pre industrial

Humans are weird: The lost colony

*Quick note before I start: This is the first installment in a series I’ve called the Lost Colonies which is largely about human society adapting to the strange environments of other worlds. You can read the other installments here: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. I’ve thoroughly enjoyed writing this series, but with my new work schedule I had to bring it to a close. If you’ve enjoyed this story follow me on here for my other writings. Thanks again to everyone who has reblogged, liked, replied, DMed, or otherwise shown their appreciation for this series. It means a lot to me that people enjoyed it and the love you’ve all shown me has really helped keep me going for these last few months.*

An adult Turic sits behind a desk jotting down notes as a recorder takes down the interview for future analysis.
“I understand that this entire ordeal has been stressful for you and your fellow colonists but due to your unique situation we would like to use this opportunity to better understand human culture. Please let me know if we need to stop or if there is anything I can do to make you more comfortable.”
The human, a younger female by the name of Kiara fidgets in her seat.
“No, I’m fine, I just haven’t ever seen an alien before. Hell, until a few months ago no one had ever heard anything but legends of people from outer space.”
The Turic looks down at his notes as he tries to reconcile this information.
“According to our research it says that your colony was originally founded just over 500 Sols ago. Are you saying that in that short amount of time your colony’s knowledge of spacefaring and other sapient races was erased?”
“I guess? What’s a Sol though? How long would that be?”
“Oh, a unit of time measurement based on the solar rotation of your home world. Prior to your race’s colonization of other worlds you referred to it as a year. For reference, you are estimated to be 22 Sols old.”
“Then yeah, that makes a lot of sense. We didn’t really have permanent settlements and had to keep moving. One of the older stories said that we came to our world in a fiery ship and that the remains of it could be found out in the wastes once a cycle. That’s what we call it when the Thaw comes back to the same point.”
“I have heard some of the other colonists mention this Thaw. This is the name for the habitable zone in which your colony exists, correct?”
“Yeah, you live in the Thaw, you move with the Thaw. The Thaw keeps you from burning or freezing as long as you work with it. It protects you, feeds you and keeps you alive, but it always moves so you need to move with it.”

The Turic frantically scribbles notes on its data pad.
“Fascinating. It appears as though your civilization has come to mythologize a natural phenomenon the way your ancestors on earth frequently would. Your colony was founded on a planet that was almost what we would call tidally locked. In essence one side of it always faced your neighboring star and it rotated as it spun around it so that the same side always faced it at all times. However the spin was off by a small fraction so that the planet gradually rotated to have a day/night cycle, but this cycle was so slow that it took roughly 50 Sols for a single rotation. This would have made for a narrow band of surviveable temperatures but one that was constantly shifting albeit at a slow pace.”
Kiara stared blankly at the Turic.
“Sorry, that went a little over my head. What I think I caught from that though is that one side of my world faced the light and one side faced the dark and we lived in the space between. Which yeah, that’s the Thaw.”
“I apologize, this is fascinating for me, I’m just curious as to how or why your people took what appears to be such a large step backwards in their technological capabilities.”
“Well, like I said, some of our stories say that we came from a fiery ship and that it can be found in the wastes. If my people really did come from another world, maybe we crashed and our technology broke. We do tend to keep on the move and we usually leave things behind when they break and can’t be fixed. I wasn’t old enough to remember seeing the great ship when my parents took me there and it was taken by the scorch a long time ago.”

The Turic stared at his data pad wondering how he would even begin to unravel all of this.
“Well, hopefully we can find some solid answers to this mystery someday, but I would like for you to tell me more about your colony. What is life like on your world?”
Kiara straightened up in her seat and smiled.
“My name is Kiara Williams. I’m a frost melt like my mother and father before me. We work on the very edge of the Thaw to make sure that the glaciers, mountains and streams run in the right ways when it comes time for the Thaw to reach them in full. We scout lands in the cold to find new sites for villages. We dig breaks in the ice to make sure that the largest sheets fall away from farms and villages. It’s bitter cold and dangerous work but it’s important and sometimes exciting.”
The Turic stared in an expression that would have been the human equivalent of slack-jawed.
“You colony had the technological equivalence of pre-industrialization. Are you saying that your people geoformed an ice world to ensure proper farmland using little more than steel tools and furs?”
“Well there are plenty of other jobs too. My brother is a farmer out in the warmer parts of the Thaw and I have a cousin who lives on the other end of it as a waste reclaimer.”
“And what is it that your cousin does?”
“He goes out into the scorch looking for broken things that can be fixed or things that were left behind by accident. Most people say that’s not a job for an honest person, but he has a real knack for finding stuff to sell. I heard he even managed to find a few relics off the great ship.”
The Turic made a note to track down this cousin immediately.
“Are those the only professions available?”
“Of course not. There’s bakers and builders and law makers but we do have to keep moving with the Thaw so most of us try not to stay in one place too long. It doesn’t help to get too attached. We can usually only get 3 or 4 harvests out of a plot of land before it gets too hot to grow. That’s why frost melts like me are so important to help scout the farms in advance.”

The Turic glanced at the blinking light on his recorder that was letting him know that his allotted time was nearly up.
“I’ll need to let you get back to your family unit soon, but is there anything else you can tell me about your colony or its culture?”
Kiara sighed. “Not really. Being a frost melt, I spend most of my days surrounded by ice as far as the eye can see. It’s strange and beautiful though. There’s massive mountains made of nothing but ice and I know that if I simply walk for a few hours towards out into the frost it would be cold enough to kill, but I know that I’m the one who gets to tame it. At times when the wind is calm I can breath the cold in deep and look out to the stars and wonder what it would be like to explore them too.”
Kiara looked down at her feet self consciously and laughed.
“I guess I can actually get to do that now huh?”
The Turic adopted the human expression of a smile.
“There is a lot of unexplored space out there. I’m sure the human race would be proud to have you back to help them seek it out.”

Aliens finding out about medieval medicine stuff

This is my second addition to this topic, which I find really really cool, and I could just go along read these all day! I saw a post about a bacteria escaping earth and endangering a planet, then humans just coming with a virus and eradicating the bacteria… This gave me an idea, about aliens finding out what we did in our pre-industrial era to ourselves, 


Ka’ziel looked through the observation deck of the ship, watching the blue-green planet coming closer and closer. Earth. The place where basically the most deadly things evolved in the entire universe… And he was going there, with 10 other historians to learn more about humans, the nearly unkillable race in the entire universe. Thankfully the ship weren’t headed for Earth, they were only going to Earth’s moon, which the humans called just “Moon”…

Apparently humans had 5 big era in their history: Pre-Historic Era,  Ancient Era, Medieval Era, Modern Era, and now, Space Era. Pre-Historic is basically the Era before any written language, Ancient Era is the growing early human cities and the fall of the first empires, Medieval Era is where the humans really started their technological advance, Modern Era is the post-industrialization, and Space Era is today. We learned so much about their early times! But the most interesting lesson will be on today, my specialization: Medicine history! Human Peter, a human medieval historian invited me to a personal lesson about it. 


Human Peter: So in the Medieval Era we believed in a lot of stuff, and they were insanely religious… sooo there was a stop in technological and medical advancement for like 7-800 years or more so. But Medieval science was amazing too, Im sure you heard about the stories of us discovering surgery before anesthetics…

Ka’Ziel: WAIT IS THAT TRUE? I thought that was just a myth like the one about humans sprinkling poison in their eyes just to make them prettier by that ages beauty standards…

Human Peter: well… both of them are true… 

Ka’Ziel just watched as Human Peter sent him a chemical formula describing a Tropane alkaloid  which was so deadly even thinking about making contact with it was enough to leave Ka’Ziels three 25 inch long back-spikes shivering… 

Ka’Ziel: You did this to yourselves? TO MATCH BEAUTY STANDARDS?

Human Peter: Yea we made some strange stuff in the Medieval age…

Ka’Ziel: and what about the myth with humans cutting their veins to heal themselves?

Human Peter: also true, it was because of a superstition of the veins containing demons and stuff…

Ka’Ziel: but in your veins are your main body fluid “blood” right? So isn’t cutting them open cause you to DIE?

Human Peter: well if we don’t do something about it for an hour or so then yes…

Ka’Ziel couldn’t handle this much of information in such a short period of time, so he asked for the lesson to continue later. Human Peter allowed this, but when Ka’Ziel was just leaving the room he said after him: Wait ‘till you hear about Laringotomy!

theguardian.com
BREAKING: Donald Trump confirms US will quit Paris climate deal
World’s second largest greenhouse gas emitter will remove itself from global treaty as Trump claims accord ‘will harm’ American jobs
By Damian Carrington

Oliver Milman and Damian Carrington at The Guardian:

Donald Trump has confirmed that he will withdraw the US from the Paris climate agreement, in effect ensuring the world’s second largest emitter of greenhouse gases will quit the international effort to address dangerous global warming.

The US will remove itself from the deal, joining Syria and Nicaragua as the only countries not party to the Paris agreement. There will be no penalty for leaving, with the Paris deal based upon the premise of voluntary emissions reductions by participating countries.

“In order to fulfil my solemn duty to the United States and its citizens, the US will withdraw from the Paris climate accord, but begin negotiations to re-enter either the Paris accords or a really entirely new transaction on terms that are fair to the United States,” the US president told press in the White House rose garden on Thursday.

“We will start to negotiate, and we will see if we can make a deal that’s fair,” Trump said. “If we can, that’s great. If we can’t, that’s fine.”

A White House document seen by various news organisations said the Paris accord was “a BAD deal for Americans”.

“The accord,” it said, “was negotiated poorly by the Obama administration and signed out of desperation … The US is already leading the world in energy production and doesn’t need a bad deal that will harm American workers.”

The document claimed: “It frontloads costs on the American people to the detriment of our economy and job growth while extracting meaningless commitments from the world’s top global emitters, like China. The US is already leading the world in energy production and doesn’t need a bad deal that will harm American workers.”

A warm-up band introduced Trump by playing the George Gershwin classic Summertime.

In 2015, nearly 200 countries agreed to curb greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent the runaway climate change that would occur should temperatures spiral 2C or more above the pre-industrial era.

Trump’s decision risks destabilizing the Paris deal, with remaining participants faced with the choice of trying to make up the shortfall in emissions cuts or following the US’s lead and abandoning the agreement.

The US emissions reduction pledge accounts for a fifth of the global emissions to be avoided by 2030, with an analysis by not-for-profit group Climate Interactive showing that a regression to “business as usual” emissions by the US could warm the world by an additional 0.3C by 2100. This would help push the global temperature rise well beyond 2C, causing punishing heatwaves, sea level rise, displacement of millions of people and the loss of ecosystems such as coral reefs.

The US withdrawal would not derail global efforts to fight climate change, said Christiana Figueres, the former UN climate chief who delivered the Paris agreement.

“The real economy both in the US and internationally must and will continue its decarbonization trend, pulled much more strongly by market forces than held back by politics,” she said. “States, cities, corporations, investors have been moving in this direction for several years and the dropping prices of renewables versus high cost of health impacts from fossil fuels, guarantees the continuation of the transition.”

She said clarity on the US position would free the rest of the world to concentrate on developing the details of the Paris plan but also warned that leaving was not straightforward: “For months we have been witnessing a vacuous political melodrama surrounding the US exit from the Paris agreement. The fact is that the US government has no legal basis to withdraw from the agreement until 5 November 2019.”

The US will be the loser from its withdrawal, said Prof John Schellnhuber, a climate scientist and former adviser to the EU, Angela Merkel and the Pope. “It will not substantially hamper global climate progress but it will hurt the American economy and society alike,” he said. “China and Europe have become world leaders on the path towards green development already and will strengthen their position if the US slips back. The Washington people around Trump fail to recognise that the climate wars are over, while the race for sustainable prosperity is on.”

“President Trump is putting his country on the wrong side of history,” said Laurence Tubiana, France’s climate ambassador during the negotiation of the Paris deal. “This decision will do damage to the US domestically and to its position globally. If anything, this sad decision will galvanize action among the nearly 200 countries that understand the need to urgently tackle climate change.”

[…]

Trump followed through with his campaign pledge to “cancel” US involvement in the Paris accord following months of conflicting signals over whether he would do so or just scale back the US ambition to cut emissions.

In the past week Trump promised twice, via Twitter, that a decision on the deal would be coming soon, while Sean Spicer, his spokesman, acknowledged on Wednesday that he didn’t know if the president accepted that human activity has caused rising temperatures. Trump has previously called climate science a “hoax”but has also conceded that there may be a connection between burning fossil fuels and global warming.

The withdrawal represents a victory for the nationalist elements in Trump’s administration, such as his strategist Steve Bannon, who have argued the Paris deal undermines an “America first” approach, harms domestic coal production and hinders efforts to repeal Barack Obama-era regulations such as the Clean Power Plan. On Tuesday, Trump met with Scott Pruitt, the Environmental Protection Agency head who has called Paris a “bad deal” that should be discarded.

A group of 22 Republican senators, headed by majority leader Mitch McConnell, backed this view in a letter to Trump that urged a “clean exit” from the Paris deal, which they said added a “regulatory burden” upon the US.

The anti-agreement faction had jockeyed for Trump’s favour over a rival school of thought, including secretary of state Rex Tillerson and Ivanka Trump, the president’s daughter and adviser, that argued the US should remain in the Paris deal in order to preserve its diplomatic influence.

Hundreds of large businesses, including Apple, Google and Walmart, also threw their weight behind the deal, with even fossil fuel firms such as ExxonMobil, BP and Shell supporting the accord as the best way to transition to a low-carbon economy and stave off the perils of climate change.

This is a sad day in America. Our nation will leave the #ParisAgreement.
Our nation will join Syria and Nicaragua (which thought the accord was too weak) on this infamous list of nations not in the accord.

anonymous asked:

Okay so I'm gay and I'm all for equality & do my best to be open minded & respectful, but sometimes I catch myself not being so. Like sometimes I struggle understanding trans rights, even though I'm gay?! And sometimes I fall victim to the thinking of conservatives. Like we accuse conservatives of being close minded for not supporting LGBT rights, when liberals don't accept conservative views Ike being pro life... I don't know I just think it's hypocritical of liberals..

Ok so, not gonna lie, reading this was not fun. That being said, I sorta have this rule where if someone asks me a question, even if it’s problematic, I try my best to just answer calmly, hoping that if you’re asking a question it’s because you’re open to new ideas that might hopefully replace your existing ones.

Soooooo lets get started.

1. One of the biggest hurdles for the trans community is in fact the gay community, you expressing some sort of surprise that you, presumably a gay man, can at times feel transphobic would probably not come as any surprise to an actual trans person who has to deal with this all the time. Probably definitely saddens them, but not exactly surprising. I mean, the gay community by and large can still be very hostile towards trans people and some gay people will even casually shit all over trans people as a way of engendering themselves to conservatives as the Cool Gay. “Sure, I’m gay, but I’m not one of those liberal hippy gays, I believe in a gender binary, look at me and how much we have in common!” The thing is, yes, being a cis gay person makes it sometimes very hard to exactly understand what the experiences of a trans person are. The notion of feeling uneasy about ones gender, which for most of us is an aspect of our identity we just take for granted and don’t think about, is probably very alien to most cis people, even gay ones. However, you don’t really need to have an intimate understanding of every issue to simply respect that persons ability to lead a life that they feel reflects their most authentic self. At the end of the day, even if you’re someone who can never understand specifically what it feels like not be comfortable with your own gender, you can still hopefully understand that it’s not really your business to regulate other people’s lives. Conservative arguments about gender revolve around bathrooms - essentially making it impossible for trans people to work in a public building or even go out because once they leave their house they don’t have a bathroom to use. Their reasoning is the safety of others, specifically women and children, which is insane because there’s never been a single instance of a trans person attacking anyone in a bathroom and this whole argument is rooted in the same kind of bigotry that led people to characterize gay men as pedophiles for fucking years. So, I’m not really sure what about the conservative argument makes sense to you, personally I don’t see what right people have to regulate the private personal decisions of other citizens.

2. Next, women’s reproductive rights. Ok, so, the big problem here is pretty obvious just by the way you phrased your question, which was that you seem to view women’s access to their own reproductive rights as like this abstract argument. Sorta like, what should our tax rate be? 30% or 25%…. lets debate the merits of both sides and find out. The thing is, reproductive rights aren’t abstract. They may seem that way to men, even gay men, because men have no concept of how essential these rights are for women since our government at no point has ever regulated our lives and our bodies in order to trap us within certain moral norms.

But yeah, lets break this down a little. Why are reproductive rights so important to conservative ideology? Well, it’s actually not the Christian thing, since Christianity was completely silent on abortion throughout history until we began entering the industrial era. Why the change? Well because the shift from a pre to a post-industrial economy meant having tons of children was not feasible for most people anymore. Prior to industrialization if you wanted to lead a successful life you had to have children, lots of them, because children tended the fields, brought in the harvest, fed your animals, and the fact that kids didn’t always reach adulthood meant you had extra for just in case. Moreover, the industrial revolution made it very hard for families to survive one just one partners income, especially if you had more than just a couple kids. So what happens? Two things - women start going to work to help their families and they also start having abortions with much greater frequency because they literally could not afford these kids anymore. Now, why is this such an issue? Well because society up until this point was heavily invested in the idea of female domesticity, which was essentially a religious fable created by men that said women were the moral center of every family, which is why it was their jobs to raise the children and also to guide their husbands moral decisions. However, the only way women could stay pure enough to maintain this role was by not leaving the house, the public sphere was an ugly immoral place where people had to sell their virtues to get ahead and it was thought that if women were allowed to enter that world then morality as a whole would decay. It’s all bullshit, of course, but it was a very effective way of giving women the illusion of agency and influence while still keeping them locked up in their home. Plus, the fact that women were forced to believe that they were the pillars of morality created a sense of duty for them to stay with their husbands and fulfill their role. POINT IS, ok, so now women are leaving their homes, how do we fix that? Oh, right, lets make it fucking impossible for women to work or have careers by taking away their agency to make decisions about their own lives. Like, oh, you don’t want this fourth baby because it’ll prevent you from being able to have a job and your family will suffer as a consequence? Too bad! Sucks to suck #awomansplace. All that said, did any anti-abortion regulations ever actually stop abortions? NO. Women were still having abortions, the only difference was that they were having them in alley ways and butcher shops. They were getting sick from an infection or a botched surgery and dying and for what?? To have the same sort of basic agency and free will to determine the circumstances of their lives that men have always had as a given and take for granted.

Reproductive rights is essential to every other aspect of a woman’s life. It determines what level of education they can get, what their income could be, what sort of personal freedom they’ll have to go on vacation, or date, or just have a night out with friends, and sometimes it even determines whether they’ll live or die. And that’s what conservatives want. They want to use women’s reproductive biology as a tool to subjugate them and make them less independent, it’s a way of exercising patriarchal control over women by making those women dependent on either a man or government assistance just to survive financially. So, yeah, the lives of women aren’t simply an abstract idea you toss around, debating the pros and cons of, as if it’s all the same.

Call it hypocritical if you want, but I think that’s an awful mischaracterization of things because at no point in time are liberals ever trying to control or regulate a private aspects of a conservatives life. I think liberal ideology is about being accepting of whatever personal choices people make as long as those choices don’t have a direct negative impact on another persons happiness or freedom. It doesn’t mean accept anything without question. If a person wants to impose control on another individual then no, we won’t accept that, because people should not get to build their political ideology based on their ability to exert control into other people’s lives.

ANYWAYS, this has been super long and it honestly doesn’t even cover half of the complexities of these issues so I hope you’ll do your own research and keep thinking about these topics while also remembering that as a cis male your ability to actually understand the experience of others is limited, but that doesn’t mean you can’t educate yourself and try to empathize with those that are different than yourself and imagine how you’d feel if you were trapped in their circumstances.

What the Hell is Modern Architecture? Part Two: Mid-Century Madness

Hello friends! It’s everybody’s favorite time of the 20th century, kudos to Mad Men

For the purpose of this post, Mid-Century starts in the late 1930s and goes through about 1960. While the 60s were integral to the concept of “Mid-Century Modernism” to people who shop at Design Within Reach, it really belongs to the period known as Late Modernism, which will be the subject of next week’s post. 

Where we left off with our beloved modernists two weeks ago, World War II was just starting. Coincidentally, it turns out dictators really like columns and stuff (who knew), and so Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius fled to the US where they responded to the hostile takeover of their countries by committing a benevolent takeover of the major American universities.  

Though the architecture of fascism was overwhelmingly traditional, (with the exception of Italian Futurism) modernism has still been deemed “fascist” by the ill-informed for over fifty years. Go figure. 

The Second World War had a major impact on the field of architecture. For one, it destroyed previous socioeconomic orders, and the horrific use of technology to commit so many heinous atrocities undermined its central position in the previous ideas of technocratic utopia. The machine for living in had a bad taste in its mouth, now. 

In addition, in Europe, the destruction of so many urban communities during the war left a vacuum for housing projects, many of which failed and most of which were completely insensitive to people’s aesthetic needs post-tragedy. 

But I’m getting a little ahead of myself. One of the pinnacle struggles of midcentury was the battle to continue old norms (the International Style of 1920s Europe) and to pave new frontiers. Meanwhile, in non-western countries, this prewar architecture spread like wildfire, partially as a reaction against the 19th century traditionalism they inherited from colonialism. In countries like Finland, Brazil, and Mexico, there was considerable effort to balance new modern aesthetics with national identities and climates. 

But back to the Bauhaus babes: Gropius (and later Marcel Breuer) were both invited to teach at Harvard, effectively ending that school’s history of Beaux Arts classicism. 

Gropius’ arrival did something else for American architecture: with the exception of Richard Neutra & Co. on the west coast and Wright in the Midwest, American architecture was relatively stale innovation-wise on the East Coast, and bringing Gropius in kickstarted architectural change in that region

Gropius’ students, sick of the rather boring eclecticism of the time, flocked to hear the new European ideas, including future stars Paul Rudolph (my personal bae), IM Pei, and Philip Johnson, who would all go on to be icons of Late Modernism (and to some extents, its scapegoats.)

Enter the Saarinens

Meanwhile in the Midwest, where actual progress happened in lieu of lectures, the Finnish-born architect Eliel Saarinen and his son, Eero, effectively kickstarted the aesthetics of the mid-century. Eliel, a figure of the previous generation, shifted his attention to American design late in life, but Eero seemed to have been born into the American jet-set ideal. 

Saarinen the Younger established his reputation when he won the competition to build the 1947 Jefferson National Expansion Memorial in St. Louis, Missouri aka:

The 1950s were a period of (highly idealized) prosperity and optimism (despite the constant threat of nuclear winter) with a focus on scientific progress and good ol’ American ingenuity. 

It was said ingenuity that enabled new methods of construction, including the wall of glass. One of the pinnacle examples of this progress and optimism was the General Motors Technical Center in Warren, Michigan begun by Saarinen the Elder and finished by Saarinen the Younger in 1948. 

It was in this building that the processes of American manufacturing, management, and industry were canonized in architectural form - the building, seemingly weightless, floats above a green, minimal lawn. 

Meanwhile, Mies

Meanwhile, Mies van der Rohe, was spending 1939-1956 building the new campus of the Illinois Institute of Technology. Mies was very fond of the craftsmanship of American steel manufacturing, and used the steel beam as a way to articulate his functional ideals with a finesse like no other. 

The glass box of the Institute’s Crown Hall was fervently egalitarian in that it was supposed to be good for anything and everything, and neutral to the concept of place and the specificity of internal function. 

(The irony of Mies’ buildings and their honesty of expression, is that the fire code of the time required that steel be surrounded by fireproofing, and therefore the steel visual on buildings such as Crown Hall, is, in fact, a decorative effect, something not lost on later theorists such as Robert Venturi.)

Mies’ seminal work of the period was the famous Farnsworth House (1945-51), where he applied the cool sleekness of his academic and industrial buildings to residential design. 

Perhaps Mies is most infamous in the long run for his tall skyscrapers, the most famous of which is the Seagram Building (New York City, 1954-8), which he designed with the help of Gropius acolyte Philip Johnson. 

The building owes its debts to Sullivan, who over half a century before, used appearance to express the ideal of its structure, an idea Mies evolved into “lying in order to tell the truth” - his steel frame hid within it wind bracing and other engineering necessities; the mullions separating the windows are applied, rather than structural necessity. 

While Mies’ aesthetic would be elevated to the epitome of American corporate style, it continued in the tradition of the Deutsches Werkbund of early modernity, which believed that industrial technique should be worn on the sleeve of architectural form. 

Unfortunately, the Miesian ideal was taken up by countless (often garbage) imitators, which reduced his finesse to mere uniformity, resulting in the endlessly replicating “glass box downtowns” of the 60s and 70s. The criticisms of later theorists that Mies left out the messiness of life within the glass structure, weren’t entirely invalid, but much of the time the ad nauseum replication of glass boxes are the faults of Mies’ imitators rather than Mies himself. 

Meanwhile, in Brazil and Finland

Brazil and Finland are perhaps the most notable of the nations to have adopted modernism after the pre-war German-French-American trichotomy, because their national architectural figures have contributed so much to the architecture of the time. 

Brazil’s strongman, Oscar Niemeyer, was born in Rio de Janeiro, and studied architecture at the Escola Nacional des Belas Artes. His architecture was heavily influenced by Le Corbusier, and featured a heavy use of reinforced concrete. Niemeyer was a believer in constructing “monuments” - architecture that stood out from its surroundings, and the concept that architecture should be infused with social idealism. 

Niemeyer’s most famous buildings were those built for the deal city of Brazil’s new capital, Brasilia. Built with Socialist ideas, such as the government owning apartments and leasing them to employees, and that the common worker and the top officials would share the same public spaces, the project, which was constructed hundreds of miles out in the middle of nowhere, aimed to bring a higher quality of life to a rural region.  

Unfortunately, his leftist politics resulted in his exile from Brazil, when Castelo Branco usurped the previous president and made Brazil a dictatorship until 1985. Oh well. 

Finland

In Finland, home of the Saarinens, the architect Alvar Aalto was quietly straight killing it at modern architecture. Unamused by the cold corporatism of the endlessly replicating glass box, Aalto and his contemporaries sought to infuse the vernacular traditions of their country, pre-industrial rusticism, and environmental consciousness with the sleekness of modernism

(This was easier to achieve in the Nordic countries, where rabid industrialization had not yet ruined natural resources such as timber.)

Aalto’s remarkable sensitivity to his clients and their anticipated behavior within his dwellings combined with his keen sense of place made his architecture successful during a time dominated by the necessity of post-war building making (in place of lasting architecture.)  

The sensitivity to the Earth, and the desire to embed his buildings fully into their environment (rather than make them objects on the lawn as was the modern tradition in Europe at the time), set Aalto apart from his contemporaries, and deeply inspired many young architects of midcentury, most notably Louis Kahn. 

But that’s not why y’all came here. Y’all came here for this:

On the Pop Side of Things: What Most People Think of When They Hear “Mid Century Modern”

While Gropius lectured, Mies built his boxes, Wright got weird with the Guggenheim, Aalto and Niemeyer led their countries as pioneers, and Corbu hid in Europe (butthurt that he was used for his input on the design of the United Nations building but never received the official commission- basically, he got catfished by the UN) the endless sprawl of the suburbs inched across the US, and the Federal Highway Act paved the way for a new way of life: sitting in the car a lot.

What most people associate with mid-century modernism are the “retro” vibes of the 50s - the Eames rocker, the fanciful signs, and the space-age hotels. What they don’t realize is that much of this beloved imagery existed outside the architectural canon, in the realm of folk or commercial architecture.

Suddenly, the world of motels, supermarkets, diners, and more sprung up seemingly overnight. The architecture of this time was designed to get people’s attention, and not much more - which is perhaps why it is so endearing. Originating from Southern California, this style was known as “Googie,” “Space Age,” and “Atomic Age” architecture, inspired by the events that transpired as part of the Space Race, and the pop culture surrounding the events of the Cold War.

Also originating in California, the ideal of the Mid-Century Modern House was canonized in the Case Study Houses (built for Arts & Architecture Magazine, made famous by the photographs of Julius Schulman), the houses of Richard Neutra, and the affordable tract home plans put together by architects such as Joseph Eichler, and Palmer & Kilmer.  

It makes sense that such architecture originated in California, a state that adopted the automobile with a fervent efficiency and built its best-known city of Los Angeles around it.

The unique decor made by companies like furniture giants Knoll and Herman Miller, fit right at home in such adventurous houses. Herman Miller hired the famous duo Charles and Ray Eames to design many lines of chairs and other furniture which have become iconic in and of themselves.

Photo: Wikimedia Commons, Public Domain

The Eames’ designs took the functionalism of modernism and infused it with fanciful coziness which became instantly appealing. The Eames’ chairs dared onlookers to sit in them, and were designed to excel at their purpose: to be sat in. These attributes, along with the slick futuristic design, have made Eames-design furniture timeless and highly desirable, even today.

While the Eameses were the most famous of the mid-century designers, the work of architects such as Eero Saarinen, and designers like George Nelson and Isamu Noguchi, should not be left out as well:

The fanciful nature of Mid-Century Modern design has seen a resurge in recent years, as younger generations delight in its charming simplicity and thoughtful execution for the first time.


Mid-century was the period during which American corporate zeitgeist, pop culture, and technological innovation reached its peak in the public eye. However, a new generation of architects were coming of age, whose sculptural monumentality would send a wave of dissent through the world of modernism, thrusting it into the period known as Late Modernism. 

Which is what we’ll get to next week! 

I hope you enjoyed this week’s post on Mid-Century Modernism! I’m sorry I couldn’t post an ugly house this Thursday, as it was Thanksgiving and drama was high. Trust me, the upcoming Michigan Monstrosity is well worth the wait. 

As a side note, for all of you who submitted a logo proposal to me, I am going through the entries (all 200 of them) and will select a winner soon, so stay tuned!

Like this post? Want to see more like it, and get behind-the-scenes access to all things McMansionHell? Consider supporting me on Patreon! 

anonymous asked:

why do you think svtfoe has white savior undertones???

firstly, id like to thank you nonnie for being so patient, this was kind of a busy week for me with school work, charity work, and regular work, ah the joys of being 17.

secondly i want to reiterate that i do not think these undertones are at all intentional, after the Le Fou incident I think it’s a pretty safe thing to assume that Disney isn’t always as sensitive to minority views  and feelings as they are to white middle America

thirdly, if i overlook anything 2 things to keep in mind: i am white and financially well off so everything i see and interpret will inevitaby be filtered through that lens, and i am not a huge fan of SVTFOE (i do not care for the voice acting or humor style of the show)

and now with that said:

Star vs. the forces of evil is a show produced for the 12-14 demographic, with enough rainbow colors and princess themes to maybe attract a number of younger children as well, but after a quick google of the show’s official merchandise…

^this being the only piece produced thus far

…leads me to believe that disney is content to sell this to a near exclusive pre-teen demographic due to the lack of dolls so far produced, which is fine.

With that established, as a show aimed at perhaps the most angsty of the demographics, SVTFOE has heavy themes of rebelling, social awkwardness, coming of age, etc.

Now Disney is not new to the whole ‘rebel princess’ trope and in the past 2 decades have used it to only further their unmovable grasp on the wallets of parents across the world,

Originally posted by celebratingmagic

…some less successful than others

however Star vs the forces of evil goes a step further in implying that not just the ruling family’s treatment of the princess, or one ancient law or old royal family tradition is problematic, but that the entire structure of the kingdom it’self is inherently unjust

not only is the majority of the kingdom shown to be impoverished while the royal family lives in magical corn brought luxury, but the kingdom is shown to have been built on stolen lands ala America colonization…

…with the native people monsters being so devastated by the white people mewmans troops, magic, and smallpox blankets that the show literally refers to the event as the trail of tears- “the great monster massacre” with the present day kingdom segregating and oppressing the monsters to such an extend there is literally an entire episode dedicated to the monsters trying to steal corn from the kingdom bECAUSE THE LAND THEY LIVE ON IS INFERTILE AND THEY ARE ALL LITERALLY STARVING 

so, we have a racist classist kingdom with a hot topic centric princess as the lead, what’s the problem

the problem is that the show literally holds her up as being the destined savior of natives monsters despite being one of the single greatest benifactors of the conflict

not only, but Star is also held as the show’s morality center, with monsters who rightfully hate her labelled as ‘evil’ while the good monsters are those that conform  to and revel in the idea that they have done and can do nothing to help themselves and that Star is their only beacon of light…

.subtle, real subtle disney

…all while remaining completely passive to the liberation narrative at large, the show also has this weird emphasis on both blameless segregation (everyone just forgives eachother and doesn’t acknowledge the show’s established centuries of injustice and everyone becomes friends and live happily ever after) and the idea that both monsters and mewmans have wronged each other easily due to the presence of what i can only describe as a monser centric terrorist group…

again, real fucking subtle disney

….that seem to be comprised of no more than 20 monsters at any given time, and yet still placed on equal footing as a massacre, displacement , segregation, and strategic starvation.

now lets compare SVTFOE to a show very similar in both central conflict and themes, Avatar the last airbender

now is it fair to compare SVTFOE to avatar? no. is it fair to compare anything to avatar? fuck no

but like SVTFOE, Avatar focuses on a pre-teen in a pre-industrial inspired setting who lives in a world where the ruling race has destabilized and massacred the remainder of the population, except by means of war and no colonization. However, Aang is not the son of the fire lord, nor is he even part of the fire nation at all, in fact Aang is the last member of his tribe due to genocide at the hands of the fire nation, he is the part of the group that has lost the MOST due to the status quo of the show. Hell later on Avatar even acquires a fire nation main character, the reformed zuko, an angsty teenaged prince who is still learning magic and despite being at odds with his family still fights to maintain their status,

sounds an awful lot like another character huh?

The proof of the superiority of the Free Enterprise system is that its critics can only criticize it for not delivering even more than it already has;  no one is clamoring for a reversion to  the pre-industrial world.  

@bookhobbit I saw your post about the use of formal/informal language in Lord of the Rings and while I didn’t want to derail the OP or make it too long with an addition, here’s something you might find interesting.

So, in the Appendixes (or were it separate letters? I need my copy…) Tolkien specifically instructs translators whose language distinguises between formal and informal pronouns on how to use them.

According to him, Hobbits in the Shire are supposed to basically all use informal pronouns, while Gondorians, being more formal in general, use formal ones - when appropriate.

Now, all this you probably knew, and now I’m getting to my point.

Thing is, the Hungarian translation goes directly against these instructions. It’s a very calculated move, made by a competent translator, and the reason is that formal pronouns in Hungarian just don’t sound suitably achaic.

In Hungarian, up untill the 16th-17th century only informal pronouns were used, so any text that incudes them sounds automatically way too modern for the quasi-Medieval stasis most of Middle Earth is in.

All of it, except for the Shire, which is more like pre-industrial, rural England somewhere in the late 18th, early 19th century, so it’s reasonable for characters to use formal pronouns.

In light of this it’s probably worth noting that Frodo, while he’s formal with people like Farmer Maggot, Mr. Butterbeer and the like, uses informal speech with Gandalf, and despite the class difference Sam also goes informal with Frodo.

  • Tumblr pre-Hamilton: Four maybe five devoted history blogs, extremely inconsistent spasms of popular Founding Father posts, tags change every two weeks on a good interval, majority of consistent discussion has to do with HBO John Adams and Turn, Founding Father roleplaying blogs last two minutes and then die. If you've seen five new early American history posts in a week, you've seen it all. The posts circulate between the same ten people. 30 notes is a decent amount for a post. The circle of Tumblr historians is like a small seventeenth-century village; everybody knows (or has at least heard of) each other.
  • Tumblr post-Hamilton: Everybody and their mother suddenly knows (or at least thinks they know) everything about American history and has loved American history all their lives. New Founding Fathers fanart every 0.2 seconds. So many founding era posts that it's impossible to see and reblog everything. At least 300 notes is standard for a history post. Suddenly everybody knows about I Made America. Even people who have never batted an eyelash at musical theater or history get Founding Fathers on their dash. Lines between theater and history blogs are hopelessly blurred. Founding Father fandom is huge and tumultuous. Tumblr might never be the same.
VOCAB WORDS

OH YA AP EURO MASSIVE SUMMARY

Ok so first this may seem scary but here are key terms and comprehensive definitions taken tom R.E.A’s AP Euro Crash Course edition book… so ya look at these and make sure you know at LEAST vaguely what each one means. Just for more credit they are literally verbatim from the R.E.A. book. No credit to me.

Key Terms—you have to know these

a.       Europe in Transition, 1450-1650

  1. Humanism: The scholarly interest in the study of the classical texts, values, and styles of Greece and Rome. Humanism contributed to the promotion of a liberal arts education based on the study of the classics, rhetoric, and history.
  2. Christian Humanism: A branch of humanism associated with northern Europe. Like their Italian counterparts, the Christian Humanists closely studied classical texts. However, they also sought to give humanism a specifically Christian content. Christian humanists like Desiderius Erasmus were committed to religious piety and institutional reform.
  3. Vernacular: The everyday language of a region or country. Miguel de Cervantes, Geoffrey Chaucer, Dante, and Martin Luther all encouraged the development of their national languages by writing in the vernacular. Desiderius Erasmus, however, continued to write in Latin.
  4. New Monarchs: European monarchs who created professional armies and a more centralized administrative bureaucracy. The new monarchs also negotiated a new relationship with the Catholic Church. Key new monarchs include Charles VII, Louis XI, Henry VII, and Ferdinand and Isabella.
  5. Taille: A direct tax on the French peasantry. The taille was one of the most important sources of income for French monarchs until the French Revolution.
  6. Reconquista: The centuries-long Christian “reconquest” of Spain from the Muslims. The Reconquista culminated in 1492 with the conquest of the last Muslin stronghold, Granada.
  7. Indulgence: A certificate granted by the pope in return for the payment of a fee to the church. The certificate stated that the soul of the dead relative or friend of the purchaser would have his time in purgatory reduced by many years or cancelled altogether.
  8. Anabaptist: Protestants who insisted that only adult baptism conformed to Scripture. Protestant and Catholic leaders condemned Anabaptists for advocating the complete separation of Church and State.
  9. Predestination: Doctrine espoused by John Calvin that Gad has known since the beginning of time who will be saved and who will be damned. Calvin declared that “by an eternal and immutable counsel, God has once and for all determined, both whom he would admit to salvation, and whom he would condemn to destruction.”
  10. Huguenots: French Protestants who followed the teachings of John Calvin.
  11. Politiques: Rulers who put political necessities above personal beliefs. For example, both Henry IV of France and Elizabeth I of England subordinated theological controversies in order to achieve political unity.
  12. Columbian Exchange: The interchange of plants, animals, diseases, and human populations between the Old World and the New World.
  13. Mercantilism: Economic philosophy calling for close government regulation of the economy. Mercantilist theory emphasized building a strong, self-sufficient economy by maximizing exports and limiting imports. Mercantilists supported the acquisition of colonies as sources of raw materials and markets for finished goods. The favorable balance of trade would enable a country to accumulate reserves of gold and silver.
  14. Putting-Out System: A pre-industrial manufacturing system in which an entrepreneur would bring materials to rural people who worked on them in their own homes. For example, watch manufacturers in Swiss towns employed villagers to make parts for their products. The system enabled entrepreneurs to avoid restrictive guild regulations.
  15. Joint-Stock Company: A business arrangement in which many investors raise money for a venture too large for any of them to undertake alone. They share profits in proportion to the amount they invest. English entrepreneurs used joint-stock companies to finance the establishment of New World colonies.

    b.       The Age of Kings, 1600-1789

  16. Absolutism: A system of government in which the ruler claims sole and uncontestable power. Absolute monarchs were not limited by constitutional restraints.
  17. Divine Rights of Kings: The idea that rulers receive their authority from God and are answerable only to God. Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, a French bishop and court preacher to Louis XIV, provided theological justification for the divine right of kings by declaring that “the state of monarchy is the supremest thing on Earth, for kings are not only God’s lieutenants upon Earth and sit upon God’s throne, but even by God himself are called Gods. In the scriptures kings are called Gods, and their power is compared to the divine powers.”
  18. Intendants: French royal officials who supervised provincial governments in the name of the king. Intendants played a key role in establishing French absolutism.
  19. Fronde: A series of rebellions against royal authority in France between 1649 and 1652. The Fronde played a key role in Louis XIV’s decision to leave Paris and build the Versailles Palace.
  20. Robot: A system of forced labor used in eastern Europe. Peasants usually owed three to four days a week of forced labor. The system was abolished in 1848.
  21. Junkers: Prussia’s landowning nobility. The Junkers supported the monarchy and served in the army in exchange for absolute power over their serfs.
  22. Scientific Method: The use of inductive logic and controlled experiments to discover regular patterns in nature. These patterns or natural laws can be described with mathematical formulas.
  23. Philosophes: Eighteenth century writers who stressed reason and advocated freedom of expression, religious toleration, and a reformed legal system. Leading philosophes such as Voltaire fought irrational prejudice and believed that society should be open to people of talent.
  24. Deism: The belief that God created the universe but allowed it to operate through the laws of nature. Deists believed that natural laws could be discovered by the use of human reason.
  25. General Will: A concept in political philosophy referring to the desire or interest of a people as a whole. As used by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who championed the concept, the general will is identical to the rule of law.
  26. Enlightened Despotism: A system of government supported by leading philosophes in which an absolute ruler uses his or her power for the good of the people. Enlightened monarchs supported religious tolerance, increased economic productivity, administrative reform, and scientific academies. Joseph II, Frederick the Great, and Catherine the Great were the best-known Enlightened monarchs.
  27. Enclosure Movement: The process by which British landlords consolidated or fenced in common lands to increase the production of cash crops. The Enclosure Acts led to an increase in the size of farms held by large landowners.
  28. Agricultural Revolution: The innovations in farm production that began in eighteenth century Holland and spread to England. These advances replaced the open-field agriculture system with a more scientific and mechanized system of agriculture.
  29. Physiocrats: Group of eighteenth-century French economists led by Francois Quesnay. The physiocrats criticized mercantilist regulations and called for free trade.
  30. Invisible Hand: Phrase coined by Adam Smith to refer to the self-regulating nature of a free marketplace. 

    c.        Revolution and Reaction, 1789-1850

  31. Parlements: French regional courts dominated by hereditary nobles. The Parlement of Paris claimed the right to register royal decrees before they could become law.
  32. Girondins: A moderate republican faction active in the French Revolution from 1791 to 1793. The Girondin Party favored a policy of extending the French Revolution beyond France’s borders.
  33. Jacobins: A radical republican party during the French Revolution from 1791 to 1793. Led by Maximilien Robespierre, the Jacobins unleased the Reign of Terror. Other key leaders included Jean-Paul Marat, Georges-Jacques Danton, and the Comte de Mirabeau. The Marquis de Lafayette was not a Jacobin.
  34. San-Culottes: The working people of Paris who were characterized by their long working pants and support for radical politics.
  35. Levee en Masse: The French policy of conscripting all males into the army. This created a new type of military force based upon mass participation and a fully mobilized economy.
  36. Thermidorian Reaction: Name given to the reaction against the radicalism of the French Revolution. It is associated with the end of the Reign of Terror and reassertion of the bourgeoisie power in the Directory.
  37. Legitimacy: The principle that rulers who have been driven from their thrones should be restored to power. For example, the Congress of Vienna restored the Bourbons to power in France.
  38. Balance of Power: A strategy to maintain and equilibrium, in which weak countries join together to match or exceed the power of a stronger country. It was one of the guiding principles of the Congress of Vienna.
  39. Liberalism: Political philosophy that in the nineteenth century advocated representative government dominated by the propertied classes, minimal government interference in the economy, religious toleration, and civil liberties such as freedom of speech.
  40. Conservatism: Political philosophy that in the nineteenth century supported legitimate monarchies, landed aristocracies, and established churches. Conservatives favored gradual change in the established social order.
  41. Nationalism: Belief that a nation consists of a group of people who share similar traditions, history, and language. Nationalists argued that every nation should be sovereign and include all members of a community. A person’s greatest loyalty should be to a nation-state.
  42. Romanticism: Philosophical and artistic movement in late eighteenth—and early nineteenth—century Europe that represented a reaction against the Neoclassical emphasis upon reason. Romantic artists, writers, and composers stressed emotion and the contemplation of nature.
  43. Chartism: A program of political reforms sponsored by British workers in the late 1830s. Chartist demands included universal manhood suffrage, secret ballots, equal electoral districts, and salaries for members of the House of Commons.
  44. Zollverein: A free-trade union established among major German states in 1834.
  45. Carbonari: A secret revolutionary society working to unify Italy in the 1820s.
  46. Luddites: A social movement of British textile artisans in the early nineteenth century who protested against the changes produced by the Industrial Revolution. The Luddites believed that the new industrial machinery would eliminate their jobs. The Luddites responded by attempting to destroy the mechanized looms and other new machines.
  47. Utilitarianism: A theory associated with Jeremy Bentham that is based upon the principle of “the greatest happiness for the greatest number.” Bentham argued that his principle should be applied to each nation’s government, economy, and judicial system.
  48. Utopian Socialists: Early nineteenth-century socialists who hoped to replace the overly competitive capitalist structure with planned communities guided by a spirit of cooperation. Leading French utopian socialists such as Charles Fourier and Louis Blanc believed that the property should be communally owned.
  49. Marxism: Political and economic philosophy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. They believed that history in the result of class conflict that will end with triumph of the industrial proletariat over the bourgeoisie. The new classless society would abolish private property. 

    d.       Toward the Modern World, 1850-1914

  50. Second Industrial Revolution:  A wave of late-nineteenth-century industrialization that was characterized by an increased use of steel, chemical processes, electric power, and railroads. This period also witnessed the spread of industrialization from Great Britain to western Europe and the United States. Both the U.S. and Germany soon rivaled Great Britain.
  51. Social Darwinism: The belief that there is a natural evolutionary process by which the fittest will survive. Wealthy business and industrial leaders used Social Darwinism to justify their success.
  52. RealPolitik: “The politics of reality”; used to describe the tough, practical politics in which idealism and romanticism play no part. Otto von Bismarck and Camillo Benso di Cavour were the leading practitioners of realpolitik.
  53. Syndicalism: A radical political movement that advocated bringing industry and government under the control of federations of labor unions. Syndicalists endorsed direct actions such as strikes and sabotage.
  54. Autocracy: A government in which the ruler has ultimate power and uses it in an arbitrary manner. The Romanov dynasty in Russia is the best example of an autocracy.
  55. Duma: The Russian parliament created after the revolution of 1905.
  56. Imperialism: The policy of extending one country’s rule over other lands by conquest or economic domination.
  57. Sphere of Influence: A region dominated by, but not directed by, a foreign nation. 

    e.       The “Second Thirty Years’ War”: WWI and WWII, 1914-1945

  58. Fourteen Points: President Woodrow Wilson’s idealist peace aims. Wilson stressed national self-determination, the rights of small countries, freedom of the seas, and free trade.
  59. Bolsheviks: A party of revolutionary Marxists, led by Vladimir Lenin, who seized power in Russia in 1917.
  60. New Economic Policy (N.E.P.): A program initiated by Vladimir Lenin to stimulate the economic recovery of the Soviet Union in the early 1920s. The New Economic Policy utilized a limited revival of capitalism in light industry and agriculture.
  61. Existentialism: Philosophy that God, reason, and progress are all myths. Humans must accept responsibility for their actions. This responsibility causes an overwhelming sense of dread and anguish. Existentialism reflects the sense of isolation and alienation in the twentieth century.
  62. Relativity: A scientific theory associated with Albert Einstein. Relativity holds that time and space do not exist separately. Instead, they are a combined continuum whose measurement depends as much on the observer as on the entities being measured.
  63. Totalitarianism: A political system in which the government has total control over the lives of individual citizens.
  64. Fascism: A political system that combines an authoritarian government with a corporate economy. Fascist governments glorify their leaders, appeal to nationalism, control the media, and repress individual liberties.
  65. Kulaks: Prosperous landowning peasants in czarist Russia. Joseph Stalin accused the kulaks of being class enemies of the poorer peasants. Stalin “liquidated the kulaks as a class” by executing them and expropriating their lands to form collective farms.
  66. Keynesian Economics: An economic theory based on the ideas of twentieth-century British economist John Maynard Keynes. According to Keynesian economics, governments can spend their economies out of a depression by using deficit-spending to encourage employment and stimulate economic growth.
  67. Appeasement: A policy of making concessions to an aggressor in the hopes of avoiding war. Associated with Neville Chamberlain’s policy of making concessions to Adolf Hitler. 

    f.        The Cold War Era, 1945-1991

  68. Containment: The name of a U.S. foreign policy designed to contain or block the spread of Soviet policy. Inspired by George F. Kennan, containment was expressed in the Truman Doctrine and implemented in the Marshall Plan and the North American Treaty Organization (NATO) alliance.
  69. Decolonization: The process by which colonies gained their independence from the imperial European powers after WWII.
  70. De-Stalinization: The policy of liberalization of the Stalinist system in the Soviet Union. As carried out by Nikita Khrushchev, de-Stalinization meant denouncing Joseph Stalin’s cult of personality, producing more consumer goods, allowing greater cultural freedom, and pursuing peaceful coexistence with the West.
  71. Brezhnev Doctrine: Assertion that the Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they say needed. The Brezhnev Doctrine justified the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968.
  72. Détente: The relaxation of tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. Détente was introduced by Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and President Richard Nixon. Examples of détente include the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), expanded trade with the Soviet Union, and President Nixon’s trips to China and Russia.
  73. Solidarity: A Polish labor union founded in 1980 by Lech Walesa and Anna Walentynowicz. Solidarity contested Communist Party programs and eventually ousted the party from the Polish government.
  74. Glasnost: Policy initiated by Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev in the mid-1980s. Glasnot resulted in a new openness of speech, reduced censorship, and greater criticism of Communist Party policies.
  75. Perestroika: An economic policy initiated by Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev in the mid-1980s. Meaning “restructuring,” perestroika called for less government regulation and greater efficiency in manufacturing and agriculture.
  76. Welfare State: A social system in which the state assumes primary responsibility for the welfare of its citizens in matters of health care, education, employment, and social security. Germany was the first European country to develop a state social welfare system.

saira-o  asked:

Does age matter in attack on titan?? When no , why ?

Well of course younger means more productive and stronger and older means more of a burden to society, since we’re talking about a pre industrial society working force means survival.

Defunct German Car Brands: Trabant

Trabant was an East German car brand deeply rooted in the pre-war car industry of Saxony.

Before world war II, Saxony was one of the centers of the German car industry, featuring brands such as Wanderer, DKW, Horch, and Audi, which together formed the Auto Union. After the war, the production facilities were in ruins, and what was left was seized by the Russians. The carmakers had a difficult start, which was not eased by the fact that they were immediately socialized and directly controlled by the government. Many engineers went to West Germany, where they were either hired by Borgward, where they went on to produce the tiny Lloyd microcars. Others went to Ingolstadt, where DKW had a central warehouse for spare parts, to form a company independent of the East German roots. (That company later became Audi.)

The remaining engineers struggled to set up a production line for the pre-war models DKW F8 and DKW F9. Of the latter model, only prototypes had been built before the war, but it had never been put into in production in favor of war-related vehicles.

Others developed a stylish, expensive luxury sedan in the tradition of Audi and Horch, named Sachsenring P 240 featuring a 2400 cc straight-six engine.

However, both cars proved to be too expensive and unsuitable for mass motorization, which the government believed could only be achieved with a unified cheap small car. They ordered the engineers in Zwickau, Saxony, to develop a microcar using as much as possible existing pre-war technology. Bubble cars like in West Germany were deemed unsuitable from the very start; instead, a proper little car was aimed for.

The first result was ready in 1955, but it was not yet called Trabant, but AWZ P70. It was based on a shortened chassis of the 1939 DKW F8. It had the same water-cooled longitudinally mounted 700 cc two-cylinder two-stroke engine, which produced 22 hp. However, the water cooling was of a thermosiphon type and the placement of the radiator behind the engine instead of its usual place in the front caused the engine to overheat frequently. This triggered the development of an air-cooled variant of the engine used in the later Trabant.

The body was also a novelty: A wooden space frame was covered with a newly developed plastic made from recycled material. This material called Duroplast was a phenol resin reinforced with waste cotton fibers from Russia. The engineers had to come up with such an exotic and novel solution because high-quality sheet metal from Western Europe was embargoed, the Russian steel was unsuitable, and own East German steel production capacities were not yet existing. This emergency solution made the AWZ P70 the first car using recycled plastic. The roof was made from plywood covered in leatherette, as the Duroplast technology was not yet developed far enough to produce parts of that size.

The spartan equipment made the car unattractive. All windows were fixed, the trunk did not have a lid and had to be accessed by removing the backrest of the rear seat. These issues were later corrected.

A station wagon popular for its huge capacity and a coupe with all-steel body, which was internationally acclaimed for its sporty design, were added in 1956 and 1957, respectively.

The car turned out to be too costly in production and to be plagued with too many issues to be the basis for mass-motorization. Production was stopped in 1959. The experiences made with this car went into the development of the Trabant P50, which appeared in 1957.

Duroplast technology was improved, and a new 500 cc 18 hp air-cooled teo-cylinder two-stroke engine was developed to avoid trouble with the water cooling of the predecessor. The wooden space frame was replaced by a steel unibody. By the time the car made it to the market, it was among the most advanced microcars, providing relatively comfortable seating for four adults and a large trunk with a usable size of 415 liters (110 gal). This was enabled by a clever arrangement of a transversially-mounted engine and gearbox unit over the front axle, which required minimal space for the driving unit.

A station wagon was introduced shortly after the sedan.

In 1962, the engine was enlarged to 600 cc, resulting in an increas in power to 23 hp. The bodywork remained unchanged. The car was renamed to Trabant 600.

The last big change for a long time came in 1694, when a new body replaced the dated 1950s design for the model Trabant 601. The outer panels were still made from Duroplast, earning the car the nickname “Rennpappe” (”racing cardboard”).

The station wagon was also redesigned.

In this shape, the car was produced with only minimal changes and improvement for the next 26 years. Over the years, power outpot was increased from 23 to 26 hp. Design and technology, which were apart from the two-stroke engine still contemporary or even advanced by the time the model appeared, became more and more outdated, and although the car was reliable, it acquired a bad reputation and became an icon of the backwardness of the socialist economic model.

The engineers in Zwickau designed several potential replacements, experimented with Wankel engines, built prototypes, but all in vain. The political leaders personally stopped all plans, fearing unnecessary investments as the car was working well and the socialist citizen did not need luxury.

Despite all shortcomings, and weaknesses of the ageing construction, production never met the demand, and potential buers had to wait for up to 20 years to get a new car. It was common that parents signed a contract for a child right after it was born, expecting the car to be delivered well after its 18th birthday. This was mostly due to the cumbersome and slow production process of the Duroplast body panels.

In the late 1980s, East Germany acquired a license to produce engines for Volkswagen, who expected a cost advantage from the cheap production in East Germany. Part of the agreement was that a certain contingent of the engines produced would be for the local cars, Trabant and Wartburg. However, investments for the new production line exploded, so no money was left to develop a new body for the car. Using many makeshift solutions, the old body was adapted to accomodate the 1100 cc version of the new, much bigger four-cylinder four-stroke engine. The result was an excessively expensive small car with an outdated body that was probably even more unpopular than the original in its final years. In 1989, when the car was introduced, the peaceful revolution in East Germany and the reas of Eastern Europe was in full swing. Production started in 1990 and ended already on April 30, 1991, after only 12 months. With the financial, economic and social revolution in July 1990, western cars became affordable for the East Germans, and the Trabant had no chance for survival. Even price dumping, offering the car for only 6,000 DM (instead of 16,000 DM) did not help sales.

Many Trabant cars were abandoned after the owners had acquired a new western model. They created a major waste problem as the Duroplast was almost impossible to recycle.

Today, Volkswagen is present in Zwickau with a factory, and many suppliers are also producing there. However, they do not require as much workforce as the cumbersome and labor-intense production of the Trabant did, creating an unemployment problem in the region and a massive decrease in population.

Today, the car has achieved a kind of cult status. It has become a symbol of the German reunion, when tens of thousands of little Trabants were flooding into West Germany the days after the wall fell.

Brief Overview of Sith History

Before we start, just know I’m gonna use three dating systems. I know, I’m sorry ;A; but hopefully I made it so that it’s easy to follow. >,<

1327 AE = 0 ATC = 3653 BBY
AE, After Emperor (BE is obviously Before Emperor)
ATC, After Treaty of Coruscant (BTC should be self explanatory)
BBY, Before Battle of Yavin

Please note.
This is not an exhaustive list of ALL the events ever. But rather brief points about some of the important ones from the Imperial-side of things.

Old Sith Empire

95,020 BE (96,347BTC/100,000BBY)
Start of Sith civilization on Korriban.

25,020 BE (26,347BTC/30,000BBY)
Pre-industrial age Sith fight off Killiks.

23,020 BE (24,347BTC/28,000BBY)
Korriban is unified under King Adas, making this the first time for an official Sith Empire.

22,700 BE (24,047BTC/27,700BBY)
The Sith, under Adas, fight off the Rakata.

9,020 BE (10,347BTC/14,000BBY)
A library temple established on Krayiss Two

2020 BE (3347BTC/7000BBY)
Civil war initiated by Dathka Graush

1920 BE (3247BTC/6900BBY)
The Exiles arrive on Korriban.

20 BE (1347BTC/5000BBY)
The Great Hyperspace War begins and ends.

19 BE (1346BTC/4999BBY)
Vitiate eats Nathema and leads remnants of the Empire on a 19-year odyssey.


Resurgent Sith Empire

0 AE (1327BTC/4980BBY)
Vitiate forms the Empire on Dromund Daas.

76 AE (1251BTC/4904BBY)
Grand Moff Vaiken is killed on a mission.

374 AE (953BTC/4606BBY)
Kel’eth Ur is imprisoned for heresy.

Unspecified
Darth Lokess, with fellow Councillors, tried and failed to overthrow the Emperor.
Vodal Kressh attempted to challenge the emperor and failed.
Vitiate declares the planet of Athiss to be forbidden.

937 AE (390BTC/4043BBY)
Darths Victun and Qalar fight a Kaggath that leaves the Citadel in ruins. The other Councilors execute them and their family lines. The Citadel is rebuilt with Darth Nostrem as the architect.

1020 AE (307BTC/3960BBY)
Battle of Malachor V.

1026 AE (301BTC/3954BBY)
The Sith Civil War.

1299 AE (28BTC/3681BBY)
Battle of Korriban and the start of the galactic war.

1327 AE (0ATC/3653BBY)
Sacking of Coruscant, a treaty is signed.

1337 AE (10ATC/3643BBY)
Start of SWTOR.

There’s a post somewhere that expands upon the timelines of the game…. I can’t find it right now. :<

But by 2000BBY the Sith Empire is…. gone.

(if i did my math wrong and the dates are off… i’m sorry. i tried. i really did. ;-; tumblr ate my whole post and i had to rewrite the WHOLE damn thing….)

Now, I would actually say the “Old” Sith Empire is basically from 1920BE with the arrival of the Exiles to 0AE when Vitiate ascends. Anything before that could be categorized as “Ancient Sith History” (in like… Imperial/Sith history textbooks or something. idk).

It’s worth noting, that both the Old and Resurgent Sith Empire lasted like…. a really long time??

From the Exiles to the Great Hyperspace War, the Empire was unified and together for nearly 2 thousand years. And with Vitiate, the Empire trucked along for more than 1000.
Something’s not adding up with the “canon”. No way in hell can a galactic governing body last this long if its leaders are constantly~ fighting and killing and betraying each other. Regardless of how much DS Force powers and Sith magic these people are using.

anonymous asked:

Hi Vic! So I'm thinking about writing a short fic for the phan elf au, but I'm not all that familiar with things like where they live in their parts of the forest (i.e. Center, Northern dark Forest, Western, etc.) and just kind of basic statistics???

Lol I’m not either haha. 

Phil lives in the middle of Silva Forest, which is a ten day walking journey North of the Darker Forest, where Dan lives (on the outskirts I guess), which is then a 3 day walking journey to City of Urbs (I’m kind of mapping Silva north of Manchester, and Darker Forest near Reading, and then I google mapped it with walking directions to get the estimates haha). 

The population of Darker Forest exceeds that of Silva (let’s saaay… like, 20,000 to 7,000), as they are closer to the main city area (I don’t know how developed the city is - but this is all supposed to be pre-industrial, so nothing crazy). 

Feel free to add your own stats. Generally I’d like to keep Silva a quieter more humble place, and the Darker Forest village a busier place. 

3

throne room in the golden kingdom or in elysion, probably the latter due to the sanctity of the ceremony

@fadesinthesun just sent me this pic, which is from Turkey… which, if you’ll recall, is also the country Mt. Latmos is in. Where the IRL Tomb of Endymion is. But this ceiling is from a particular mosque in Istanbul:  

The Sokollu Mehmet Pasha Mosque is an Ottoman mosque located in the Kadirga neighborhood of the Fatih district of Istanbul, Turkey. Groundbreaking in 1571. Given the architecture of everything, and the technology available in ground-side riot shots from Beryl’s rabble-rousing, the GK appears to be late-period pre-Industrial-Revolution with magic instead of gunpowder.  

Also the scenes from Beryl stalking Endy as a teenager are pretty clearly meant to evoke Versailles. I LOVE THE MISHMASH OF ARCHITECTURE. I LOVE EARTH OK.  

when most people think of an Authentic Culture they’re generally thinking of either an impoverished pre-industrial area, or an insular group that you have to be born into or in some cases marry into.

unless they’re total discourse scrubs, in which case they’re just thinking of any group that’s non-white.

watahbufala  asked:

so. tell me about the history of jizz

There’s a long history, actually, to this. Even if this is a joke I’ll be happy to answer it!

Aristotle once remarked on, in his view, the importance of semen: “For Aristotle, semen is the residue derived from nourishment, that is of blood, that has been highly concocted to the optimum temperature and substance. This can only be emitted by the male as only the male, by nature of his very being, has the requisite heat to concoct blood into semen.”

Christian Greeks during the times of the Roman Empire likened semen to physical blood. They believed that it should not be wasted, or used in a way that renders it not usable for reproduction.

Some pre-industrial societies even thought that semen contained magical properties. In many primitive mythology, semen is also likened to breast milk, once again for reasons of “creating and sustaining life.”

Even beyond ancient times, semen has had continued usage. British intelligence at one point used semen as a type of invisible ink. The aptly named Sir George Mansfield Smith-Cumming noted of his agents that “Every man (is) his own stylo.”

There is also, though disgusting, a group of people in the areas constituting modern Papua New Guinea that believe semen is essential to maturation. To this end they fellate their elder and ingest their semen.

And, finally, some Gnostic sects consumed semen as the “Body of Christ,” certainly an interesting form of performing the Eucharist.

superscratchkat  asked:

when i was very young i made it up in my head that the cats were slightly more anthropomorphized, had magical anime superpowers based on their names, and had pre-industrial building capabilities, so basic vehicles and weapons were a thing. whats interesting is that these concepts can be integrated almost seamlessly into any warriors book without issue

huh

raindrops-in-the-night  asked:

Hi ScriptVet! In a fantasy, pre-industrial setting could a short haired dog native to a warm climate such as a saluki or Rhodesian ridgeback live in an area with winter temperatures between the 20-40 degrees Fahrenheit? What would need to be done to assist them? (Dog jackets, sleeping by a fire, etc.) It may be worth noting that these dogs would be used to hunt, highly prized as symbols of a god, and they can live almost twice as long as a regular dog. Thanks in advance for your help!

Converting Fahrenheit to something sensible like Celsius, that temperature range is only a few degrees either side of freezing. Warm climate dogs could survive, but it’s not going to be easy and they will definitely benefit from assistance. In particular, the points to consider for these dogs are:

  • Shelter
  • External heat
  • Clothing
  • High calorie diet

Cold is tough enough to deal with, but cold and wind or wet is much, much worse. Giving these dogs a place to go to avoid the weather will be hugely advantageous to their survival.

Eternal heat, like fires, warm floors, etc will also help them maintain their body temperature, though this wont really be much help when out hunting in the cold and (I assume) snow.

A high calorie diet will help prevent hypothermia, and if these dogs are highly prized I would expect they are well fed. Some extra subcutaneous fat wouldn’t go astray for them either over winter.

Clothing for the dogs should definitely be considered, not just jackets but also some sort of boot to protect their toes from both hard snow and frostbite. Toe injuries are very common in racing and hunting dogs, especially over uneven ground or with rapid turning. Dog snow boots can be bought commercially, and I’d recommend looking at some to determine how a similar thing could be constructed in your setting.

When exercising, the muscle movements of the dog would be expected to help keep it warm and its core body temperature high, providing it is well enough vet and not pushed to exhaustion. However dogs with thin fur and low levels of body fat, or thin skin (such as the greyhound and other sighthounds) can still be vulnerable to frostbite on their extremities. This is particularly true for ears, tail tips and toes. Short periods of time out in the cold will be fine, but prolonged exposure may cause issues. While tail docking and ear cropping is an unnecessary and considered both unethical and illegal in many countries today, it is a historical practice which might be considered in your setting. You may also consider some type of hooded jacket to cover the ears, though it’s very difficult to keep any covering on the tail of a happy dog.

Remember: anything can survive winter if its warm and cosy indoors.

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