pre war germany

9 Merciless Serial Killer Movies That Every Hardcore Horror Fan Needs to See

1. Snowtown (2011)

Why you should watch: Snowtown (also known as The Snowtown Murders) presents Australia’s most notorious killing spree with grim realism and a no-holds-barred display of graphic violence. This movie will reach into your mind and …

When you’re in the mood for: A bleak and psychologically disturbing true story with an all-consuming sense of dread that will leave you rattled for days.

2. Dahmer (2002)

Why you should watch: A creepily mesmerizing Jeremy Renner delivers an unforgettable performance as one of the most brutal serial killers of all time.

When you’re in the mood for: The chills and unsettling terror that comes from seeing inside the mind of a psychotic killer (but without all the gore).

3. Henry: Portrait of a Serial Killer (1986)

Why you should watch: Simply put, it’s the movie that caused the MPAA to famously tell filmmakers that absolutely no recut of the footage could lead to an R rating. The terror comes from more than just the graphic scenes, it’s in the movie’s blood.

When you’re in the mood for: A low-budget but impressively realistic depiction of a deranged serial killer that aims to shock and disturb.

4. Martyrs (2008)

Why you should watch: Martyrs is a brutal and relentless film about abduction, torture and revenge that leaves most viewers divided. However you end up feeling, you won’t escape Martyrs without an opinion.

When you’re in the mood for: An unconventionally mind-bendy and gruesome tale that covers many subgenres of horror and always keeps you guessing.

5. Peeping Tom (1960)

Why you should watch: Everyone knows about Psycho, but far fewer have seen the cinematic masterpiece of voyeurism known as Peeping Tom. Originally, the fact that it was told from the perspective of the killer scandalized the entire United Kingdom and destroyed the career of the previously revered director. These days, it’s considered a must-see predecessor to the slasher genre.

When you’re in the mood for: An influential classic that pioneered the kind of psychological horror and voyeuristic camera work we’ve become so used to today.

6. Maniac (2012)

Why you should watch: Maniac compellingly features first-person point of view filming that, like Peeping Tom, forces you to see through the eyes of a killer. It’s the kind of gruesomely violent movie you put on when you’re trying to add some style to your stomach-churning experience.

When you’re in the mood for: A remake that exceeds the original with a commitment to more experimental filming and a seemingly never-ending supply of gore.

7. Chained (2012)

Why you should watch: Chained explores what happens when a kidnapped little boy follows the instructions of a serial killer in order to survive. It has a strong (but hard to swallow) message about violence that will definitely end up causing conversation.

When you’re in the mood for: A movie that will disturb you with the human side of a serial killer and a claustrophobic environment of abuse.

8. The Midnight Meat Train (2008)

Why you should watch: With the same in-your-face tone as its title suggests,The Midnight Meat Train makes for a tense, bloody, and surprisingly well-crafted ride-along with a psycho killer. Some people have hated the ending, but even the critics found enough excitement along the way to make this a worthwhile trip.

When you’re in the mood for: A visually sophisticated and straight-forward thriller with over-the-top kills and a maddening pace.

9. M (1931)

Why you should watch: Without M, there would be no Psycho or Silence of the Lambs. Even for those who don’t care about its influence, M is an engrossing and deeply unsettling film that creates one of the most tense atmospheres ever on screen. For history buffs who see horror as a window into the social dynamics of a time period, M is also a fascinating dissection of mass hysteria in pre-World War II Germany.

Forced patriotism is not patriotism, it is submission to a dictator who threatens you if you don’t obey. That’s called “authoritarianism” not a democracy. Pure and real patriotism is supporting our Constitution, the 1st Amendment and the right to peaceful protest. Many people in this country, particularly in the South, prefer a right-wing dictatorship over a democratic republic, hence Trump. One of the reasons Trump gets so very angry is that he cannot rule as a dictator in this country. This country, its history, its political system, and its culture, are entirely different in so many profound ways than pre-World War 2 Germany, the era that he loves. Trump needs to let that sink into his obtuse brain.

#8 People’s Republic of Poland

Photo: Priest splits beating of Solidarity protesters by paramilitary police, Warsaw, People’s Republic of Poland, 1982

■ World War II devastated Poland. 5 million inhabitants of pre-war Poland were killed, many of these casualties were the result of the deliberate extermination of the Jewish and Polish elite. Warsaw – the capital of the Second Republic – was virtually burned to ground. As a result of post-war peace conferences, Poland lost the majority of its eastern territories but was compensated with some industrial regions of pre-war Germany on the west – it literally moved around 100-150 kilometres westwards, which brought on the necessity of resettling 2 million people!

■ Poland was to be rebuilt yet again, this time under a severely anti-democratic communist regime with an inefficient economic system. This, accompanied by robust political and cultural isolation, made Poland’s reconstruction much slower than those of Western European countries.

■ Constant economic stagnation, shortages in the supplies of basic goods, and a lack of political freedom and free media, as well as the frequent abuses of power of the political elites, marked the communist period with great social unrest and protests, always brutally suppressed by the establishment.


Opel Kadett Roadster Strolch, 1938. A prototype for a convertible version of the first generation Kadett. A shortage of steel in pre-war Germany and concerns that it would not sell in viable quantities prevented the car being produced. The car in the colour photographs is a replica, based on the car in the black and white photographs, which was built by Opel engineers 

hoseokjung's wings / demian theory

begin: In Demian, we see over and over again the images that are portrayed in the short piece with Jungkook. Emil Sinclair, the main protagonist dreams extremely vivid dreams involving multiple other characters (ie Demian, the mysterious new boy with the face and demeanor of a grown man). Sinclair has a multitude of dreams that have underlying patterns that include symbolism of sparrow hawk, a bird that connects Demian to Sinclair (Demian notices Sinclair has the mark of cain [a biblical reference to a certain ~mystical aura about him]). Sinclair grows to understand that these dreams are certain pieces of his identity that tie him together. First he dreams of Demian, then he dreams of the sparrow hawk, and finally of the woman that seems like Demian but is not quite Demian (which later turns out to be Demian’s mother [and furthermore a representation of Sinclair himself]). He finds himself with the urge to paint and paints these images that come to him in a dream. There is a distinct scene where Sinclair sees the sparrow hawk in a dream, paints a picture of it and quickly mails it to Demian. During the setting of the book, or pre-World War I Germany, there was a time of unrest caused by the impending and tumultuous warring era to come, so many youth were plagued by the fear of eventually having to serve in battle.

In begin, Jungkook is Sinclair. He is plagued by his dreams and his inability to follow them. He has cryptic dreams and conversations in his head. I think that the car crash sound is a metaphor for the impending doom that there is to come (paralleling to the impending doom that is World War I in Demian). He wakes up from his dream and stares at the painting and there is a scene where the painting seems to be shedding tears. I think Jungkook is seeing himself the way Demian eventually saw himself in his own paintings. This is a metaphor for growing up and into one’s own self. We see Jungkook going through the exact motions Sinclair goes through as he takes his picture of the sparrow hawk and stuffs it in a letter. The teaser ends with his wings spreading wide as his loss of childhood and growth as an adult continue.

lie: in demian, the dichotomy of two worlds is strong and we see that there is a stark contrast between good and evil and i think lie was named what it is to highlight the particular event in demian where Emil Sinclair is antagonized by Franz Kromer. Sinclair, not wanting to be an outsider, makes up a story about stealing apples and Kromer blackmails him, knowing that Sinclair’s story is false. Sinclair feels a huge feeling of guilt and shame, having previously been an untainted Christian church boy; he now was a devil worshipping liar. These feelings are further exacerbated when he arrives home with his shoes sullied and his father scolds him for bringing mud into the house. The fact that he had done something worse beyond tracking mud into his house gave him a sense of superiority over his father, causing him to feel this feeling of individualistic growth for the first time. The temptation of the realm of the evil has spread in his soul causing him to believe that he has released a demon of sorts within himself.

in lie, jimin represents the dichotomy of two worlds in the eyes of Sinclair. Here is he stuck between two realms, the realm of the good and pure and the realm of evil and crude. The in between period between two extremes. Again we see the piano on fire, a theme between the two teasers.

stigma: In demian, Emil Sinclair has a scene where he runs into Alfons Beck, a schoolmate of his. Beck teaches Sinclair about the seedy parts of life including the debauchery of going out with your best mates and having wild nights barhopping and going on sexual pursuits. Sinclair eventually succumbs to a life of debauchery and almost gets expelled from his boarding high school. His father comes to him twice to beg him to set himself straight, yet he does not. One day while walking in the park, Sinclair sees a girl, who he names Beatrice, and begins idol-like worship. He praises her and puts Beatrice on a pedestal and worships her as his ideal. Sinclair, at this point, is stuck in one place mentally AND losing his innocence at a rapid speed.

We see this debaucherous theme carried through over to stigma, wherein Taehyung is seen vandalizing. Moreover, as he is caught and rebuked, he does not apologize nor feel guilty, he is simply numb like Sinclair was at the time, confused and motivated by Satan, he continues his rampage only to eventually get caught by the police. It then cuts to him tending to a female, who I assume is the parallel to Sinclair’s Beatrice. The teaser ends with Taehyung in a cage with a puppy, whom he lets go of. This is a clear allusion to Sinclair’s loss of mental health and innocence.

first love: In demian, Emil Sinclair meets Pistorious, a theologian and son of a pastor. Pistorious plays Bach in a dimly lit church that Sinclair happens to stop by. As Sinclair nostalgically recalls the past, he sits down to listen Pistorious. One day he follows Pistorious to a bar and talks to him about Abraxas. They worship Abraxas (the God of all things both good and evil) together and Pistorious serves as a sort of mentor to Sinclair. Pistorious says that he “cannot consider prohibited anything that the soul desires”. Frequently, Pistorious and Sinclair sit down to do ‘fire worship’, where they light something on fire and watch the images that the fire and smoke conjure. Later, Sinclair says something to Pistorious that creates an awkwardness that destroys much of their friendship.

In first love, we see Yoongi breaking and entering a room with a piano, similar to the organ that Pistorious plays. Pistorious knows so much, yet also knows very little, for he is old and antiquated with his ways. Yoongi is Pistorious as he serves as a mentor to Jungkook, however as they continue to do fire worship together and spend time together, Jungkook(Sinclair) grows past and beyond what Yoongi (Pistorious) has to offer. The car crash symbolizes Jungkook no longer needing Yoongi.

so did yoongi die? yes or no?
 the answer is simple: neither. he is neither dead nor alive, for the dichotomy of good and evil balance each other out. at the end of demian, as both Sinclair and Demian are sent off to war, one day while Sinclair is standing guard, he and his troop are attacked, he is wounded and when he is in a safecamp getting aid he dreams (though he feels that it is real) that Demian is there to say his last words. Hermann Hesse establishes by this point that Demian is mystically connected to Sinclair (by the mark of cain). In reality, Demian died in battle that day and Sinclair felt that through their connection, but by this point in Sinclair’s life, he’s taken Demian and made Demian a part of himself. Thus, Demian may have physically died, but his role as a part of Sinclair lives on, in duality like much of the rest of the dichotomy of this novel. Jungkook is able to take the death of yoongi as the growth of yoongi within him, so yoongi is not technically dead, though he is tangibly dead.

Two Armies at Verdun - The Germans


“No battle in history,” wrote British historian Alistair Horne, “was to be more of a ‘soldier’s battle’ than Verdun, and it was to be these humbler creations - more than the Joffres and Falkenhayns - that were to be its principal actors.”  The clash between France and Germany was the war’s principal conflict, one that had already been horrendously bloody in 1914 and 1915.  At Verdun in 1916, however, both armies were at their peak fighting strength.  Here the final death struggle between them began.  Here is the state of the German Army as it prepared its attack on Verdun.

In 1870, the victorious Prussian Army was a rapier, finely-tuned and capable of out-maneuvering its opponents.  In 1914, the army that invaded France as by contrast a large and unwieldy bludgeon, a machine of brute force smashing its way to Paris.  On the Marne, its advance had been halted, but two years of trench warfare and honed it into a excellent fighting machine, and supremely confident of victory. Though civilians in Berlin were starting to tighten their belts, shortages did not yet affect the army at the front.  The German force amassing on the Meuse in February 1916 was an army at its peak.

The Kaiser’s army was not one but many, an amalgamation of royal armies that were retained after the unification of the German Empire in 1871.  Prussians, Bavarians, Saxons, Württembergers, Hessians, Hanoverians, Brunswickers and the forces of many lesser regions marched under their own flags, though not all shared Prussia’s fighting spirit: the Saxons in particular detested their overlords and preferred not to fight when possible.

Even so, fighting spirit was high and martial abilities skilled.  A German citizen began his military service at seventeen, and would not be done before he was forty-five, staying on as a reservist.  The Army was the premier institution in Germany, beloved by the Kaiser over all else.  Mirabeau’s quip that Prussia was an army that happened to possess a state still rang true.  At its highest level, the General Staff commanded and plan with efficiency and speed, and was formed by a small and self-selecting elite of highly trained officers, knowledgeable in military and above all logistical matters, the “demi-gods of the army,“ as historian William Philpott writes.

Germany’s officers were equally skilled and prepared.  Though the higher command remained the preserve of the nobility, except for in the more technical branches, the junior branches came mostly from the middle class, officer status both shortening regular service to three years and a good way to achieve higher social status in pre-war Germany.  Below the officers, Germany’s Army relied heavily on its NCO’s.  Since the officer corps was small, NCO’s could be found in command of platoons and companies in the army.  A twelve-year stint doing this guaranteed a job in the imperial civil service after the tour of duty.

Germany preferred rural peasants for its conscripts, boys steeped in German tradition, unlike city mice who might be “infected” with socialist ideas.  Even those rejected for service were put down in the Ersatz (supplementary) reserve, meaning that Gernany had over one million semi-trained extra men available for call-up at the beginning of the war. 

The German Empire was a state molded by and geared for war.  It was belligerent and aggressive, nationalistic, and supremely confident in victory, a victory that would assure Germany’s rightful place in the sun.  The first step towards the final victory was to begin at Verdun.

On the banks of the Meuse, the Kaiser’s son had been given the honor of commanding the fateful attack.  Crown Prince Wilhelm’s Fifth Army had twelve-hundred guns in position, prepared to bombard the French positions.  The bombardment would be massive, designed to smash any semblance of French opposition, the infantry merely advancing to occupy ground before another barrage destroyed the next French lines, drawing in more enemy reinforcements that would then be chewed up in more bombardments.  Unlike the French, the Germans had dug themselves deep concrete bunkers, or stollen, which could resist all but direct hits from howitzer shells.  They had been built as temporary shelters, however, not comfortable bunkers, and so taut-nerved German shock troops spent an unhappy week waiting for the command to attack by bailing icy water out of their concrete homes.

The Fifth Army five corps were a microcosm of the German Empire at its supreme fighting strength.  In 1916, a German corps contained only two divisions, each with two brigades, each brigade with two regiments; a regiment two or three battalions, the battalions containing ideally around 1,100 men.

On the Fifth Army’s extreme right flank lay VII Reserve Corps, made up of stolid enduring northern Westphalian German farmers from Munster, Dusseldorf, and the Ruhr.  Their commander, General von Zwehl, had been given the Pour le Mérite, Germany’s top decoration, in 1914 for the capture of the French fortress of Maubeuge at the outbreak of the war. 

Next in line was General von Schenk’s XVIII Corps, Hessians who could trace the founding of many of their regiments from Germany’s “War of Liberation” against Napoleon in 1813.  Now they were following in their ancestors’ footsteps by taking part in the final defeat of France.

On XVIII Corp’s left, between the villages of Ville to Herbebois, was the vaunted III Brandenburger Corps, elite troops noted for dash and impetuosity, feats soon to be repeated at Verdun.  The French would note that many of these Brandeburger stormtroopers wore a new steel helmet in place of the old leather pickelhaube.

Less involved in the coming strife was XV Corps, held outside the main range of the battle, and V Reserve Corps held in the second-line, of decidedly second-rate value, composed mostly of elderly Silesian Poles and unwilling Alsation conscripts with an annoying tendency of deserting to the French and revealing German plans.

Of the main striking force at Verdun, “it would be hard to find three harder-hitting corps in the whole German Army.”  Before the battle began, these shock troops were not kept in the best conditions in their freezing stollen bunkers. Nerves were taut, with only occasional duties and perhaps some letter writing to take their thoughts off the coming battle.  Most wanted the battle begin, if only to get the waiting over with.  But even if regimental doctors were receiving a distressing amount of patients with upset stomachs, there is no doubt that this was a military force in peak fighting trim.