Dimensions: H. 19 in. (48.3 cm) W. 17 in. (43.2 cm)
Credit Line: Louis E. and Theresa S. Seley Purchase Fund for Islamic Art and Rogers Fund, 2003
Accession Number: 2003.241
The hull of this sailing ship comprises the names of the Seven Sleepers and their dog. The tale of the Seven Sleepers, found in pre-Islamic Christian sources, concerns a group of men who sleep for centuries within a cave, protected by God from religious persecution. Both hadith (sayings of the Prophet), and tafsir (commentaries on the Qur'an) suggest that these verses from the Qur'an have protective qualities.
Flanked by two other galleons on the horizon, this carefully drawn
imperial calligraphic galleon sits on a row of waves containing
aphorisms. The imperial galleon with its wind-filled sails is an example
of the sophistication of the Ottoman calligraphic tradition. The
distinctive Ottoman imperial insignia (tughra), located on the stern of
the square galley, dedicates the drawing to Sultan Mustafa bin Sultan
Ahmed III (r. 1757–74) (38.149.1). The prow, deck, hull, and stern of
the galleon are a calligram (an image made out of calligraphic phrases).
It contains the names of the seven sleepers of Ephesus and their dog
Qitmir (35.64.3). The standard on the stern of the boat contains the
apotropaic Throne verse (2:255) from the Qur'an. The combination of
Qur'anic verse and the names of prophets, saints, and heroes found in
the Qur'an endows this calligram with amuletic, auspicious, and
talismanic powers. In the sky, like a sun disk, the dated signature of
the calligrapher reads: Abdu'l Qadir al-Hisari in Aksehir in A.H. 1180 /
1766 A.D. The frame is composed of Ottoman Turkish poetry venerating
the Prophet Muhammad.
The image of a woman in a green dress is illustrated using six lines from Imru al-Qais’s 6th century classical Arabic poem “Let Us Stop and Weep” hand written in the Jali Diwani script.
The piece is written in several different hand made and manufactured inks, all with light-fast pigments, written on Papier d'Elephant.
English translation from W.A. Clauston’s “Arabic Poetry”, 1881:
Her neck was like that of a milk-white hind, but, when she raised it, exceeded not the justest symmetry; nor was the neck of my beloved so unadorned. Her long coal-black hair decorated her back, thick and diffused, like bunches of dates clustering on the palm-tree. Her locks were elegantly turned above her head; and the riband which bound them was lost in her tresses, part braided, part dishevelled.
Imru al-Qais’s “Let Us Stop and Weep” is one of the seven Mo'allaqat, a collection of Jahiliyya (Pre-Islamic) epic or long poems, all written in the 6th century, considered to be the finest examples of Pre-Islamic Arabic literature.
The Jali Diwani script was developed in 16th century Ottoman Turkey for mostly ornamental and bureaucratic use. It’s complex interweaving of letters make it both highly ornamental and difficult to forge, hence why it was frequently used on official documents and seals.
This piece is the first in a series of four, one each rendered in red, purple, blue, and green.
Something so few people seem to understand regarding the situation in Europe, is how they seem to think the inherent landscape of the place will not be irrecoverably changed by the current, uncontested ‘refugee’ migration. So often I hear ‘Oh well, we’ll disappear but our culture will survive’. Will it? Do you really think a culture heavily dominated by Islam wouldn’t gut the contents of the Louvre for being un-Islamic? Do you think Notre Dame wouldn’t be converted into a mosque? That its windows and sculptures, like that in every old church in Europe, wouldn’t be smashed as idolatry? That the pagan Parthenon wouldn’t be finished off, or that Stonehenge wouldn’t be pulled down? Can this be called impossible, when its already happened in areas controlled by ISIS, whom many of these ‘refugees’ support, or in places like Saudi Arabia where pre-Islamic sites are regularly destroyed? Our culture will not live on, cradled by a new, ‘adopted’ population. It will be wiped away, and replaced by the culture of a new people, and with it will go thousands of years of memory.
Thank you for listening without getting defensive. I can tell how much thought you put into design. What aspects of Byzantine culture do you mostly study?
years ago during my undergrad career I specialised in Latin language and literature, but my favourite classes outside of Latin were Late Antiquity and Early Byzantium. I focused particularly on the rise of Latin Christendom, the Dominate and Tetrarchy, the Third Century Crisis, Late Antique Historians, and the Nicene Creed. Most (if not all) of it was pre-Islam, so that is completely out of my field and I defer to people who know more in that area.
Acidalia- “of the Well of Acidalius”, “of the Troubles”. Aphrodite bathed in the Well of Acidalius with the Graces. The Well was near Orchomenos. The second interpretation connects Aphrodite with troubles- either bringing them or soothing them as she sees fit.
Acraea- “of the Heights”. This epithet is shared by many deities whose temples were situated upon hills including Zeus, Hera, Aphrodite, and Athena.
Alitta- This epithet combines Aphrodite with the Arabian Goddess Al-lat. Al-lat may have been considered the Great Goddess of Pre-Islamic Arabia, whose domain covered everything from the stars to the Underworld.
Amathusia- “of Amathus”. This was an epithet common in Amathus, a city in Cyprus. This city was one of Aphrodite’s most ancient centers of worship.
Ambologera- “Postponer of Old Age”. This epithet was common in Sparta and statues were dedicated to this aspect of the Goddess there.
Amyclaeus- “of Amyklai”.
Anadyomene- “Risen from the Sea”. This epithets relates to Aphrodite’s birth from the sea. This epithet did not gain popularity until Apelles made a painting showing Aphrodite drying her hair after leaving the ocean. The specific painting was placed in Asclepius’ temple on Cos Island. (Augustus removed the painting for himself in exchange for reducing the taxes on Cos. By the time Nero was emperor, the painting was in bad shape and was replaced.)
Antheia- “the Blooming”, “Friend of Flowers”. This epithet was common in Cnossus.
Apaturus- “Deceptive One”. This epithet was common in Phanagoria and Chersonesus (Tauros). The epithet originated in Tauros, where Aphrodite was supposedly attacked by giants. She asked Heracles for assistance. They both hid in a cavern. Aphrodite then seduced each giant into entering the cavern where they would then be slaughtered by Heracles.
Aphacitis- “of Aphace”. This epithet was common in Aphace, a city in Coele-Syria. There was a temple and oracle dedicated to Aphrodite in the city. Both were destroyed by Emperor Constantine.
Apostrophia- “Averter of Unlawful Desires”. This epithet was commonly used in Thebes. Aphrodite was said to remove lust and sinful desire from people’s hearts. It is said Harmonia, as well as Aphrodite the Heavenly and Aphrodite, Common to All the People, instituted the worship of this new aspect of Aphrodite in Thebes. Historically, it may be that worship of Harmonia and the first two aspects of Aphrodite began in Thebes first, eventually generating a new form of worship.
Aracynthias- “of Mt Aracynthus”. It is believed there was a temple to Aphrodite on Mt Aracynthus. However, the location of the actual mountain has never been confirmed.
Area- “of Ares”, “Warlike”. This epithet was most commonly used at Sparta. She was often shown as being fully dressed in armor when called by this name.
Argennis- “Mentor of Argennus”. Argennus was a favorite of Agamemnon. Agamemnon tried to seduce him, but Argennus fled. He jumped into the Cephissus River and died. Agamemnon built a temple to this aspect of Aphrodite in honor of his love.
Berbia- This is a poorly understood epithet. Any suggestions on the meaning would be appreciated.
Callipygos- “of the Well-Shaped Buttocks”. Statues of this aspect of Aphrodite are known for being soft, luxuriant, and round.
Castinia- “of Mt Kastion”.
Castnietis- This is a poorly understood epithet. I believe it may mean “Wisest of All the Sisters”. Any suggestions on the meaning would be appreciated.
Catascopia- “Spying”, “Peeping”
Cepois- “of the Gardens”.
Cnidia- “of Knidos”. This epithet was common in Knidos, a city in Caria. This city held the famed statue of Aphrodite made by Praxiteles.
Colias- “of Kolios”. The epithet was common in Kolios, a city in Attica. A famous statue of Aphrodite once resided in the neighborhood of Anaphlystus.
Cypria- “of Cyprus”. In some versions of the theology, Aphrodite is born on Cyprus. The island is one of her most ancient areas of worship.
Cyprogenes- “Born in Cyprus”. In some versions of the theology, Aphrodite is born on Cyprus. The island is one of her most ancient areas of worship.
Cytherea- “of Kythereia”. Kythereia is the name of a city in Crete, as well as an island. Both of these places were said to be where Aphrodite made her first landfall. It is unknown which is which, but a temple was dedicated to this aspect of the Goddess.
Despoena- “the Ruler”, “the Mistress”. The epithet was shared by many Goddesses including Aphrodite, Demeter, and Persephone.
Dia- “Divine”, “Shining”, “Daughter of Zeus”.
Dionaea- “of Dione”, “of Zeus”. This name combined the Titaness Dione with Aphrodite. Dione’s domain included the bright sky and water, which can be considered also domains of Aphrodite. Dione’s parents were Oceanus and Tethys, making her a water nymph. Some sources have her father as Uranus or Aether and her mother as Gaia. She was one of the wives of Zeus and witnessed the birth of Apollo. Sometimes Dione and Zeus are named as the parents of Aphrodite. This epithet can also be applied to all symbols associated with either Dione or Aphrodite, such as the dove.
Epistrophia- “She Who Turns to Love”.
Erykina- “of Eryx”. The epithet was common on Mt Eryx in Sicily, where a famous temple was dedicated to the Goddess. The temple was built by Eryx, son of Aphrodite and Butes, King of Sicily. Although, it is also said Aeneias built the temple. Eryx’s daughter, Psophis, dedicated a temple to this aspect of the Goddess in Psophis, a city in Arcadia. At the beginning of the Second Punic War, this aspect of Aphrodite was introduced into Rome. Her first Roman temple was built in 181 BC at Porta Collatina.
Euploea- “Fair Voyage”.
Eustephanus- “Richly Crowned”, “Well-Girdled”.
Gamelii- “Protectress of Marriage”. This was an epithet for all deities who worked to protect marriage and/or presided over marital rites. The deities who shared this epithet were Zeus, Hera, Aphrodite, Peitho, and Artemis. It was believed these five deities must be invoked in order to have a successful wedding and marriage. The Moirai also shared this epithet. However, it can be said any deity may be invoked under the epithet as all deities protect marriage. The month of Gamelion honors this aspect of the Gods. It was also celebrated during the festival of Gamelia.
Genetyllis- “Protectress of Births”. This epithet was shared by Aphrodite and Artemis. It was also the name of a distinct Goddess who worked with Aphrodite. Deities who deal with generation and birth may also share this epithet, and were considered to be companions of Aphrodite of Kolias.
Hekaerge- “Far-Working”, “Worker from Afar”, “Mentor of Hekaerge”. This epithet was shared by Artemis and Aphrodite. The first two interpretations related to Aphrodite. It was most commonly used in Iulus, a city on Cos Island.
Hera- “of Hera”. This epithet combined Hera and Aphrodite. It specifically relates to Aphrodite as a Goddess of Marriage.
Idalia- “of Idalion”. This epithet was common in Idalion, a city in Crete.
Limenia- “of the Harbor”. This epithet is shared by many deities including Zeus, Aphrodite, Artemis, Priapus, and Pan.
Machanitis- “Deviser”, “Contriver”. This epithet was shared by Zeus, Aphrodite, and Athena. This epithet was commonly used in Megalopolis.
Melaenis- “Black”. This epithet was common in Corinth. It referred to Aphrodite’s power to work in the night.
Melinaea- “of Meline”. This epithet was common in the Argive city of Meline.
Migonitis- “of Migonium”. This epithet was used at the Goddess’ temple on Cranne Island in Laconia.
Migontis- “Union” This epithet refers to Aphrodite’s domain over marriage.
Morpho- “of Shapely Form”. This epithet was common in Sparta. She was often represented sitting and veiled, with her feet bound.
Nicephorus- “Bringer of Victory”. This epithet was common among the deities.
Pandemos- “Common to All the People”. This epithet is shared by Aphrodite and Eros. This epithet had a double meaning and strongly tied into Aphrodite’s role as a Love Goddess. Firstly, this epithet was used to refer to Aphrodite as a Goddess of Sex and other Sensual Pleasures. (Compare to this to Aphrodite of the Heavens.) Scopas built a statue to this aspect of the Goddess in the city of Elis where she rode as a ram. Secondly, this epithet refers to Aphrodite’s to unite people into a social and/or political body. This second aspect was worshiped in Athens alongside Peitho. It was instituted by Theseus when he united the scattered townships into the city-state of Athens. It is believed by some that Solon actually called for the erection of a sanctuary to the Goddess in Athens, either because her statue already stood in the agora or because courtesans were required to pay taxes to fund the project. This epithet was also common at Megalopolis in Arcadia and Thebes. Festivals to Aphrodite of this name consisted of the sacrifice of white goats.
Paphia- “of Paphos”. A well-known temple was dedicated to Aphrodite at Paphos in Cyprus. This epithet was also common in Ino. A statue was dedicated to this aspect of the Goddess in the local sanctuary, between Oetylus and Thalamae in Laconia.
Peitho- “Persuasive”. This epithet was shared by many deities including Artemis and Aphrodite. It also referred to the Goddess Peitho, who ruled over persuasion.
Pontia- “of the Sea”.
Pothon Mater- “Mother of Desire”.
Praxis- “Action”. This epithet refers to Aphrodite’s role as a Goddess of Sex.
Pyrenaea- “of the Pyrenes Mts”.
Symmachia- “Ally”. This epithet refers to Aphrodite’s role as a Goddess of Love.
Syria- “of Syria”, “the Syrian”. This epithet combined Astarte and Aphrodite. Astarte was a Middle Eastern Goddess of Fertility, Love, War, and Sex. It is possible Astarte and Aphrodite were originally the same Goddess since Aphrodite’s spread west into Cyprus and then into Greece. An alternative of this epithet is Syria Dea.
Urania- “Heavenly”, “Divine”, “Daughter of Uranus”. This aspect of the Goddess was specific to her role as Goddess of Love. It was usually contrasted with Aphrodite, Common to All the People. It also refers to the possibility of Aphrodite being Uranus’ daughter without a mother. Wine would not be an acceptable offering to this aspect of the Goddess.
Xenia- “of the Foreigner”.
Zephyritis- “of Zephyrium”. This epithet was common in Zephyrium, a city in Egypt.
Zerynthia- “of Zerynthus”. This is a poorly understood epithet. This epithet was common in the Thracian city of Zerynthus. The local sanctuary was built by Phaedra.
I hope this is a helpful list for anyone interested in worshiping Aphrodite. These are her main epithets. I took out alternate spellings and epithets which had the same meanings but were less widely known than the ones shown here. I left similarly spelt epithets with very different meanings. Some epithets whose meanings are unknown appear in the list. Any help identifying these epithets would be awesome. If you are interested in ideas on when to use these epithets or inspiration based on them, shoot me an ask!
(Source: theoi.com- Titles of Aphrodite: Ancient Greek Religion)
Pre-Islamic Iran was Zoroastrian for well over 1,000 years
The basic tenants of Zoroastrianism are “good deeds, good thoughts, and good words”. Zoroastrianism was the religion of the three Persian empires of Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sasanian Empire, which ruled modern-day Iran from 550BCE to 651CE, at which point the newly born Islamic Caliphate attacked Iran. The Muslim conquests consisted of forced conversions, but there were also voluntary conversions, and in many cases people were persuaded to convert because of political benefits of becoming Muslim. Today, a small, but growing Zoroastrian community exists around the world, with the largest concentrations being in India, Iran, and the United States.
I’ve been reading into pre-Islamic Somali beliefs and mythology which fascinates me. Here is some of the information I came across.
Somalis before the arrival of Islam (7th century) through trade, believed in Waaq (sky god) and till this day there are a lot of terms and words in Somali language, culture, folklore and fables that have words that relate to this ancient religion e.g. “barwaaqo” (God’s rain). There are also Somali towns and cities that relate to this religion such as the town of Caabudwaaq (literally meaning “worship waaq), Ceel-waaq (well of Waaq). In Oromo culture, Waaq or Waaqo denotes the single god of the early pre-Abrahamic, monotheistic faith believed to have been adhered to by Cushitic groups. This belief system still somewhat exists in some Oromo societies.
Somali mythology dates to pre-Islamic times and includes belief in jinn, supernatural spirits, and ghouls treacherous shape-changing spirits, who are said to inhabit significant features of the landscape, including wells, crossroads, and burial grounds. Also extremely important is astrology, which is thought to provide divinations of the days ahead; some Somalis believe that the appearance of certain stars, constellations, and eclipses can presage everything from the coming of rain to a massacre.
Somalis also had a strange assumption of the universe and the cause of natural disasters along with that. They believed: The equilibrium of the Universe in Somali mythology was tied with the love between a Bull and a Cow. The Universe was said to balance itself on the horns of a bull, a beast forever staring at the cow tied to a pole in front of him. Whenever his love turned her eyes away from the Bull, it would result in a physical shift that caused natural disasters on Earth. Religious temples dating from antiquity known as Taalo were the centers where important ceremonies.
Eebo (God) is the Somali word for God and was synonymously used for the ancient Cushitic Sky God Waq in Somali and Waaqa in oromo. According to Somali Legend Eebo lived in the Heavens and whenever the nomads successfully prayed for rain it was known as Barwaaqo (God’s rain)
The Ayaanle(Angels) in Ancient Somalia or Ayaana in Oromo were known as the good spirits and acted as mediators between God and humans. They were said to be bringers of luck and blessings.
Huur (Reaper) was the messenger of Death and had the form of a large bird. The deity was akin to Horus of ancient Egypt and played a similar role in Somali society.
Nidar (Punisher) was the righter of wrong. He was considered the champion of those that were exploited by their fellow humans. The deity has survived in modern Somalia as a popular saying; Nidar Ba Ku Heli ("Nidar will find and punish you”)
So not wearing the hijab means you are associated with ignorance, hence why religious people will always be pieces of judgemental shits.
Is that what I said? Did is say that? Calm yourself before you pop a blood vessel.
Jahaliyyah is a word in Arabic that is used to talk about the pre Islamic time when people drank, and engaged in illegal sexual actions etc.
this word is close to the English word ignorance. When Islam came it was a time of enlightenment and knowledge so when I use the word ignorance I’m referring to haram actions.
Say you have four people. A nun, a monk, a hijabi woman, and a Muslim man in a thobe. None of these people are going to be associated with drinking, having sex with everyone, and partying. No one is going to invite these people to a party full of sinful actions because they automatically think they are religious people; which is my point.
It’s really not my problem If you want to get upset over someone dressed in western clothes being more likely to get invited to a house party than a nun.
Djinn (الجن; al-jinn, singular: الجني al-jinnī) are supernatural creatures in Islamic mythology as well as pre-Islamic Arabian mythology. They’re mentioned in the Quran (the 72nd sura is titled Sūrat al-Jinn) and other Islamic texts and inhabit an unseen world called Djinnestan, another universe beyond the known spaces. The Quran says that the djinn are made of a “smokeless and scorching fire", but are also physical and able to interact in a tactile manner with people and objects and likewise be acted upon. The djinn, humans, and angels make up the 3 known sapient creations of Allah/God. Like human beings, the jinn can be good, evil, or neutrally benevolent and hence have free will like humans and unlike angels. The shaytan jinn are the analogue of “demons” in Christian tradition, but the djinn are not angels and the Quran draws a clear distinction between the 2. It states in surat Al-Kahf (The Cave) that Iblis (Azazel) is one of the djinn. In Islamic theology djinn are said to be creatures of free will, made from smokeless fire by Allah as humans were made of clay, among other things. According to the Quran, djinn have free will, and Iblīs abused this freedom in front of Allah by refusing to bow to Adam when Allah ordered angels and djinn to do so. For disobeying, Iblīs was expelled from Paradise and called “Shayṭān” (Satan). They are usually invisible to humans, but humans do appear clearly to djinn and can be possessed. Djinn supposedly have the power to travel large distances at extreme speeds and are thought to live in remote areas, mountains, seas, trees, deserts, and the air, in their own communities. Like humans, they will also be judged on the Day of Judgment and sent to Paradise or Hell according to their deeds.
I feel kind awkward when people see that the Aladdin characters are Muslim? Like? it's set in a fictional place but also it's pretty pre islamic to me? Also people saying that Aladdin and Jasmin have european faces and that's racist but like Jasmine and Aladdin look like beautiful middle eastern people?
Pre-Islamic Iran - Cyrus the Great, father of the Persian, King of Persia, who ruled over what is modern-day Iran over 1000 years prior to the Islamic conquest of Iran, defined success as the drive to be kind, generous, and just!
Maas will probably have some arabic-esque culture and make them wear super revealing clothes when pre-islamic arabia people actually still wore quite modest clothes. The bra and harem pants are actully a stereotype.
I know, it sounds awful… I can already see the ignorant shit that book is going to portray.
Inside a typical mud brick house in the Yaghnob Valley of Tajikistan (x)
The valley is home to the Yaghnobi people, a people directly descended from the ancient Sogdian civilization of Central Asia. Due to its natural isolation and limited infrastructure access, the people of Yaghnob Valley have been able to preserve their distinct lifestyle, culture and language, Yaghnobi, which is closely related to ancient Sogdian. Pre-Islamic beliefs and customs are still found in the valley today. Currently, the valley comprises approximately ten settlements, each housing between three and eight families. (x)
Hello! I'm writing a story inspired by pre-islamic arabia, sort of arabian fantasy with djinns and elements that I created, like places, groups, and etc. I'm not going to use Islam or other specific thing, but I did my research. I intend to create a universe that is only inspired by these culture. Is it insulting?
Fictional Setting Based on Pre-Islamic Arabia
First off, for future reference, this is a pretty vague ask and doesn’t give me much to work with, so make sure in later questions that you provide the details of what exactly you think might be offensive.
When you decide to set your book in a specific historic setting, you need to be true to it. You cannot “create” places and groups that did not exist, because then it is not pre-Islamic Arabia. Changing names of places a bit to suit your plot or basing a group on a group that existed is fine, but creating things that have no base in history is not okay. It creates false beliefs about a culture that really has enough of those already.
Also, djinn are mainly a part of Islamic culture, not Arab. In pre-Islamic Arabia they were regarded quite differently than they are in Islam, so make sure you’re careful when picking your sources.
Hi! So in the story I write right now there is a priestess who has been kidnapped by the other city. But now she needs to escape from the palace with a prince - but why? Why they have to flee from the palace? The story is pre-islamic Arabia themed. Do you have any prompts or ideas? And sorry for any mistakes, english is not my first language!
Hey! This sounds really exciting and I’d love to read what you have!
Here are some ideas I have as to why a priestess and prince might need to escape a palace together:
One thousand years before the Islamic conquest of Iran, the Persian Empire abolished slavery, that is over two thousand years prior to the United States putting an end to slavery! When the Muslim conquests Islamized Persia, the Caliphate decided not only to reintroduce slavery but to take sex slaves in battles! And now, many have the audacity to claim Islam came to “civilize” Persia! What we should be incredibly proud of is the fact that we maintained our language and culture, as well as strong aspects of our pre-Islamic traditions and heritage, which today allows the Persian community to be very secular!
so weird to have people following me on this online academic network for some passing, obscure things i posted about the poetics of heavenly bodies in pre-islamic arabic poetry. like, i hope they’re not anticipating regular substantial content from me, it’s as barren as my blog here has become tbh
In earlier decades, Amazigh movement circles were
extremely reticent to mention anything to do with the Arab-
Israeli conflict or the belief in their Jewish “roots.” But starting
in the beginning in the 21st century, they became more open and
blunt. Emphasizing past and present Jewish-Berber connections
has an instrumental value in their struggle to escape the bear
hug of Islamist movements and the state’s own official Islamic
and Arab nationalist-centered narrative. Foregrounding their
indigenousness and pre-Islamic identity in North Africa is central
to their claims for recognition and remedial action by North African governments. While avoiding any open declaration of
having once been Jews, the grand narrative articulated in a 2007
Amazigh organization manifesto stated that, of all the outsiders
who interacted with the Berbers throughout history, “only the
Jews” came in peace. Lhoussain Azergui’s personal testimony,
entitled “Je revendique la part juive en moi” [I claim the Jewish
part in me”], contains all of the themes mentioned here.
Anecdotal evidence of the Amazigh movement’s interest
in things Jewish and Israeli abound. In conversations with
Israelis, Amazigh activists invariably inquire after the state
of the Berber language in Israel, brought by Jews who had
immigrated from Berberophone areas in Morocco (and are
usually quite disappointed to learn that it is not being passed
down to subsequent generations.) In Goulmima, one of the
many southeastern Moroccan Berber villages inhabited by Jews
until the mass exodus to Israel in the late 1950s and early 1960s,
an annual masquerade ritual has been transformed among the
youth into an expression of Amazigh activism and militancy,
rejecting Islamist discourse and identifying with Judaeo-Berber
culture and even Israel. The expressions of philo-Hebraism
among the town’s youth were so disturbing to some that the
local Islamic imam issued a fatwa forbidding them, albeit to
no avail. More generally, the annual gathering draws many
former Goulmima Muslims now living abroad, as well as
Burce Maddy-Weitzman, “Narrating The Past, Serving the
Present: The Berber Identity
Movement and the Jewish