixes and prefixes that occasionally get added at the end or the start. so the post “is Star Wars homestuck *looks directly into the camera like on the office*” is made up of the base phrase “is _____ homestuck”, with “Star Wars” slotted in, and the end phrase “*looks directly into the camera like on the office*” added on at the end.

it’s not a smart bot. it can’t learn from input or anything, i just add memes when i see them or from submissions. (that is also why its grammar is so bad.) 

this bot stuff is totally accessible for anyone who wants to play with it even if you have 0 programming experience, though you can make it really complicated if you want to. there are def bots that people who know how to program good can make with that skill but what i do has more in common with magnetic poetry than actual coding.

if you want more examples of what you can do with this kind of thing, i’ve made (as of writing this) 77 of these things. most of them just live on twitter.

Hebrew Basics #1: All about the Hebrew Alphabet

In order to learn a language, the very first thing you need to know is reading it. This is a basic step in all language studies. Hopefully you’ll start conquering that by the end of this lesson :)

The Hebrew alphabet… isn’t an alphabet. Technically speaking, it’s an “‘abjad” (an acronym of the first four letters of the Arabic ‘abjad), although it is commonly called an alphabet (as I’ll continue calling it for simplicity’s sake). Characteristic of Semitic languages (to which Hebrew belongs, among Arabic and many others, extinct and alive), the ‘abjad’s main characteristic is (almost) complete lack of vowels. Every letter stands for a consonant, and vowels are simply omitted. It’s equivalent to writing English “lk ths.”

While using an ‘abjad-like system with English is quite hellish, the case for Hebrew is quite different. Due to its relatively simple vowel system and unique Semitic grammar and morphology (how words are formed and act in a sentence), using an ‘abjad is actually quite a reasonable choice for Hebrew. Oversimplifying, Hebrew words are comprised of a root and a template, each contribute meaning to the final word. The root is comprised of (usually three) consonants, and the template describes the vowels, prefixes and suffixes you insert between and around the consonants.

The Letters

The Hebrew alphabet, called הָאַלֶף־בֵּית/אָלֶפְבֵּית הָעִבְרִי ha’álef-bét ha’ivrí, is comprised of 22 letters.

The first, most important fact is that Hebrew is read from right to left.

Note: the names aren’t all that important to learning the letters. Simply learning their pronunciation is enough at this point.

Five of the letters, for historical reasons, have two different forms - a word-initial and -medial form, and a separate final form. These are marked with a 1 on the table.

As you might have noticed, some letters have multiple pronunciations, and some of these overlap with one another. This was caused by many changes that happened to the language’s phonology over the years since the alphabet was created (some 3,000 years ago in its earliest forms).

The most notable of these letters are the בֶּגֶ״ד כֶּפֶ״ת* béged kéfet letters, marked with a 2. These days, for historical reasons**, only three letters actually change their pronunciation depending on their position in a word–ב bet, כ kaf, פ pe–and they are the only ones marked on the list, pronounced as /b~v/, /k~kh/, /p~f/, respectively. Generally speaking, for native words, at the beginning of a word and directly after a consonant (with no vowel in-between), they are pronounced with their ‘hard’ pronunciation (/b/ /k/ /p/), and in all other positions with their ‘soft’ pronunciation (/v/ /kh/ /f/). Loanwords do not follow these rules, and are pronounced as they are in the original language.

*Acronyms and initialisms, as well as Hebrew letter names and numerals, are marked by the Hebrew punctuation mark ״, called גֵּרְשַׁיִם gershayim, and placed before the last letter of the phrase. It is similar looking to the Latin quotation mark, and is often confused with it even by native speakers, but nonetheless different.

**You might have noticed that ‘historically’, ‘for historical reasons’, etc. are somewhat a trend in this lesson. Hebrew is an incredibly old language, about 5,000 years old in fact, riddled with old tales and tradition. During that period it changed a lot, it even died for 2,000 years and came back to haunt us in the last 150. Despite this, the Hebrew writing system as we know it today was tailored (albeit not perfectly) for Hebrew as it was spoken some 2,500 years ago, and remained relatively unchanged during that whole period. Therefore, there are a lot of peculiarities in the Hebrew alphabet that we simply do not have time to cover, stemming from the complicated history of the language.

There are also a handful of letters which, for historical reasons, are still pronounced the same.

  • א alef + ע áyin (+ ה he) = ‘ (glottal stop) or none (ה he only as none)
  • soft ב bet + ו vav = /v/
  • ח chet + soft כ kaf = /ch/*
  • ט tet + ת tav = /t/
  • hard כ kaf + ק qof = /k/*
  • ס sámekh + שׂ sin = /s/

*I still transcribe hard כ kaf and ק qof, as well as ח chet and soft כ kaf differently (/k/ vs /q/, /ch/ vs /kh/) because, well, it’s easier than the other homophones.


To form a word, simply string together letters - the vowels magically appear in your head!

ספר (séfer) - book

ספר (sapár) - barber, hairdresser

ספר (sipér) - (he) told, (he) cut hair

ספר (supár) - (passive of above verb)

ספר (sper) - spare (English loanword)

…Yeah, that’s easier said than done.

See, in general with the ‘abjad system, all words pronounced with the same consonants are written exactly the same, which can create a heck of a lot of homographs, words written the same but pronounced differently. This problem has been cleverly solved using אִמּוֹת קְרִיאָה - ‘imót kri’á (literally mothers of reading). These are letters in Hebrew that serve a double function as a consonant and a vowel, marked with a 3 on the table. Noticed the letters ו vav and י yod have multiple pronunciations?

In many words, vowels (especially /i/, /o/ and /u/) are marked using one of these letters to reduce the number of homographs. For example, the words listed earlier are usually written:

ספר (séfer) - book

ספר (sapár) - barber, hairdresser

סיפר (sipér) - (he) told, (he) cut hair

סופר (supár) - (passive of above verb) 

ספייר (sper) - spare (English loanword)

These letters can be conveniently memorized using the acronym אֶהֶוִ״י ‘eheví.

Interestingly enough, Yiddish, written with the same 22 letters, uses these letters (and some more) to create a full alphabet, where each and every vowel in a word is written, as well as the consonants. But we aren’t learning Yiddish here.

Learning when and where to put ‘imót kri’á comes with time, as it is often up to the reader where to put them. The style of writing I’ll be teaching with is called כְּתִיב חֲסֵר ktiv chasér, or ‘lacking spelling,’ where the bare minimum of ‘imót kri’á are used, and all vowels are indicated using vowel points, נִקּוּד niqúd, explained in the next section. This style is often used in children’s books and Biblical inscriptions; ktiv chasér is historically the only way Hebrew was written. This is in opposition to כְּתִיב מָלֵא ktiv malé, ‘full spelling,’ where ‘imót kri’á are used and vowel points aren’t; this is the style of writing virtually every modern Hebrew text is written in.

This might seem all confusing at this point, but let me assure you it isn’t. Once you wrap your head around it and start reading more and more of the language, you just instinctively know how a word is read off the bat. Context is usually more than enough to settle any ambiguities in how to read a word.


Vowel Points

Vowel points, נִקּוּד niqúd, are the diacritics used in Hebrew to indicate the vowels of a word, to complement the ambiguous ‘abjad system. These are the little dots and lines around each letter in previous examples.

Hebrew has five vowels: /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ - pronounced almost identically to those in Spanish and Greek, to name a few. However, it has 13 different vowel points. Historically, and still in some traditional readings of the Bible, each mark had a different pronunciation, but in Modern Hebrew a lot of them merged with one another.

The final form of מ mem, ם, is used as a placeholder here.

Make no mistake, the two vowels marked with an asterisk are in fact the same vowel. For now, know that in most cases it is pronounces as /a/. The /o/ pronunciation is rare, only in certain templates of words, and distinguishing between them is out of the scope of this lesson. For now, the only common word that uses the /o/ pronunciation is כָּל kol, meaning ‘all’.

Short and long vowels are only traditional nomenclature - in practice, all vowels in each row are pronounced with the same length. תְּנוּעוֹת חֲטוּפוֹת tnu’ót chatufót are stlightly different, but nonetheless pronounced the same. Note that the some long vowels use ‘imót kri’á intrinsically.

דָּגֶשׁ Dagésh:

The point on the bottom left, the דָּגֶשׁ dagésh, is an interesting topic. However, the only relevant point to this lesson is that it distinguishes between hard (with dagesh) and soft (without) pronunciations of בֶּגֶ״ד כֶּפֶ״ת béged kéfet letters.

שְׁוָא Shva:

There are two types of shva: נַע na’ ‘moving’ - indicating an /e/, and נַח nach ‘still’ - indicating no vowel. Distinguishing between them is way out of the scope of this lesson, so for now the only way to tell them apart is through experience and transliterations.

שִׁי״ן Shin Points:

You might have noticed the rogue ש shin at the bottom of the table there. ש shin is different to other letters with double pronunciations, as it had always had two different pronunciations. Therefore, it got a different point to distinguish between the two: a dot on the right spoke of the ש shin indicates the common /sh/ pronunciation - שׁ, and a dot on the left spoke indicates the rarer /s/ pronunciation - שׂ. Each pronunciation is subsequently called שִׁי״ן יְמַנִית shin yemanít ‘right שִׁי״ן’ and שִׁי״ן שְֹמָאלִית shin smalít ‘left שִׁי״ן’.

All word-final letters have no vowel, unless marked otherwise. Most letters cannot even take a vowel mark at the end of a word. Exceptionally, ה he, ח chet, final ך kaf, ע áyin, ת tav, in certain circumstances do take vowel marks. ש shin must always have either a left or a right point, but no other vowel mark.


Practice!

Try reading these basic Hebrew words, then look at the answer key at the end to see if you were right.

1. אֲנִי
2. כֶּלֶב
3. בְּתוֹךְ
4. שֻׁלְחָן
5. פְּרִי
6. כָּל
7. יַם
8. עֵץ
9. אֲדָמָה
10. שְׂמֹאל


Answer Key

  1. ‘aní – I (me)
  2. kélev – dog
  3. betókh – inside
  4. shulchán – table
  5. pri – fruit
  6. kol – all
  7. yam – sea
  8. ‘ets – tree
  9. ‘adamá – ground, earth
  10. smol – left (vs. right)

Alright then, that’s it for today! Follow me for more Hebrew lessons, hopefully they won’t all be as long as this one :D

לְהִתְרַאוֹת בַּפַּעַם הַבָּאָה! (lehitraót bapá’am haba’á)

See you next time!

Japanese for Travellers - Food

I decided to create a separate list of food and food-related terms I know about or have tried. I might update this occasionally when I come up with more. Here’s the link to my first post about general Japanese terms:

http://kanjioftheday05.tumblr.com/post/149967488475/japanese-for-travellers

For abbreviated terms, you can cut out words [in square brackets]

Japanese vowel pronunciation (for Romanization in italics)

‘a’ like in ‘ah’ and ‘ha’
‘i’ like in ‘Wii’ and ‘be’
‘u’ like in ‘June’ and ‘food’
‘e’ like in ‘hey’ and ‘neigh’
‘o’ like in ‘row’ and ‘doe’
Some vowels become silent in normal speech, but there is no strict rule (often in su and shi)

頂きます / 戴きます / いただきます (itadakimasu): said before eating (thank you for the meal)

General Words or Phrases

ご飯 / 御飯 / ごはん (gohan): cooked rice or meal
飯 / めし (meshi): cooked rice or meal
米飯 / べいはん (beihan): cooked rice
米 / こめ (kome): uncooked rice; husked grains of rice
食事 / しょくじ (shokuji): a meal
御数 / お数 / お菜 / 御菜 / オカズ / おかず (okazu): side dish to accompany rice

焼き/ やき (yaki): prefix or suffix to indicate something heated / baked / roasted / fried / stir-fried / grilled / pan-fried, etc.
フライ (furai): fried seafood or vegetables in general
定食 / ていしょく (teishoku): set meal; special (of the day)
お代わり / おかわり (okawari): second helping; another cup; seconds
弁当 / べんとう (bentou): bento box (the meal or the container itself)
弁当箱 / べんとうばこ (bentoubako): lunch box
重箱 / じゅうばこ (juubako): multi-tiered food box

料理 / りょうり (ryouri): cuisine; dish; cooking
和食 / わしょく (washoku): Japanese-style meal
洋食 / ようしょく (youshoku): Western-style meal
中華料理 / ちゅうかりょうり (chuuka ryouri): Chinese food
名物 / めいぶつ (meibutsu): regional specialty

メニュー (menyuu): menu
献立 / こんだて (kondate): menu
オススメ / お勧め / おすすめ (osusume): recommended
ご注文 / ごちゅうもん (gochuumon): an order
アラカルト (arakarute): a la carte
サービス (saabisu): services without charge
ベジタリアン (bejitarian): vegetarian
ヴィーガン(viigan): vegan
チーズ (chiizu): cheese

朝御飯 / 朝ご飯 / あさごはん (asagohan): breakfast
朝食 / ちょうしょく (choushoku): breakfast
昼御飯 / 昼ご飯 / ひるごはん (hirugohan): lunch
昼食 / ちゅうしょく (chuushoku): lunch
晩御飯 / 晩ご飯 / ばんごはん (bangohan): dinner
夕食 / ゆうしょく (yuushoku): dinner

レストラン (resutoran): restaurant (especially western-style)
居酒屋 / いざかや (izakaya): Japanese-style bar, pub, tavern
食堂 / しょくどう (shokudou): dining room or dining hall; cafeteria
ファミレス (famiresu): family restaurant
グルメ (gurume): gourmet

放題 / ほうだい (houdai): suffix for “all-you-can…”
食べ放題 / たべほうだい (tabehoudai): all-you-can-eat
飲み放題 / のみほうだい (nomihoudai): all-you-can-drink
バイキング (baikingu): all-you-can-eat buffet
ビュッフェ (byuffe): buffet

Tools / Utensils

炊飯器 / すいはんき (suihanki): rice cooker
お箸 / おはし (ohashi): chopsticks
おてもと (otemoto): written on disposable chopstick wrappers
[爪]楊枝 / [つま]ようじ ([tsuma]youji): toothpick
皿 / さら (sara): plate, dish, platter
碗 / わん (wan): porcelain bowl
椀 / わん (wan): wooden bowl
御絞り / お絞り / おしぼり (oshibori): hot, moistened hand towel
ティッシュ (tisshu): tissue paper
フォーク (fooku): fork
ナイフ (naifu): knife
匙 / さじ (saji): spoon
スプーン (supuun): spoon

Serving Size

少なめ / すくなめ (sukuname): small
並 / なみ (nami): medium, ordinary
大盛り / おおもり (oomori): large
特盛り / 特盛 / とくもり (tokumori): Extra-large

/ あじ (aji): Flavors

甘い / あまい (amai): sweet
酸っぱい / すっぱい (suppai): sour
塩っぱい / しょっぱい (shoppai): salty
苦い / にがい (nigai): bitter
辛い / からい (karai): spicy, hot (flavor)
うま味 / 旨み / 旨味 / うまみ (umami): savory

美味しい / おいしい (oishii): delicious
うまい (umai): delicious
不味い / まずい (mazui): unappetizing, unpleasant

Rice Dishes

カレー (karei): curry
カレーライス (kareiraisu): curry and rice
オムライス (omuraisu): omelette on rice, sometimes with ketchup
卵かけご飯 / たまごかけごはん (tamago kake gohan): raw egg on cooked rice, often with soy sauce
炒飯 / チャーハン / ちゃあはん (chaahan): fried rice
釜飯 / かまめし (kamameshi): rice (slightly burned) and ingredients served in an iron pot
お握り / 御握り / おにぎり (onigiri): rice ball (often triangular, sometimes with a filling and wrapped in nori)
御結び / お結び / おむすび (omusubi): onigiri
握り飯 / 握飯 / にぎりめし (nigirimeshi): onigiri
お粥 / おかゆ (okayu): congee; rice porridge; rice gruel
[お]茶漬け / [お]茶漬 / [お]茶づけ / [お]ちゃづけ ([o]chadzuke): chazuke, tea poured on rice

丼 / どんぶり (don or donburi): rice bowl topped with ingredients
親子丼 / おやこどん (oyakodon): chicken and egg on rice [oyako = parent and child]
牛丼 / ぎゅうどん (gyuudon): beef and vegetables on rice
豚丼 / ぶたどん (butadon): pork and vegetables on rice
天丼 / てんどん (tendon): tempura on rice
カツ丼 / カツどん / かつ丼 / かつどん (katsudon): breaded pork cutlet on rice
鰻丼 / うな丼 / うなどん (unadon): eel on rice
イクラ丼 / いくら丼 / イクラどん (ikuradon): salmon roe on rice
鉄火丼 / てっかどん (tekkadon): raw sliced tuna on rice
ネギトロ丼 / 葱とろ丼 / ねぎとろどん (negitorodon): raw tuna with negi on rice
海鮮丼 / かいせんどん (kaisendon): seafood on rice

汁物 / しるもの (shirumono): Soup

出汁 / 出し / だし / ダシ (dashi): soup stock made from fish and kelp
味噌汁 / みそしる (misoshiru): miso soup
御雑煮 / お雑煮 / おぞうに (ozouni): New Year’s soup
ポタージュ (potaaju): potage (thick soup)

/ めん (men): Noodles

拉麺 / ラーメン / らーめん (raamen): ramen (Chinese-style)
豚骨ラーメン / とんこつラーメン (tonkotsu raamen): ramen in pork-bone broth
塩ラーメン / しおラーメン (shio raamen): ramen in salty broth
醤油ラーメン / しょうゆラーメン (shouyu raamen): ramen in soy sauce-based broth
味噌ラーメン / みそラーメン (miso raamen): ramen in miso-based broth
つけ麺 / つけめん (tsukemen): cold ramen accompanied by soup for dipping
冷やし中華 / ひやしちゅうか (hiyashi chuuka): chilled ramen with toppings
チャンポン / ちゃんぽん (chanpon): champon; ramen with pork, seafood, vegetables (Nagasaki)

蕎麦 / そば (soba): soba, Japanese buckwheat noodles
焼きそば / やきそば (yakisoba): fried soba
ザル蕎麦 / ざる蕎麦 / ザルそば / ざるそば (zarusoba): chilled soba with dipping sauce
冷やし蕎麦 / ひやしそば (hiyashisoba): chilled soba with toppings
椀子蕎麦 / 椀子そば / わんこそば (wankosoba): soba in a small bowl, served continuously

饂飩 / うどん (udon): udon, thick Japanese wheat flour noodle
焼き饂飩 / 焼きうどん / やきうどん (yakiudon): fried udon
讃岐うどん / さぬきうどん (sanuki udon): udon originating from Kagawa prefecture
狐饂飩 / 狐うどん / キツネうどん / きつねうどん / キツネウドン (kitsune udon): udon with abura’age
打っ掛けうどん / ぶっかけうどん (bukkake udon): cold udon served with dashi-based broth
カレー饂飩 / カレーうどん (karei udon): udon topped with curry

素麺 / 索麺 / そうめん (soumen): thin white noodles made of wheat flour
流し素麺 / 流し索麺 / 流しそうめん / ながしそうめん (nagashi soumen): cold soumen served in a flume of bamboo

米粉 / ビーフン (biifun): rice vermicelli; rice noodles
冷麺 / れいめん (reimen): chilled noodles

海鮮 / かいせん (kaisen): Seafood

魚 / さかな (sakana): fish
サーモン (saamon): salmon
鮭 / さけ (sake): salmon
イクラ (ikura): salmon roe
鮪 / まぐろ / マグロ (maguro): tuna
とろ (toro): fatty tuna
ツナ (tsuna): tuna
鯛 / タイ / たい (tai): sea bream
真鯛 / マダイ / まだい (madai): species of red Pacific sea bream
鯖 / サバ / さば (saba): mackerel
鯵 / アジ / あじ (aji): horse mackerel
カンパチ / 勘八 / 間八 / かんぱち (kanpachi): greater amberjack
鰹 / カツオ / かつお (katsuo): bonito; skipjack tuna
鰹のタタキ / かつおのタタキ (katsuo no tataki): seared bonito
煮干し / 煮干 / にぼし (niboshi): small, crunchy, dried sardines
河豚 / 鰒 / フグ / ふぐ (fugu): pufferfish; blowfish
明太子 / めんたいこ (mentaiko): walleye pollack roe
飛び子 / 飛子 / とびこ (tobiko): flying fish roe
真砂子 / まさご (masago): capelin roe (cheaper than tobiko)
鱈子 / たら子 / タラ子 / たらこ / タラこ (tarako): salted cod roe
白子 / しらこ (shirako): milt
擂り身 / すり身 / すりみ (surimi): minced fish or meat paste
蒲鉾 / かまぼこ (kamaboko): pureed fish paste; cured fish surimi
鳴門[巻] / なると[まき] (naruto[maki]): kamaboko with a swirl pattern; noodle topping
焼き魚 / やきざかな (yakizakana): grilled fish

海老 / エビ / えび (ebi): shrimp; prawn
甘海老 / 甘えび / あまえび / アマエビ (amaebi): sweet shrimp
海老フライ / エビフライ / えびフライ (ebifurai): deep-fried prawn; deep-fried shrimp
ロブスター (robusutaa): lobster
蟹 / かに (kani): crab

鰻 / うなぎ (unagi): eel, Anguilla japonica (freshwater)
穴子 / あなご (anago): conger eel (saltwater)
蒲焼き / 蒲焼 / かばやき (kabayaki): loach or eel dipped and broiled in soy-based sauce
鰻重 / うな重 / うなじゅう (unajuu): broiled eel served over rice in a lacquered box
櫃まぶし / ひつまぶし (hitsumabushi): eel fillets on rice, eaten in different stages

烏賊 / イカ / いか (ika): squid; cuttlefish
烏賊墨 / イカ墨 / イカすみ / いかすみ (ikasumi): squid ink
蛸 / 鮹 / 章魚 / タコ / たこ (tako): octopus
蛸焼 / たこ焼き / タコ焼き / タコヤキ / タコやき / たこやき (takoyaki): octopus dumplings
海月 / 水母 / くらげ / クラゲ (kurage): jellyfish
雲丹 / 海胆 / 海栗 / うに / ウニ (uni): sea urchin

貝 / かい (kai): shell; shellfish
ホッキ貝 / 北寄貝 / ホッキかい / ほっきがい (hokkigai): surf clam
浅蜊 / 蛤仔 / 鯏 / あさり / アサリ (asari): Manila clam
貽貝 / いがい / イガイ (igai): mussel
牡蛎 / 牡蠣 / 蛎 / 蠣 / 硴 / カキ / かき (kaki): oyster
牡蠣フライ / カキフライ / かきフライ (kakifurai): deep-fried oyster
帆立 / ほたて / ホタテ (hotate): scallop
鮑 / 鰒 / あわび / アワビ (awabi): abalone

刺し身 / 刺身 / さしみ (sashimi): fresh raw sliced meat (often fish)
寿司 / 鮨 / 鮓 / すし (sushi): cooked vinegared rice with various ingredients
御任せ / お任せ / おまかせ (omakase): sushi meal selected, created and served by the chef
回転寿司 / かいてんずし (kaitenzushi): “conveyor belt” sushi bar; sushi-go-round
寿司飯 / 鮨飯 / すしめし (sushimeshi): vinegared rice for sushi
しゃり (shari): vinegared rice for sushi
酢飯 / すめし (sumeshi): vinegared rice for sushi
ねた / ネタ (neta): topping of nigirizushi
握り寿司 / 握り鮨 / 握鮨 / 握りずし / にぎりずし (nigirizushi): hand-formed sushi with one topping
軍艦巻 / ぐんかんまき (gunkanmaki): battleship roll sushi
巻寿司 / 巻き寿司 / 巻き鮨 / 巻鮨 / まきずし (makizushi): rolled sushi with filling
細巻き / 細巻 / ほそまき (hosomaki): thin sushi roll with one filling
河童巻き / 河童巻 / かっぱまき (kappamaki): sushi roll with cucumber filling
鉄火巻き / 鉄火巻 / てっかまき (tekkamaki): sushi roll with tuna filling
太巻き / 太巻 / ふとまき (futomaki): thick sushi roll with lots of filling
恵方巻き / 恵方巻 / えほうまき (ehoumaki): large futomaki eaten during setsubun
手巻き / てまき (temaki): sushi rolled into a cone of nori
散らし寿司 / 散らし鮨 / ちらし寿司 / 散らしずし / ちらしずし (chirashizushi): sushi rice served with ingredients sprinkled on top
稲荷寿司 / 稲荷鮨 / 稲荷ずし / いなりずし (inarizushi): sushi wrapped in fried tofu

/ にく (niku): Meat

牛肉 / ぎゅうにく (gyuuniku): beef
ビーフ (biifu): beef
豚肉 / ぶたにく (butaniku): pork
ポーク (pooku): pork
カツ (katsu): cutlet
ロース (roosu): sirloin
ヒレ (hire): fillet
ホルモン (horumon): cows’ or pigs’ offal (entrails)
鳥肉 / 鶏肉 / とりにく (toriniku): chicken meat
チキン (chikin): chicken
羊肉 / ようにく (youniku): lamb, mutton
鴨肉 / かもにく (kamoniku): duck meat
馬肉 / ばにく (baniku): horsemeat
鯨肉 / げいにく / くじらにく (geiniku / kujiraniku): whale meat

焼き肉 / 焼肉 / やきにく (yakiniku): grilled meat; Korean barbecue
しゃぶしゃぶ (shabushabu): thinly sliced meat and ingredients boiled in a hot pot (savory)
鋤焼 / すき焼 / すきやき (sukiyaki): thinly sliced meat and ingredients cooked in an iron pan (sweet)
鉄板焼き / てっぱんやき (teppan’yaki): cooking on a hot steel plate
照り焼き / てりやき (teriyaki): food broiled or grilled in sweet soy sauce
串揚げ / くしあげ (kushiage): skewered deep-fried meat and / or vegetables
串カツ / くしカツ (kushikatsu): skewered deep-fried meat and / or vegetables
串焼き / くしやき (kushiyaki): grilling on a skewer; spit-roasting

和牛 / わぎゅう (wagyuu): Japanese beef
神戸ビーフ / こうべビーフ (koube biifu): Kobe Beef
飛騨牛 / ひだうし / ひだぎゅう (hida ushi / hida gyuu): Hida beef
秋田牛 / あきたうし / あきたぎゅう (akita ushi / akita gyuu): Akita beef
松阪牛 / まつさかうし / まつさかぎゅう (matsusaka ushi / matsusaka gyuu): Matsusaka beef
牛タン / ぎゅうタン (gyuutan): beef tongue
ハンバーグ (hanbaagu): Salisbury steak; Hamburg steak
メンチ (menchi): minced beef; ground beef; hamburger steak
ミンチ (minchi): minced beef; ground beef; hamburger steak
メンチカツ (menchikatsu): breaded, deep-fried, minced-beef cutlet

豚カツ / とんカツ (tonkatsu): deep-fried breaded pork cutlet
黒豚 / くろぶた (kurobuta): Berkshire pig
生姜焼き / しょうがやき (shougayaki): pork fried with ginger
叉焼 / チャーシュー (chaashuu): roasted pork fillet (often used in ramen); Char siu
角煮 / かくに (kakuni): simmered cubed pork belly stew

焼き鳥 / 焼鳥 / やきとり (yakitori): grilled chicken on a skewer
唐揚げ / 空揚げ / 空揚 / 唐揚 / からあげ (kara’age): deep fried (often chicken)
手羽先 / てばさき(tebasaki): chicken wings
ケンタッキー[フライドチキン] (kentakkii [furaido chikin]): KFC (popular for Christmas)
宮崎チキン / みやざきチキン (miyazaki chikin): Miyazaki Chicken

ジンギスカン (jingisukan): grilled mutton, “Ghenghis Khan”
馬刺し / 馬刺 / ばさし (basashi): horsemeat sashimi

Other Dishes

前菜 / ぜんさい (zensai): hors d'oeuvres
オードブル (oodoburu): hors d'oeuvres
懐石[料理] / かいせき[りょうり] (kaiseki [ryouri]): traditional multi-course Japanese meal
御節[料理] / お節[料理] / おせち[りょうり] (osechi [ryouri]): traditional Japanese New Year food served in juubako
御好み焼き / お好み焼き / おこのみやき (okonomiyaki): savoury pancake with various ingredients
もんじゃ焼き / もんじゃやき (monjayaki): a more liquid version of okonomiyaki
天ぷら / 天麩羅 / テンプラ / てんぷら (tenpura): tempura; seafood or vegetables battered and deep fried
鍋 / なべ (nabe): hot pot
鍋物 / なべ物 / なべもの (nabemono): food cooked in hot pot
もつ鍋 / もつなべ (motsunabe): nabe with offal, vegetables, and often miso
煮物 / にもの (nimono): food cooked by boiling or stewing
肉ジャガ / にくジャガ (nikujaga): meat and potato stew
餃子 / ギョウザ / ぎょうざ (gyouza): crescent-shaped pan-fried dumplings
干し物 / 乾し物 / 干物 / 乾物 / ほしもの (hoshimono): dried preserved food
干物 / 乾物 / ひもの (himono): dried fish, shellfish, etc.
コロッケ (korokke): croquette, fried and mainly containing mashed potatoes
揚げ物 / あげ物 / 揚げもの / あげもの (agemono): deep-fried food
揚げ出し / 揚出し / あげだし (agedashi): lightly deep-fried
酢の物 / すのもの (sunomono): vinegared or pickled dish

卵 / 玉子 / たまご (tamago): egg
卵焼き / 卵焼 / 玉子焼き / 玉子焼 / たまごやき (tamagoyaki): Japanese omelette
出し巻き[卵] / だし巻き[卵] / だしまき[たまご] (dashimaki [tamago]): Japanese omelette
目玉焼き / めだまやき (medamayaki): sunny-side-up fried eggs
茶碗蒸し / 茶碗蒸 / ちゃわんむし (chawanmushi): egg custard

大豆 / だいず (daizu): soybeans
味噌 / みそ (miso): fermented soybean paste
納豆 / なっとう (nattou): fermented soybeans
豆腐 / とうふ (toufu): tofu; bean-curd
油揚げ / 油揚 / あぶらあげ (abura’age): fried tofu
御田 / おでん (oden): various ingredients stewed in soy-flavored dashi
田楽[焼き] / 田楽[焼] / でんがく[やき] (dengaku[yaki]): skewered fish (or vegetables, etc.) coated with miso and cooked
田楽豆腐 / でんがくどうふ (dengakudoufu): skewered pieces of tofu baked and coated with miso
揚げ出し豆腐 / 揚出し豆腐 / あげだしどうふ (agedashi doufu): lightly deep-fried tofu
絹漉し豆腐 / 絹ごし豆腐 / きぬごし豆腐 / きぬごしどうふ (kinugoshi doufu): silken tofu
佃煮 / つくだに (tsukudani): preserved food boiled in soy

饅頭 / マントウ / マントー (mantou): Chinese steamed bun
肉饅 / 肉まん / にくまん (nikuman): steamed bun with meat filling
豚饅 / 豚まん / ぶたまん (butaman): steamed bun with minced pork filling
餡饅 / あんまん (anman): bun with anko filling

野菜 / やさい (yasai): Vegetables

漬け物 / つけもの (tsukemono): pickled vegetables
サラダ (sarada): salad

海苔 / のり (nori): edible seaweed (species Porphyra), dried and pressed into sheets
和布 / 若布 / ワカメ / わかめ (wakame): edible seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida), used in soups and salads
昆布 / コンブ / こんぶ (konbu): kombu; edible seaweed (Laminaria), used in dashi
青海苔 / 青のり / アオノリ / あおのり (aonori): edible seaweed (Enteromorpha), used in soups and flavoring

葱 / ネギ / ねぎ (negi): Welsh onion; green onion
韮 / 韭 / ニラ / にら (nira): Chinese chive; garlic chive
玉ねぎ / 玉葱 / たまねぎ / タマネギ (tamanegi): onion
大根 / だいこん (daikon): daikon
竹 / たけ (take): bamboo
筍 / 竹の子 / タケノコ / たけのこ (take no ko): bamboo shoots
麺麻 / 麺碼 / メンマ / めんま (menma): processed bamboo shoots used as a topping
萌やし / モヤシ / もやし (moyashi): bean sprouts
蒜 / 葫 / 大蒜 / ニンニク / にんにく (nin’niku): garlic

ポテト (poteto): potato
馬鈴薯 / ジャガ芋 / じゃが芋 / ジャガいも / ジャガイモ (jagaimo): potato (Solanum tuberosum)
芋 / 薯 / 藷 / いも (imo): tuber; potato
薩摩芋 / さつまいも / サツマイモ (satsumaimo): sweet potato
山芋 / ヤマイモ / やまいも (yamaimo): Japanese yam
長芋 / ナガイモ / ながいも (nagaimo): Chinese yam
薯蕷 / とろろ (tororo): grated nagaimo
焼き芋 / 焼芋 / 焼藷 / やきいも (yakiimo): roasted sweet potato; baked sweet potato

茸 / 菌 / 蕈 / キノコ / きのこ (kinoko): mushroom
椎茸 / 香蕈 / シイタケ / しいたけ (shiitake): shiitake mushroom
松茸 / マツタケ / まつたけ (matsutake): matsutake mushroom (prized)

干瓢 / 乾瓢 / かんぴょう (kanpyou): strips of dried gourd
蒟蒻 / 菎蒻 / コンニャク / こんにゃく (kon’nyaku): konjac; devil’s tongue; often made into jelly form
ブロッコリー (burokkorii): broccoli
レタス (retasu): lettuce
キャベツ (kyabetsu): cabbage
菠薐草 / ほうれんそう (hourensou): spinach
人参 / にんじん (ninjin): carrot
トマト (tomato): tomato
胡瓜 / キュウリ / きゅうり (kyuuri): cucumber
茄子 / 茄 / なす (nasu): eggplant
コーン (coon): corn
玉蜀黍 / トウモロコシ / とうもろこし (toumorokoshi): corn; maize
ピーマン (piiman): bell pepper; green pepper

果物 / くだもの (kudamono): Fruits

フルーツ (fruutsu): fruit

林檎 / リンゴ / りんご (ringo): apple
バナナ (banana): banana
桃 / モモ / もも (momo): peach
李 / 酸桃 / スモモ / すもも (sumomo): Japanese plum
梅 / ウメ / うめ (ume): Japanese apricot (Prunus mume); Chinese plum
梅干し / 梅干 / うめぼし (umeboshi): dried pickled ume (very sour)
杏子 / 杏 / アンズ / あんず (anzu): apricot
アボカド (abokado): avocado
柿 / カキ / かき (kaki): persimmon
干し柿 / 乾し柿 / 干柿 / 乾柿 / ほしがき (hoshigaki): dried persimmons
石榴 / 柘榴 / 若榴 / ザクロ / ざくろ (zakuro): pomegranate
ココナッツ (kokonattsu): coconut

葡萄 / ブドウ / ぶどう (budou): grapes
苺 / イチゴ / いちご (ichigo): strawberry
ブルーベリー (buruuberii): blueberry
茘枝 / レイシ (reishi): litchi; lychee; lichee
ライチ (raichi): litchi; lychee; lichee

南瓜 / カボチャ / かぼちゃ (kabocha): (1) Japanese winter squash; kabocha squash
南瓜 / カボチャ / かぼちゃ (kabocha): (2) any pumpkin or squash
メロン (meron): melon
西瓜 / スイカ / すいか (suika): watermelon
カンタロープ (kantaroopu): cantaloupe
ハネデューメロン (hanedyuu meron): honeydew melon

オレンジ (orenji): orange
蜜柑 / ミカン / みかん (mikan): satsuma mandarin; Citrus unshiu
柚子 / 柚 / ユズ / ゆず (yuzu): yuzu; Citrus junos
マンダリン (mandarin): mandarin orange; Citrus reticulate
橙 / ダイダイ / だいだい (daidai): bitter orange (Citrus aurantium)
酢橘 / スダチ / すだち (sudachi): Citrus sudachi; used as a flavoring
臭橙 / 香母酢 / カボス / かぼす (kabosu): Citrus sphaerocarpa; used as a flavoring
グレープフルーツ (gureipufuruutsu): grapefruit
金柑 / キンカン / きんかん (kinkan): kumquat

Sauces / Toppings / Condiments / Seasonings

醤油 / しょう油 / しょうゆ (shouyu): soy sauce
垂れ / たれ (tare): soy sauce-based dipping sauce for grilled meats, sushi, gyoza, etc.
ポン酢 / ポンず (ponzu): citrus-based sauce
味醂 / みりん (mirin): sweet rice wine used in cooking
汁 / つゆ (tsuyu): dipping sauce for noodles
酢 / 醋 / 酸 / す (su): vinegar
ソース (soosu): sauce, especially Worcestershire sauce, often used for tonkatsu
デミグラスソース (demigurasu soosu): demi-glace (type of brown sauce)
ドミグラスソース (domigurasu soosu): demi-glace (type of brown sauce)

ふりかけ (furikake): dried food sprinkled over rice
鰹節 / カツオ節 / かつお節 / カツオぶし / かつおぶし (katsuobushi): bonito flakes
山葵 / わさび (wasabi): Japanese horseradish
辛子 / カラシ / からし (karashi): Japanese mustard
生姜 / 生薑 / 薑 / ショウガ / しょうが (shouga): ginger
がり (gari): sliced ginger prepared in vinegar (served with sushi)

塩 / しお (shio): salt
胡椒 / コショウ / こしょう (koshou): pepper
ペッパー (peppaa): pepper
砂糖 / さとう (satou): sugar
蜂蜜 / はちみつ (hachimitsu): honey
唐辛子 / 唐芥子 / 蕃椒 / トウガラシ / とうがらし (tougarashi): capsicum; chili pepper
七味[唐辛子] / しちみ[とうがらし] (shichimi [tougarashi]): blend of seven spices

胡麻 / ゴマ / ごま (goma): sesame seeds
胡麻油 / ゴマ油 / ごま油 / ゴマあぶら / ごまあぶら (goma abura): sesame oil
胡麻塩 / ごましお (gomashio): sesame salt

マヨ[ネーズ] (mayo[neizu]): mayonnaise (Japanese is thicker than American)
ケチャップ (kechappu): ketchup
マスタード (masutaado): mustard

ファストフード (fasuto fuudo): Fast food

ハンバーガー (hanbaagaa): hamburger
フライドポテト (furaido poteto): french fries
ポテトフライ (poteto furai): french fries
チーズバーガー (chiizubaagaa): cheeseburger

デザート (dezaato): Dessert

欠き氷 / かき氷 / 欠氷 / かきごおり (kakigoori): shaved ice with flavored syrup
白熊 / しろくま (shirokuma): shaved ice, condensed milk, mochi, and azuki (literally “polar bear”) (Kagoshima)
アイスクリーム (aisu kuriimu): ice cream
ソフトクリーム (sofuto kuriimu): soft serve ice cream
パフェ (pafe): parfait
サンデー (sandei): sundae
クリームソーダ (kuriimu sooda): ice cream soda; ice cream float
杏仁豆腐 / あんにんどうふ (an’nin doufu): almond jelly
心天 / 心太 / ところてん (tokoroten): gelidium jelly strips
プリン (purin): custard pudding; Crème caramel
プディング (pudingu): pudding
ゼリー (zerii): jelly; gelatin dessert; jello
クレープ (kureipu): crepe
生クリーム / なまクリーム (nama kuriimu): fresh cream
ケーキ (keiki): cake
カステラ (kasutera): castella; sponge cake
パイ (pai): pie

御菓子 / お菓子 / おかし (okashi): Sweets and Snacks

お八つ / 御八つ / お八 / おやつ (oyatsu): between meal snack; mid-afternoon snack
和菓子 / わがし (wagashi): Japanese confectionery
干菓子 / 乾菓子 / ひがし (higashi): dry wagashi
駄菓子 / だがし (dagashi): cheap snacks and sweets
洋菓子 / ようがし (yougashi): Western confectionary
御摘み / お摘み / おつまみ (otsumami): snacks to go with drinks
肴 / さかな (sakana): appetizer or snack served with drinks

小豆 / あずき (azuki): adzuki beans
餡[子] / 餡[こ] / あん[こ] (an[ko]): red bean paste; adzuki bean paste; any filling
蓬 / よもぎ (yomogi): Japanese mugwort
蕨 / わらび (warabi): bracken
蕨粉 / わらび粉 / わらびこ (warabiko): bracken starch
葛 / くず (kuzu): kudzu; Japanese arrowroot
葛粉 / くず粉 / くずこ (kuzuko): kudzu starch
黄粉 / 黄な粉 / きな粉 / きなこ (kinako): kinako; roasted soybean flour

餅 / もち (mochi): sticky rice cake
餅粉 / もち粉 / もちこ (mochiko): mochi flour
桜餅 / さくらもち (sakuramochi): pink mochi with anko, covered in a sakura leaf
草餅 / くさもち (kusamochi): mochi made including yomogi leaves
蓬餅 / よもぎもち (yomogimochi): kusamochi
柏餅 / かしわもち (kashiwamochi): mochi wrapped in oak leaves
黄粉餅 / 黄な粉餅 / きな粉餅 / きなこ餅 / きなこもち (kinakomochi): mochi topped with kinako
蕨餅 / わらび餅 / わらびもち (warabimochi): bracken starch cakes topped with kinako
葛餅 / くずもち (kuzumochi): kudzu starch cakes topped with kinako
鏡餅 / かがみもち (kagamimochi): two stacked mochi with a daidai on top, for New Years
焼き餅 / 焼餅 / 焼もち / やきもち (yakimochi): roasted or grilled mochi
揚げ餅 / あげもち (agemochi): fried mochi
霰[餅] / あられ[もち] (arare[mochi]): small, baked, fried, or roasted flavored mochi crackers
欠き餅 / かきもち (kakimochi): araremochi
御欠き / お欠き / 御欠 / おかき (okaki): araremochi
大福 / だいふく (daifuku): mochi stuffed commonly with anko
団子 / だんご (dango): mochiko balls, often 3-4 on a skewer
みたらし団子 / 御手洗団子 / みたらしだんご (mitarashi dango): dango with a sweet soy glaze
お汁粉 / おしるこ (oshiruko): sweet adzuki soup with mochi
善哉 / ぜんざい (zenzai): sweet adzuki soup

鯛焼 / 鯛焼き/ タイ焼き/ たい焼き/ タイやき/ たいやき (taiyaki): fish-shaped pancake with filling (often adzuki)
銅鑼焼き / どら焼き / ドラ焼き / どらやき (dorayaki): adzuki paste sandwiched in castella
饅頭 / まんじゅう (manjuu): bun-shaped confection with bean paste filling
最中 / もなか (monaka): wafers filled with adzuki jam or ice cream
羊羹 / ようかん (youkan): sweet bean jelly

枝豆 / えだまめ (edamame): green soybeans
煎餅 / せんべい (senbei): rice cracker
ピーナツ (piinatsu): peanuts
栗 / クリ / くり (kuri): Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata)
ポテトチップス (poteto chippusu):potato chips
芋けんぴ / 芋ケンピ / いもケンピ / いもけんぴ (imo kenpi): candied sweet potato (Kochi)
八ツ橋 / 八橋 / 八つ橋 / 八ッ橋 / やつはし (yatsuhashi): sweet made from glutinous rice flour (Kyoto)
かた焼き / かたやき (katayaki): hard-baked cookies (Iga)
外郎 / 外良 / ういろう (uirou): sweet rice jelly (Nagoya)
うなぎパイ (unagi pai): eel cookies (Hamamatsu)

キャンデー (kyandi): candy; sweets
飴 / あめ (ame): hard candy
水飴 / 水あめ / みずあめ (mizuame): sweet starch syrup
金平糖 / 金米糖 / コンペイトー / こんぺいとう (konpeitou): small coloured sugar candy covered in bulges
シロップ (shiroppu): syrup
ガムシロップ (gamu shiroppu): gum syrup
キャラメル (kyarameru): caramel
風船ガム / ふうせんガム (fuusen gamu): bubblegum
チョコレート (chokoreito): chocolate

パティスリー (patisurii): patisserie
クッキー (kukkii): cookie; biscuit
ドーナツ (doonatsu): donut; doughnut
マカロン (makaron): macaron
シュークリーム (shuukuriimu): chou a la creme; cream puff; profiterole
カヌレ (kanure): canelé

ポッキー (pokkii): Pocky; biscuit sticks coated in chocolate, strawberry, etc.
コアラのマーチ (koara no maachi): Koala’s march; koala-shaped cookies
うまい棒 / うまいぼう(umaibou): Umaibo; small, puffed, cylindrical corn snack
たけのこの里 / たけのこのさと (takenoko no sato): Takenoko no Sato; bamboo shoot shaped chocolate cookie
きのこの山 / きのこのやま (kinoko no yama): Kinoko no Yama; mushroom-shaped chocolate cookie

パン (pan): Bread

パン屋 / パンや (pan’ya): bakery
パン粉 / パンこ (panko): breadcrumbs (like on tonkatsu)
サンド[イッチ] (sando[icchi]): sandwich
バゲット (bagetto): baguette
カレーパン (kareipan): curry bread
焼きそばパン / 焼そばパン / やきそばパン (yakisobapan): yakisoba sandwich
カツサンド (katsusando): tonkatsu sandwich
菓子パン / かしパン (kashipan): sweetened bun
餡パン / アンパン / あんパン (anpan): bread roll filled with anko
メロンパン (meronpan): melon bread (resembles a cantaloupe)
チョココロネ (chokokorone): choco cornet
ピザ (piza): pizza
ワッフル (waffuru): waffle
ホットケーキ (hottokeiki): hotcakes; pancakes

飲み物 / 飲物 / のみもの (nominono): Beverages / Drinks

乾杯 / かんぱい (kanpai): cheers!; a toast; drink (in celebration or in honor of something)
水 / みず (mizu): water
ラムネ (ramune): Ramune; Japanese soft drink with a special bottle
炭酸水 / たんさんすい (tansansui): carbonated water; sparkling water
炭酸飲料 / たんさんいんりょう (tansan inryou): carbonated drink
ソフトドリンク (sofuto dorinku): soft drink
ソーダ (sooda): soda

ジュース (juusu): juice
牛乳 / ぎゅうにゅう (gyuunyuu): cow’s milk
ミルク (miruku): milk
豆乳 / とうにゅう (tounyuu): soy milk
スムージー (sumuujii): smoothie
タピオカティー (tapioca tii): bubble tea; pearl milk tea; boba milk tea; boba

喫茶[店] / きっさ[てん] (kissa[ten]): coffee shop; tearoom; coffee lounge; coffeehouse; café
カフェ (kafe): café; coffeehouse
珈琲 / コーヒー (koohii): coffee
アイスコーヒー (aisu koohii): iced coffee
カフェオレ (kafe ore): café au lait
御茶 / お茶 / おちゃ (ocha): tea
緑茶 / りょくちゃ (ryokucha): green tea
抹茶 / まっちゃ (matcha): matcha; maccha; powdered green tea
煎茶 / せんちゃ (sencha): non-powdered green tea
焙じ茶 / ほうじ茶 / ほうじちゃ (houjicha): roasted green tea
紅茶 / こうちゃ (koucha): black tea
麦茶 / むぎちゃ (mugicha): barley tea

アルコール (arukooru): alcohol
リキュール (rikyuuru): liquer
[御]酒 / [お]酒 / [お]さけ ([o]sake): any alcohol; sake (Japanese rice wine)
ビール (biiru): beer
生ビール / なまビール (nama biiru): draft beer; draught beer
ワイン (wain): wine

ヤクルト (yakuruto): Yakult; probiotic milk drink
カルピス (karupisu): Calpis; Calpico; milk-based drink
ポカリスエット (pokari suetto): Pocari Sweat; sports drink
クー (kuu): Qoo; non-carbonated drink brand

御馳走様[でした] / ご馳走様[でした] / ごちそうさま [でした] (gochisou sama [deshita]): said after eating (thank you for the meal)

  1. Group new words together in your notes (according toparts of speech, the same pronunciation, the same topic area, etc).
  2. Think of relationships between what you already know and new things you learn (for me it is for instance hond-hund (nl-no) ).
  3. Visualize idioms or phrases in your mind, or draw them, to help remember. Try to see the spelling before your closed eyes.
  4. Make diagrams or semantic maps (word maps, webs of words) to arrange key words visually on paper.
  5. Remember a new foreign word by a crazy association with a known word (camarera = a Spanish waitress with a camera).
  6. Create rhymes to remember new words.
  7. Use (colored) flashcards to remember new English words (idea: one colour = one part of speech OR one colour = one language if you are learning more than 1 language at the same time)
  8. When trying to remember, physically act out new verbs.
  9. Say aloud or write new English words repeatedly [When I was a 4th grader I couldn’t remember ‘chicken’ word so I wrote this word 20 times. Not only I remember I did such thing but also when I close my eyes I see this piece of paper with 3 lines of chicken word – but this is only for hardcore learning I guess, can’t imagine learning every word like this ;) )
  10. Copy, rewrite new language items to practice writing.
  11. Imitate (shadow) recorded language to imitate a native speaker’s way of speaking.
  12. Try to use whole ready-made phrases fluently (Nice to see you too! What a shame!).
  13. With new structures,  try to make analogous (similar) sentences based on a model.
  14. Consciously try to use the words you know in different combinations to make new sentences.
  15. Start conversations in your target language whenever you are around a native speaker.
  16. Come to out-of-class language events (search for language club in your city maybe?).
  17. Get involved in any class activities that require writing or speaking spontaneously in the language you are learning (not working if you are a self-learner…).
  18. Use a monolingual dictionary
  19. Use other kinds of resources (a picture dictionary, a dictionary of collocations)
  20. Use thematic /vocabulary books for your own study.
  21. Look for words in your own language that are similar to new words in the language you are learning.
  22. Try to find patterns, regularities in grammar.
  23. Work out the meaning of a word by dividing it into parts (prefixes and suffixes) that you understand.
  24. Make comparisons between languages (e.g. German vs Spanish).
  25. Make notes / summaries of new information that you hear or read in your target language.
  26. Even when you are not terribly sure whether it is correct to say something in a given way, take risk to try!
  27. Understand unfamiliar words, make guesses from the linguistic context and clues (like this must be a negative word, this must be the name of an illness).
  28. To understand new and difficult language material, make guesses from the situation (in a film), pictures (in a magazine), gestures, tone of voice in a conversation, etc.
  29. When you are writing a new word in your notebook, also write a sentence where this word is used. Personally I was too lazy to do it but when I finally started it helped me a lot.
  30. Try out different ways of learning and revise, revise, revise…

FIRST NAMES

Legal and/or Official: This is the name on legal documents. If there are no birth certificates, this name will be the equivalent of what you would put on legal documents. Not all people go by their legal or official name for several reasons. One reason could be that no one in a given culture goes by this name, but instead by a casual name. This name could be used for legal, religious, or political purposes. These names do not have to be given at birth.

Birth Name: The birth name is obviously the name given at birth, but it doesn’t have to be right after birth. It can be days, weeks, or even months after. The birth name can also be a temporary name until an official name is chosen. It depends on the culture you’ve created.

Given Name: The given name is the first name that people in Western society are referred to on a daily basis. For example, a person whose legal name is “Daniel” might go by “Dan”, or they might just go by “Daniel”. 

Nickname: The nickname is different from shortened versions of names. While a person may prefer a shortened version of their name for casual use, a nickname of “Daniel” would be “Danny Boy”. However, some nicknames are used regularly like the nicknames in Holes.

Religious or Spiritual Name: Some first names are chosen for religious purposes. This could be standard in the culture you’ve created or it could be a casual occurrence.

Symbolic Name

Appearance: Self-explanatory. However, these names might not appear until later in life.

Meaning: This refers to two things:

  • Author meaning: This is when you, the author, chooses a name, that exists in our world or that has roots from our world, because of its meaning.
  • Story meaning: This is when your character’s name is chosen because it has meaning in their fictional world.

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MIDDLE NAMES

Legal and/or Official: See above. 

Birth Name: See above.

Given Name: A person’s given name might actually be their middle name (see example 2 below).

Religious or Spiritual Name: Religious and spiritual names that are given or chosen are often done so for religious and spiritual purposes. For example, in some versions of Catholicism, children choose a saint’s name to be Confirmed under, thus making this name their Confirmation name. Some people make this part of their legal name while others do not. 

Symbolic Name: See above.

Meaning: See above.

Appearance: See above.

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SURNAMES

Ancestral: These are surnames that come from an ancestor of an individual. They can also come from a place.

Chosen: Chosen names are self explanatory, but they can also fall in the adopted category below.

Hereditary: Hereditary surnames are surnames that have been passed down through generations and that are used by the family. Any name can eventually become a hereditary name.

Clan: A clan name is a name that shows a person is a descendant of a certain person. This brings all these descendants together because they claim the same lineage, thus making them a clan. Clan names can exist alongside another surname. This varies by culture and not everyone will be associated with a clan. These are similar to ancestral names, but ancestral names are more personal and individualistic.

Occupation: Surnames can come from a person’s job. These names

Adopted: An adopted surname is just that. It is chosen by a person who adopts it from someone else. Reasons for adopting a surname from someone else vary.

Forced: Forced surnames are names that are forced on a person. This can be through adoption, kidnapping, slavery, immigration, cultural change, certain marriage practices, and a few other situations.

Appearance: See above.

Place Name: Some surnames are based on where a person is from (“George of X”).

None: Surnames do not exist everywhere.

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ALL

Importance: Some names have significant importance to a culture. This importance can be political, religious, or just well known within a society. If certain names hold political importance (most likely surnames) and you are writing characters from well known families, make it known that their family name is important. For example, upon hearing your characters name, the behavior of others might change around them.

Taboo: Some names can be taboo or they can hold negative connotations based on historical context. For example, when people hear the name “Adolf”, they think of Hitler. If your characters have a name that is considered taboo in your world, that may affect your character. Names can be taboo for any reason. It might be taboo to be named after a deceased paternal family member or it might be taboo for a child to be given the same name as the current ruler.

Outlawed: Not all names are up for use. There could be a written law that certain names are not to be used or there could be an unwritten law that using certain names is disrespectful. For example, naming children after deities or important figures in your world’s culture could be considered illegal or at least deeply frowned upon.

Title: Like I said above, some titles can be considered names or at least part of a name. This probably won’t be part of a person’s legal name, but they might be addressed this way daily.

Syllables: Some names might be required to have a certain amount of syllables.

Epithets: Sometimes, if a child has the same name as the parent, something might be added to the name to differentiate between the two. 

Traditional: Some people might have a traditional name to honor heritage or culture and an official or legal name.

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NAME PATTERNS

Many cultures have certain prefixes or suffixes that indicate if a name if feminine, masculine, neither, or both. Make a list of suffixes or prefixes that are associated with gender to help keep naming patterns in your fictional world. You can also have different versions of the same name this way.

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Below I will give examples of a fictional naming systems.

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Why Am I Like This | Part 2 | JUGHEAD JONES X READER

Description: After finding out his best friend is in love, Archie tricks Jughead into telling him who the girl is later that evening. He’s sworn to secrecy which makes lunch the next day difficult when Kevin, Veronica, Betty, and the reader keep asking questions about the mystery girl.

Word Count: 1856

Part 1 | Part 3 | Part 4| Part 5


When Archie found out that Jughead was in love, the first person who popped into his head was (Y/N) though he didn’t dare say that in front of the others. He wanted to make sure before he said anything.  She and Jughead were as close as could be and had a type of chemistry that just didn’t fizzle out.

He was also suspicious of the fact that the minute (Y/N) started talking about the possibility of going to the homecoming dance with Matthew Jackson, Jughead left without any rhyme or reason. Coincidence? He thought not.

The stairs leading up to Archie and Jughead’s shared bedroom creaked under the weight of Archie’s footsteps. His dad was still downstairs watching TV, creating a nice background noise.

“Hey man,” Jughead acknowledged when Archie stepped into the room. Archie watched as Jughead flipped through flashcards whilst laying down on his makeshift bed.

Archie kicked off his shoes and sat down on his bed facing Jughead. “What are you studying for?” he asked when his eyes fell upon the flashcards in Jughead’s hands.

“Biology prefixes and suffixes,” was his answer. “I don’t understand why we even have to learn these things. Biology is a class for science not latin roots.”

Archie unzipped his backpack and took out Jughead’s laptop and placed it on the floor next to him, a plan being conjured up in his mind. “Want me to help you study? I need to learn those too.”

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The Naming System

Continuing their need to be special and Above Everyone Else, the Clans have invented a unique two-part naming system. Originally, names were one word, which turned into two after the Clans grew and prospered enough to have many different cats with the same name. Suffixes were given a little while after the kit grew old enough to develop their own special trait, but over time suffixes developed meanings of their own and started being given once the cat reached a year of age, or could be considered a warrior.

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anonymous asked:

when i was younger i pulled every canon prefix and suffix out of the wc books and wrote a code that picked one of each at random for a randomly generated valid name and immediately the first time i tried it i got Yellowsnow

OH MY GOD THAT’S FANTASTIC