predator prey relationship

Dinosaurs in the new SNK opening

How did no else notice the predator/prey relationship to the all the animal related images that are flashed in the opening?

In my opinion it’s just a visual representation of how the human/titan relationship is. Now I’m not going to fill this with all the evidence under the sun because I think with this in mind anyone who watches the opening can put it together on their own and maybe they will agree with me or they won’t. It’s up to everyone’s own interpretation.

“Stop Whining, Go Hunting”

Man who made his living killing African wildlife gets eaten by African wildlife

April 21, 2017 – Scott Van Zyl made his living taking wealthy clients on “safaris” for the sole purpose of bringing home trophies like leopards, zebras, wildebeests and even lions. Now, investigators in Zimbabwe believe that Van Zyl ended up on the wrong end of the predator-prey relationship, and DNA tests have confirmed that he was attacked, killed, and eaten by crocodiles while on a hunting trip.

Van Zyl, who ran SS Pro Safaris, offered specials for hunters to spend a week or more on his hunting lands which border nature preserves, with the promise of killing up to seven different species for $9,000. He also offered other hunting expeditions with targets like elephants and giraffes, though specifics for those, including prices, aren’t listed on the company’s site. Photos of clients holding the bodies of several rare species are posted on Van Zyl’s site, along with the motto “Stop whining, go hunting.”

The circumstances surrounding his death are spotty, but reports suggest that Van Zyl and a second hunter and a pack of dogs. The two men split up, choosing to travel on foot alone, but when the dogs returned to the base camp without Van Zyl, his companion knew something was wrong.

His footprints were tracked to a riverbank where searchers found his backpack as well as several large Nile crocodiles. Authorities killed the crocs after getting clearance to do so and subsequently discovered human remains inside the stomach of one of them. Tests of the remains matched Van Zyl. The incident is just one of a handful of fatal crocodile attacks tallied so far in 2017 alone.

Another beautiful passage from The Compassionate Hunter’s Guidebook.

This book really helped me bridge that gap between people I’ve known who are uncomfortable with my work. Nature in itself is not innocent- when someone hunts a deer or rabbit we are not killing a ‘defenseless animal’. They are well equipped to deal with predators and are almost constantly on alert and defending their own lives. To prey animals, and even predators, death is always close by and far from taboo. Deer are not upset if they come across a perished deer, some have even been shown to nibble at the meat (slate did a pretty good article covering this). Even though it sometimes doesn’t feel like it, humans are a part of nature and are not immune to it’s cycles. By using what we hunt and doing it sustainably we maintain a stable population and a healthy diet that supports entire ecosystems. With less farmed foods more land is returned to the wild, less disease is spread, and the desire to preserve a population of wild animals is increased.
All this isn’t to say that there aren’t shitty hunters. In fact, MANY of the people we have met in New York are part of what we like to call ‘hunting culture’. They love camo and guns but don’t actually know or care what they’re doing. Hunting culture is so damaging to people who genuinely want to hunt sustainably because not only are they the ones who are the loudest when it comes to political issues (i.e.: muh guns, Obama, I should be able to hunt wherever, whenever..), but they are also often the ones that the public associates with hunting. PLEASE do not assume that all who hunt are like this. If you are going to hunt, do so respectfully and know how to take care of your kill after!!! Right now maybe 3 out of 10 people we know actually know not only background about the species they are hunting, but actually know how to skin, butcher, and cook it too. Predator-prey relationships are natural, but not using your prey is wasteful.

anonymous asked:

I just found you guys, and the blog is awesome! Onto the question... Because of my magic system everything in the world has a form of fast healing - everything heals twice as fast as it would on earth (roughly). In addition, disease just isn't a thing. Would that mess up predator/prey relationships somehow, especially when it comes to big game? Do my predators need to step up their game to survive? I'm working with a roughly Colorado-type area.

Well, sick animals are one of the ways predators get their food. Predators often target sick/old/infantile/priorly injured individuals to hunt as it’s easy and expends less energy for them to catch that specific animal(s).

It would be an issue if you took all of those groups away, but perhaps the number of animals not dying from illness or injury quite so often would boost numbers enough to balace out elderly/infantile numbers to allow predators the ability to hunt effectively still.

It would help if your predators were a bit faster, thus more easily able to catch up to and debilitate healthier animals, or some other trait that would make hunting easier for them, but as long as there are weak or vulnerable animals still, your predators will do a-okay!

-Mod Fluke

You know, I think that Ciel indeed did accept Sebastian as his ‘equal’ or better yet a ‘teacher’ who is not only providing him with everything he needs but also understands and protects him (No matter if you think that it is all because of the contract- I personally think that it this would be the only and biggest reason, that Sebastian would definitely not even involve himself deeper with the boy but just see that he is ok and is still breathing, eating and alive.). Accepting Sebastian as what he is- here I see that Ciel does not honestly do that.

   You guys remember the translation that has been made from Yana’s blog where she compared Alois and Ciel, and their relationship to their demons there. Alois desired, wanted and hungered for love th at should come from Claude and only him- that was because he so desperately wanted to believe, that after loosing Luka, the demon came into his life for the reason of keeping him safe and happy (and ofc Claude being a dick as he is,lies and tells him that Sebastian killed his brother. He even plays along with the clinging behavior that the blond had, saying things like how he wants only him, how he hungers after all he is-aka his soul.) . Ciel on the other hand decided to pull away. He build up a wall between himself and Sebastian so that he would not emotionally come too close to the ancient beast that was now chained to him. He so stubbornly believes one thing for sure- that Sebastian can not  feel, has no sentiments which would be reflecting those of a human being.



However many sweet candies ‘he’ gives me, I won’t believe in 'him’.
Since 'he’ is not a human, but a beast.

“Time, forward! You are so disgusting.”
[*I guess Yana quoted from Goethe’s 'Faust’: “Ah, linger on, thou art so fair!” / “Verweile doch! Du bist so schön!”]

       He chooses rejection. He will offer his neck to the beautiful beast serving him.

Ciel won’t even let in the thought that Sebastian could indeed be changing and having more to his personality then just ‘a demon’- a beast that only desires to feed on souls, kill and destroy since that is what gives them pleasure. That is how he wants to understand Sebastian even if he can see and sense that his butler is more than that, but allowing himself to dwell on that would mean that he would allow Sebastian to becomes even a bigger part in his life- that he can not allow.  Yana even says herself this:

One contractor tries to fill in the emptiness in his heart with the help of a demon, whereas the other one rejects the demon in order not to let it take advantage of his emptiness.

In other words, I simply see that Ciel is trying really hard to push Sebastian away so that the demon would not worm his way inside his heart as well- which I believe did happen a bit over the three years they spent together. He can go and deny Sebastian to have any understanding about any things that are not souls and killing, but still we can see that Ciel does slowly dare to linger with his touch or gaze on his ‘servant’.
   I know that many will bring up the chapter where Sebastian ‘tried to eat’ Ciel and how he even said that he was serious there- 90% at least. But honestly…knowing that there is 10% of chance left by a demon that is starving really badly there, that he still held back…that does tell me at least a lot. Not to mention that Sebastian himself said that the drastic measures he took were partly to get Ciel back and on other hand he could not keep on watching how Ciel behaved like a baby. There is also that part where the youngster states that of all things he trusts Sebastian the least-

       I can’t around the fact that Ciel actually smirked here. You can interpret this as you wish but here is my thinking- The fact that Sebastian there got a bit ‘offended’(in playful manner) since he thought that Ciel needs only him to feel ‘safe’, made the boy feel a bit of a triumph over his demon. Once again we see how Ciel rejects Sebastian’s advances again, he is not someone that will openly and loudly admit that indeed it is Sebastian that in the end is what, and the only one he needs. There was made a contract, for that power and for that demon of his he payed a high price- his very soul. If it were not for the demon, there would be no Ciel Phantomhive either; they both can exists in this shape and state thanks to the other.

   I think that no matter how much the boy tried to turn his head away and just see Sebastian as a tool, it does sometimes falls hard to do. On the other hand Sebastian has in my eyes grown as a character too. From the only cocky bastard of a demon, came a butler of highest status and a demon that slowly got used to such life. He also does not miss his previous existence as a mere predator no-

    - “However, if that’s how you like me….”

    Saying something like this, that he enjoys more being Ciel’s servant than spreading chaos and ripping things apart, that alone gives you a slight insight how the demon who driven was once by gluttony, changed. Both the Master and butler know that there is more than just the prey and predator relationship between them….it is a game as well since that is what both seem to enjoy playing. They are like children that push and pull in the new roles they were given. Not to mention how Sebastian thinks that it is interesting on how humans change at an astonishing speed, how there is a possibility of an upcoming war as well. Things are never boring with his little Master. Also let us not forget this little moment they had as well

  Ciel actually starts rubbing the back of his neck, the look he has on his face before that is just interesting as well- he changes the subject here immediately since I think that he is actually a tinnnyyy bit embarrassed(?) by what Sebastian admitted wit no sense of shame (Yana says that Sebastian would never feel embarrassed since he is hyper-narcissistic xD). Oh well, I just think that while Sebastian somehow wishes to ‘come closer’ to his Master, it is the boy that rejects all his efforts because he does not want to be used by ‘his most loyal’ servant. It is somehow really interesting to watch this, Ciel struggling to keep Sebastian away while the demon himself enjoys poking and teasing him.

you’re always hoping that we make it

judy/nick || rated g || 1,993 words || a small fic about marriage, banter, and things

>> ao3 link <<


Judy unlocks her apartment door with a click, slipping inside quietly and closing the door just as quietly. She removes her police vest, her belt, and tosses it haphazardly on her desk. Then, she collapses on her bed, staring up at the ceiling. Finally, finally, she allows herself to smile.

“I’m getting married,” she says aloud, delicate as a dragonfly’s wings, as a gossamer veil, all white.

“Married,” she repeats, running the word over her tongue. The smile she contained until now bubbles over into a painful, face-splitting grin, accompanied by a giggle, a laugh, an outburst of laughter. Judy grabs her pillow and wraps her body around it to suffocate the hysterical sound, kicking her feet excitedly.

Oh, she’s a kitten again, tapping her feet when she makes the safety patrol, when she receives her first character counts award, when she finishes out school on the straight-A honor roll. She’s as innocent as she was in the school play, in the face of Gideon’s taunts, because guess what? Judy Hopps can do anything. She became a police officer, cracked Zootopia’s biggest case, and she’s getting married. Married!

She bites her lip. Maybe it’s taboo, but she just can’t help it. She has to. “Judy Hopps,” she says, tentative. “No…Judy Wilde.” The name sends her into another fit of kicks and giggles and a blush that burns her hot to the tips of her ears.

You’re so embarrassing, he would say. Judy knows because she knows him like she knows her heart. Because he is her heart. She’s memorized his every mannerism, every habit, every hair on his head because she never knows when to quit when it comes to something (or someone) she loves. She will become the best officer in Zootopia. She will become the best authority on Nick Wilde. She won’t stop or slow down until she gets there.

Judy Wilde, because Nick Hopps sounded silly for a fox, and Hopps-Wilde or Wilde-Hopps were reminisce of a monster bunny terrorizing the city. Judy Wilde sounds like an adventurer and a fighter and it sounds like her. Why would she settle for any less than destiny?

Oh, gross. You don’t believe in destiny anyway—you believe in working to make your own future exactly what you want it to be, Carrots.

Oh whatever, Brain Nick, she thinks without any venom. This was one of the happiest days of her life, and if she wanted to be a little fanciful and romantic and “gross,” she was allowed to be. She’s excited, and she wants to share that excitement with someone, anyone, everyone. But she keeps it contained.

She doesn’t have to worry about having someone to share with anymore, because this is the last day in her apartment. Nick insisted on cleaning up his place before she came, and he also insisted that they not move into her “shithole city dump,” which she thinks is a bit of a repetitive exaggeration. But Judy, doesn’t mind, really. Tonight is a night to say goodbye.

Goodbye to coming home alone, goodbye to dinners for one, goodbye to a silence broken only by the radio that kept her company when everyone else went home. And hello to a big bed, a warm body beside her; hello to movie nights and cooking side-by-side; hello to late night talks and banter all day long.

Well. It might not be that different from now, after all. She didn’t know why she kept paying rent when she fell asleep at Nick’s place most nights anyway.

Oh, finally, Brain Nick says. You’ll start paying rent.

Judy reaches for her phone even though they haven’t been apart for more than an hour. Maybe she’s being clingy. Maybe. But this was…special.

She doesn’t need to look at the keypad to type his number in. He picks up on the second ring and she feels ridiculously pleased that he’s just as giddy as her. They don’t speak for a moment. Judy’s whiskers twitch in amusement. “Hey,” she says.

I was wondering who was going to call first,” Nick says. She can see his smug face in the tone of his voice.

“Please,” Judy says. “Nick Wilde? Picking up on the second ring? Sounds like some pretty pathetic pining if you ask me. What were you doing, sitting by the phone?”

Maybe,” Nick says with honesty that leaves her breathless. “Not very manly of me to leave you hanging, huh?

“The image of you twirling your hair and checking your phone every minute is kind of endearing actually,” Judy says too quickly, tripping over her words. “I mean,” she takes a breath, “I mean, I’m glad I’m not bothering you.”

You couldn’t,” Nick says. “Well, you bother me pretty much every day, so I should say that I’m used to it by now.”

“Jerk,” Judy laughs into the receiver, tension easing between them. “I miss your dumb face.”

Never fear, you’ll be seeing a helluva lot of it once we’re…um. Once we’re married.” He says it the same way she does, like it’s a secret treasure they’re only just now discovering. Words like ‘marriage’ and ‘fiancée’ and ‘wedding’ have to be treated with the utmost delicacy, this side up, handle with care. They’re not to be taken lightly, but heavy with their meaning, heavy as the pounding of twin hearts.

(For once, Judy thinks, his heart will beat as fast as mine.)

Hey, Judes, can I…can I ask you something?” Nick says.

“Yeah?” Judy replies.

Why today?” he asks. “You could’ve asked me any day out of a thousand in front of us, but you chose today. Why?

The memory of asking him, of hopping up onto the counter of their break room and looking him in the eye, voice calm and clear, a mask for her racing thoughts, flashes bright through her mind. But another memory shines brighter—one of approval and love and the most important thing she had aside from her job and her fox: family.

“Are you sure, Judy?” her mother had asked, a paw on her father’s shoulder, eyes clear and full of nothing but love and acceptance. (And of course, that lingering concern Judy adored so much.)

She had nodded, unable to speak through the lump in her throat as all the fear of rejection flooded from her body, replaced with a love for her parents that had never pounded through her veins stronger than in that moment. Her father had smiled.

“It’s not that we have any problem with it,” he explained. “You know, you were the one who opened our eyes to the wonderful nature of foxes. Gideon is kind, and honest, and a hard-worker. He’s lovely to have over for dinner and, well,” he exchanged glances with his wife, “well, we’d love to invite a fox into our family. You made that acceptance possible.”

“It’s just—interspecies relations aren’t the most…conventional…partnerships, dear,” her mother said. “You’ve done such an amazing job breaking barriers, but this one is a toughy. There are still a lot of folks out there who frown upon interspecies prey or predator relationships, not to speak of prey-predator relationships.”

“Then I guess I’ll have to keep making changes and widening peoples’ minds,” Judy had said finally, smiling tentatively at her parents. “I’m not giving up Nick because some people talk behind our backs. I’m sure he feels the same.”

Her father had stepped forward, placed his paws on her shoulders. “Then let me ask you one final question: do you really, really love him?”

Judy can’t explain what had gone through her mind at that moment. Every close call, every dumb joke, every passing touch, every smile, every snarl, every inch of him and second they shared—they flashed through her mind and she felt tears fill her eyes and overflow.

“Yes,” she said, final as the click of handcuffs closing, of the sliding of a badge over fabric. As final as her ticket to Zootopia that had taken her away from everything she had ever known and brought her home. She had sniffled and wiped her eyes, but there was no shame in being in love.

“Then go get him,” her mother said.

But that was a story for another time.

“Clawhauser,” Judy replies. “Clawhauser made me realize it was time to ask.”

On the other end of the line, Nick cackles. “So, so let me get this straight—he actually assumed we had already moved in? And that you were cheating on me by flirting with that timber wolf? Oh, that is just too good.”

“I know, right?” Judy says. “Who dates timber wolves?”

I guess if Clawhauser knew, it was about time we screwed our heads on, huh,” Nick says more gently. “I’m glad you did it, even if you didn’t get down on one knee.” Judy rolls her eyes, even though she knows he can’t see it. “I wouldn’t have been able to.”

“Sure you would,” Judy counters. “I’m just a widdle, tiny bunny. I’m not scary.”

Yeah,” Nick agrees. “I’m not scared of you. But I was scared of my feelings for you.

Judy’s breath catches. “Nick…”

Let me off easy, would you?” he teases weakly. “I’m used to being told no; it wouldn’t have been a surprise if you turned me down. But I didn’t want to hear no. And if I couldn’t hear yes, I’d rather hear nothing at all.

“I’m glad I asked you, too,” Judy says. Quiet, to match him. “Hey Nick?”

Mm?

“Dibs on choosing our wedding colors,” she says.

Oh, no way in hell,” he laughs. “You’ll just make it ZPD colors out of your sick, sick love affair with police work.”

“I was thinking blueberry blue,” she says smugly.

That’s cheating!” Nick grouses. “You know that’s my favorite.”

“Get ready for a lifetime of cheating, babe,” Judy giggles. “You signed up for it.”

At least let me wear the dress,” Nick sighs dramatically. “I’ll have you know white is my color.”

“I’d probably trip over the train anyway,” Judy says thoughtfully.

Shit, I shouldn’t joke around with you like that,” he says. “Knowing you, you’d actually get me a dress.

“And you would make a beautiful bride in it, too,” she teases.

Jerk,” he says. Her face aches from smiling.

“Thanks for saying yes,” she says finally. “I’m going to sleep, now, I think. And thank you for picking up the phone.”

Gee, Carrots, if you’re going to thank me over little things like that, our whole life will be thanks,” Nick says.

“Well, I sure am thankful for it,” she murmurs, closing her eyes. “Everything that was, everything that is, everything that will be.”

Sap,” he says. A pause. “But I guess it’s about time I start returning the favors you’ve done me.

“You can start by giving me a back rub,” Judy yawns into the phone. “Also…call a realtor or something…we need a real house…eventually…”

Get some sleep, sweetheart,” Nick says fondly. “I’ll see you bright and early tomorrow.

“Mmkay,” she agrees. “Good night, Nick. I love you.”

I love you, too, Judy. Good night.

She lets him hang up just to listen to the static for a moment and imagine it’s his breath tickling across the airwaves. She puts her phone on her side table and closes her eyes again. In her mind’s eye, she can see him, fur ruffled and uniform creased, not fully tucked in around the back. He’s clutching a latte in either hand, hers with extra foam. He slinks into the station with poor posture and a grimace on his face, and when he yawns, his breath might even smell.

But when he sees her tomorrow morning, like he does every morning, he will smile and crack a joke at her expense, straighten up just a little taller, puff his chest up a little higher, and that is what makes it all worth it.

Downfall - Chapter 1: Promotion, not Punishment

Summary: When Detective Hopps and her partner are assigned to a new case, the interventions of a mysterious organization and the increase in violent crimes perpetuated by predators makes Judy wonder if the Nighthowler’s case was indeed finished two years prior. Zootopia seems to be falling into a new wave of hysteria with the recent events, and as pillars of predator and prey relationships, Nick and Judy’s example is necessary to remind the population that both can coexist in peace.It’s such a shame then that interspecies romantic relationships are a taboo.

Rate: M - Parings: WildeHopps - Genre: Suspence, Romance, Mystery

AO3 Link - Fanfiction.Net Link

anonymous asked:

Hi! I have a biology question for you. Its believed that many animals use bioluminescence to attract prey. I believe that works for insects, deep sea animals and stuff. But why then didn't those animals eventually evolve the instinct to avoid lights instead of going after them?

Yes, bioluminescence has widespread use amongst invertebrates, particularly marine invertebrates, as well as fishes and sharks etc., especially those that live in a deep sea habitat. 

Before I talk about bioluminescence specifically, I’ll just quickly run through some predator prey dynamics. The relationship between a predator and it’s prey can be seen as an arms race, i.e. the two are constantly evolving and adapting to try and have an edge over the other. For example, natural selection will favour a predator that can run faster and catch more prey than other members of the species, and be more likely to survive and produce more fast offspring, and thus the adaptation for faster running will evolve. On the flip side, there will also be a selective pressure for the prey species to become faster, and thus they evolve to outrun predators, and so you end up back to square one. This is also known as the Red Queen Hypothesis, after the Red Queen in Alice and Wonderland:

There is usually a balance met, an equilibrium between the effectiveness of both sides. Obviously animals can’t become infinitely fast - there were be physiological limitations, and various costs and for each adaptation - for example longer legs for running may make the animal more fragile and prone to breaking legs, or may make it lose body heat faster etc. Trade offs, and cost/benefit analyses, almost identical to those in economics, are fundamental to evolutionary biology. What adaptations are the most cost effective will change over a temporal scale, not only because of counter-adaptations in the other species, but also due to environmental and ecological factors which are constantly in flux. 

Usually the equilibrium tends to be in favour of the prey species, i.e. they have the edge, and in this example, more likely to outrun the predator. This due to something known as the life-dinner principle  - a predator will be running to catch it’s dinner, whereas the prey will be running for it’s life, i.e there is a much stronger selection pressure on the prey as for them it is a life or death situation, whereas the predator just loses a meal. This is why predators often pick off weak or injured prey - healthy adults will probably outrun them/be too dangerous/too much effort to catch. 

Additionally, one side of the race can “win” - if a predator becomes so good at catching prey it may wipe out the prey population, and will have to move on to different prey or die. Thus it’s usually in a predator’s interest not to be TOO good. This is also why predator population numbers are usually much smaller than their prey (predator populations rise -> more prey is eaten -> less food for everyone -> predators die of starvation and population falls -> prey population rises due to low numbers of predators -> cycle begins again, the classic example of this is the showshoe hare/lynx cycle ) 

Equally the prey could become so good at avoiding predation that, the predator again must move on to another prey source or die. We don’t really see these situations in nature because by definition, one side is extinct or is in a relationship with another species BUT we can see this happen with invasive species who outcompete native species and drive them to extinction. 

SO what your question seems to be asking is: why are bioluminescent predators that use light as a lure winning the arms race, why are prey species not evolving a counter adaptation, i.e. learning that bioluminescence is a trap? 

Well this luring behaviour is most common in the deep sea, and because of this, we have to take a lot of factors into account. First of all, bioluminescence in the deep sea is widely used and has many functions.  In can be used as camouflage, whereby light emitting organs line the belly of animals such as squid and fish, breaking up their silhouette from below.

It can be used as a defensive mechanism - many small crustaceans, plankton,  squid, and other invertebrates release clouds of bioluminescence ink to coat potential predators, making the predator itself more vulnerable to predation. 

Much like toxic animals on land like ladybirds and tree frogs use bright colours to advertise their toxic nature (aposematism), some animals like jellyfish use bioluminescence to signal their toxicity. Some animals, like dragonfish even use bioluminescent organs beneath their eyes as headlights to find prey.

A huge application for bioluminescence is communication, particularly for mate attraction. The deep sea is an unimaginably vast and empty place, so finding a mate in the darkness is very challenging. For example, ostracods (small shrimp like crustaceans) flash brightly to attract mates.

Since animals like ostracods are low in the food web, they are prey species for many deep sea animals, and thus many animals seek out flashing bioluminescence in order to find them. This is where luring animals, such as anglerfish come in, by mimicking bioluminescent prey species, they attract predators right to their mouth. Maybe now you can begin to see why simply avoiding lights to avoid predation wouldn’t be an option, it all comes back to costs and benefits

If an animal begins to avoid flashing lights, the benefit of not getting eaten may be outweighed by the cost of not finding food or not finding a mate (in evolutionary biology, not breeding is just as costly as dying). So, you can avoid predation, but will then either starve, or not pass on the genes for avoiding predation. Furthermore, the deep sea is so vast and spaced out that the probability of encountering a luring predator is negligible compared to  the probability of encountering your much more numerous prey species or mate. Thus, the proportion of the population lost to lure predation will be close to the rate of death from stochastic (random) events, and there will not be a strong selection pressure to develop an aversion for lures. 

Furthermore, luring predators like anglerfish tend to be opportunistic generalists - they will eat whatever they can get, and thus do not exert a strong predation pressure on any one species. If luring predators become more effective, and their population grows, then something similar to the lynx-hare cycle may occur. So all together, due to the deep sea environment and the ecology and population dynamics of the predator and prey species, arrive at equilibrium we have today - it’s not worth avoiding bioluminescence a) because it may have a direct cost to the prey, and b) the chances of being killed by traps is very low relative to the size of the prey population. 

We can look at terrestrial examples too. The larvae of fungus gnats (arachnocampa luminosa) in New Zealand live in caves and lay sticky bioluminescent threads from the ceiling to attract and trap flying insects. Flying insects such as moths use light (specifically starlight) for navigation, so adaptations for avoiding light are costly, as you may not be able to find food/mates as effectively. Furthermore, the populations of flying insects are so incredibly massive, that deaths from getting trapped in these rare caves is negligible, and thus there is not a strong selection pressure. 

Sorry if that was long, I hope it helps!

Happy Canada Day! We’re celebrating with the Canada Lynx and Snowshoe Hare diorama, which takes place in late October, Quebec, Canada.

Despite its best efforts to hide, a snowshoe (varying) hare has captured the attention of a Canada lynx. If the hare acts quickly, it may escape. With its large “snowshoe” hind feet, this hare can bound 12 feet (3.6 meters) in a single leap, even in deep snow.

Still, lynxes specialize in hunting rabbits. They too have broad, well-furred paws and fast reflexes. Lynx hearing and vision are also excellent for tracking rabbits on the run. This hare’s fur coat, which varies with the season, will surely stand out against the October snow—the pelt has not yet turned fully white.

Canada lynxes eat mostly snowshoe hares—which in turn are preyed on almost exclusively by Canada lynxes. This unusually tight predator-prey relationship means that when hare numbers change, so do lynx numbers (and vice versa), sometimes drastically.

Learn more about the Canada lynx and snowshoe hare diorama

The wild and furry landscape of Zootopia, Disney’s new self-contained world of talking animals, is a remarkable place. In this land, mammals have evolved beyond their traditional predator/prey relationship to form a fully functioning society. Their capital city, Zootropolis, is an intricate network of a dozen ecosystems, from a rainforest to a frozen tundra, and residents of all sizes and species are integrated into daily life. This, as our intrepid bunny hero Officer Judy Hopps constantly asserts, is a place “where anyone can be anything.”

‘Zootopia’: A Nimble Tale Of Animal Instincts And Smart Bunnies

Photo: Walt Disney Animation Studios

anonymous asked:

please preserve your Nick/Judy tags and use them to write a fanfic please please i'm begging you i want m o r E

You’ve GOTTA be referencing this post so here u go anon I’m using your ask to preserve them because I don’t know why would you want me to write it out when I literally wrote out the entire thing and how it goes but I can give you this

#I ship them after a long and tumultuous working relationship fraught with the struggles of workplace romance #having to work past the drama of predator-prey relationships that would inevitably still exist

#I want toes to be trod on and serious talks to happen

#then they can move on to the feelings jams about how they haven’t gotten over their backgrounds yet and how they’re still healing

#It’s the talks about the nightmares and how they can relate to each other while still respecting that the other’s facing demons they aren’t

#then there’s the pining and the need to take care of the other while realizing their partner is perfectly capable of doing so on their own #but they still want to ANYWAY #Confessing such a thing would be so offensive they couldn’t possibly (they both say to themselves)

#Nick’s pretends he’d be cool enough to address his feelings but he’s a Han Solo who just gets antsy and nervous and clumsy #maybe even a little bit bitter #Which Judy doesn’t read favorably at all

#They screw up on the job and that’s when Chief Bogo tells them to sort their shit out

#They get in more and more fights over smaller and smaller things until she blurts it out as a twist of the knife for her side of the fight #and Nick realizes he’s been a colossal dick about it and slinks away with tail between his legs

#Once Nick can swallow his pride and Judy can realize she’s been really confrontational towards him #Once they’re on equally humble ground ready to spill the beans on how they’re feeling #because a romantic confession couldn’t POSSIBLY hurt their partnership more than all this fighting has

#ONLY THEN are they allowed to start courting each other

“Will a fox get along with ______?”

One of the most common questions I get is “Will a fox get along with (a dog, cat, snake, ferret, etc)?”. Although Vader is no longer with us, I can still attest to how well he got along with certain animals. Bear in mind that there is no “code of conduct” that all foxes follow- every individual is different.
**I am, by no means, and expert. I speak only from personal experience!**   

DOGS 

Vader loved dogs. Plain and simple. He got along with almost every one he met- the exception being any older dog who didn’t appreciate Vader’s puppy-like behavior (jumping, nibbling, etc.). Every introduction had to be made slowly, and with leashes/crates to ensure the safety of all parties involved.  Occasionally, there were disagreements… 

But Vader was almost always the one who backed down and gave up in the event of an altercation. Dogs who have had encounters with wild foxes may be inclined to react negatively, so it is best to introduce very, very slowly and with lots of space to move back and disperse tension. Do not automatically assume the two will like each other! 

CATS

Cats are a very different ball game from dogs when it comes to fox interaction.  I had never met a cat that didn’t hate Vader immediately. They would hiss, spit, and bat at him with their paws if he came anywhere near them. As a result, Vader developed a very deep fear/dislike for cats; any time he saw one, he would make his “whomp” noise (a sort of grunt from deep in his chest) and his tail would puff up.
I would never house a cat and a fox together- and I wouldn’t even leave them together unsupervised, no matter how short the time period.  It can be stressful and harmful for both parties!  
That’s not to say that some people have had cats and foxes together- there are many “success stories” in the fox groups, where people adamantly declare that they have no issues with the pairing. It is still something I would not risk. 

SMALL MAMMALS/REPTILES

Just…just don’t do this. Don’t put a fox in a home with small mammals and/or reptiles.  If your fox spends 100% of his/her time outside, then maybe. But if it’s ever in the house where it has access to them, there’s going to be trouble. Someone in one of the fox groups I admin once tried to keep a rabbit in the house with a fox. Any of you who know literally anything about foxes know that there exists a very well-established predator-prey relationship there.  Apparently, this person didn’t. It ended about as well as you’d expect.
So many people vehemently deny there being any danger in housing reptiles with foxes. Try bringing up the subject in a group, and inevitably, someone will attack you and tell you “my snakes love my fox!!” or “my fox doesn’t even acknowledge the snakes!”  This does not automatically mean there is no tension or stress involved. From what I understand, snakes are very sensitive creatures. Do you really want to put them through more stress than they need? And do you want your fox to become hostile toward your snakes, and possibly towards you? No. You don’t. Just don’t risk it.    

As always, if you are considering getting a fox as a pet- please do your research thoroughly. A fox is not a dog/cat hybrid that will cuddle with you and parade around on a leash like a puppy. Foxes are difficult to keep and are illegal or heavily restricted in many states/cities/counties. If you do not have the time and money to dedicate to keeping one, but you still want to enjoy them- consider volunteering at a zoo or wildlife rescue.  Contribute funds to mange cures for wild foxes, and help spread the word about the effectiveness of the oral rabies vaccination. If you have any further questions, my ask box is always open.      

A Day Off - NickxJudy drabble

“Did we do something wrong?”

“Probably.”

“I can’t think of anything we did wrong. But we must’ve done something wrong, otherwise why would Chief want to see us?”

“Maybe he wants to congratulate us. We’re pretty fantastic, you know.”

The fox and the bunny stopped at the door to Chief Bogo’s office. “Then again,” went on Nick, “I pretty much just ride along and try not to make things worse. So if there’s a medal involved, I’ll make sure you get to wear it.”

Keep reading

  • What she says: I'm fine.
  • What she really means: In Zootopia, Nick makes at least two references to God, once when he finds the Jerry Vole CDs and once during his flashback. Additionally, Mr. Big's transport polar bear crosses himself when Mr. Big talks about his now deceased grandmother. All of these events imply that there is at the very least a Christian-based religion within the world of Zootopia. Ignoring the fact that this is a Western animated feature intended, largely, for Western audiences and that the scene with Mr. Big was a reference to the Godfather, what does this mean for the religious structure within Zootopia and its surrounding communities? Do they actually believe in God or a god? If so, what form does this being take? Given that there are hundreds if not thousands of species represented in Zootopia, what species is God or the god? What about Jesus, if he exists in Zootopia's world? Do certain species have claim to Jesus as one of theirs? And what about other religions, like Judaism and Islam, that have similarities to Christianity but are not the exact same? Are there different interpretations of the origins that have led to different religions with different species as the main figures in their canons? What of polytheistic religions? Are all religions limited to one species, or are there cross-species religions? Do some species have a greater claim to a religion than others? Have there been religious wars over who has the "right" claim to certain figures that feature predominantly in religious doctrine? Are these possible differences reconciled in Zootopia, like the predator and prey relationship is supposedly like? Or are they still an issue, but not as obvious, much like the predator and prey relationship as explored in the film?