pre industrial

The sad truth about Donald Trump and the Paris agreement on climate change

In September the U.S. formally ratified the Paris treaty, an agreement between 180 countries that aims to prevent a 3.6 degree Fahrenheit increase over pre-industrial average global temperatures by 2100.

Exceeding a 3.6 degree rise would cross a threshold believed to make climate change and its dangerous consequences extreme and irreversible.

Now, the IEA’s new report predicts even those countries that try to follow the Paris agreement will fall short of what is needed to prevent global temperatures from crossing that threshold: If everyone does their part, the average rise is still expected to be 4.9 degrees Fahrenheit by 2100, the report finds.

And what if President-elect Donald Trump withdrew the United States from the Paris agreement? The cost — human and financial — of climate change would be even worse. The IEA report details three possible scenarios.

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  • Tumblr pre-Hamilton: Four maybe five devoted history blogs, extremely inconsistent spasms of popular Founding Father posts, tags change every two weeks on a good interval, majority of consistent discussion has to do with HBO John Adams and Turn, Founding Father roleplaying blogs last two minutes and then die. If you've seen five new early American history posts in a week, you've seen it all. The posts circulate between the same ten people. 30 notes is a decent amount for a post. The circle of Tumblr historians is like a small seventeenth-century village; everybody knows (or has at least heard of) each other.
  • Tumblr post-Hamilton: Everybody and their mother suddenly knows (or at least thinks they know) everything about American history and has loved American history all their lives. New Founding Fathers fanart every 0.2 seconds. So many founding era posts that it's impossible to see and reblog everything. At least 300 notes is standard for a history post. Suddenly everybody knows about I Made America. Even people who have never batted an eyelash at musical theater or history get Founding Fathers on their dash. Lines between theater and history blogs are hopelessly blurred. Founding Father fandom is huge and tumultuous. Tumblr might never be the same.

anonymous asked:

What was Russia like pre industrial revolution? If this is too broad a question then you can just recommend me a book or website. Thanks!

The topic is very broad and quite frankly I am not sure what particular knowledge you want. Politics? Daily life of aristocracy? Plight of the poor? Women history? History of the arts? Religion? I went through my library and I think you might find some information of interest in the following publications:

Briar Rose, the Sleeping Beauty

Briar roses are quite prickly and while compared to garden roses, ad spinning wheels ran many young women’s pre-industrial lives.  Interesting how often the ‘princesses’ in fairy/folk tales are really just the landlords’ daughters in actual social position, how very far removed the people telling these stories (you know, The People) were from actual royalty.  Anyway, her nightgown looks comfy at least!  Sometimes when I’m super tired I want to sleep for a hundred years…with no annoying princes to wake me up.

You can get a print on my etsy!


I was browsing through photos I took exactly a year ago in the National History Museum (Sofia, Bulgaria) and decided to share a couple of them with costume enthusiasts on Tumblr. These are only a fraction of the folk outfits in the exhibit on the last floor and only women’s clothing (I have a couple of mens clothing photos too, but the quality of the pictures is worse).


Watch The New Studio Ghibli Animated Short

Whilst Studio Ghibli are taking a break form making feature films the studio is still active working on short film productions and their latest has been produced for the energy company Marubeni Shin Denryoku who are touting their shift towards low-pollution, renewable wind, water, and solar-based energy production. The source of this film is the 12th century “Choju Jinbutsu Giga” or Scrolls of Frolicking Animals which are considered to be the earliest examples of manga in Japanese history and were chosen by Ghibli as a symbol of the natural beauty of pre-industrial era Japan. 

'Saving the Planet' vs Saving the Working-Class

See, the liberal discourse about taking action to cut greenhouse gas emissions in the name of ‘saving the planet’ isn’t much more than a moralistic argument without basis in reality. The planet’s going to be just fine. Carbon dioxide levels have fluctuated wildly over the last 4-and-a-half billion years, with various forms of life flourishing for nearly all of its known history. Anthropogenic climate change is actually all about class.

Transitioning to a sustainable society is really about averting a 2 degree global increase in average temperatures above pre-industrial levels - which would result in the desertification of much of the middle latitudes of the planet, the infertility of much of the world’s agricultural land, and the catastrophic mass migration or starvation of a great proportion of much of Earth’s poorest inhabitants. This is unavoidably a class issue - the wealthiest inhabitants of even the most disastrously effected underdeveloped nations in Africa, the Middle East and South East Asia have the means to insulate themselves from the effects of climate change through migration or the creation of enclaves, whilst the toiling masses of subsistence farmers, poor labourers and industrial workers have no such luxury.

When viewed from this point of view, those who deny climate change are not, as liberal political discourse would have it, ‘stupid’ or ‘badly informed’. They are making a deliberate choice conditioned by class allegiance. Those with a vested interest in preserving the carbon-based economy make a cold economic calculation, rooted in the direct logic of capital accumulation: costs sunk into the behemoth industry of the oil economy - from trillions-worth of plant material to the incalculable political infrastructure buttressing dictatorial oil-rich regimes across the globe - must be recouped, locked in place as they are by a labyrinthine network of debt obligations and banking compacts within and between Third World nations and the developed West. It is therefore utterly unsurprising that climate deniers place the profits of a tiny group of oil barons, shadowy shareholders and political stooges above the interests of the vast majority of the working-class people of the world.

All the objectively correct science and liberal moral arguments in the world will not convince climate change deniers to change their positions - since their wealth depends on the contrary. It cannot be overstated: climate change is an economic problem. Climate change is a class problem. It demands economic and political solutions based on the interests of workers across the world.

Exodite world ‘Almenor’, Imperial designation ‘Ionia’

The Almenor system is not technically a triple-planet, but the barycenter is significantly outside the midpoint of Almenor, leading to a faster rate of rotational slowing relative to the Terra/Luna system (albeit still on the scale of billions of years).

Almenor itself is a rough Terran analogue, though slightly larger and less dense, orbiting slightly closer to its parent star which is slightly cool relative to Sol. Almenor is more geologically and atmospherically active than old Terra, with high tides and frequent storms. The atmosphere is comparable to pre-industrial Terra, with a slightly higher mix of oxygen leading to larger insect and arachnid fauna. Days are slightly longer than on Terra, though the year is shorter.

A large number of semi-civilized exodite nations dwell in all the readily habitable areas of Almenor, with a population around 400 million and a roughly medieval technological level.

Almenor’s first moon, Syane (diaresis so you know to pronoucne it ‘see-ya-nay’) is roughly Mars-sized, leading to the strongest tidal variations on Almenor. It is covered in a global ocean, the surface of which is largely frozen but often cracks, melts, and even erupts with cryovolcanism which leads to spectacular meteor showers on Almenor, and replenishes its otherwise unstable ring system. The thin atmosphere is primarily nitrogen with notable if small percentages of oxygen and carbon dioxide as well as water vapor. Syane appears dazzlingly bright and quite large (about the size of a child’s outstretched fist) from Almenor’s surface, such that much of the night is a dim purple twilight with only the brightest stars showing. 

Almenor’s second moon, Eshil (accent mark so you pronounce it like Romance language I- eeee) is much smaller (about the size of Ganymede) but still more than large enough to have a significant tidal influence. Eshil is geologically dead and has a negligible atmosphere, leading to a heavily cratered surface. Eshil appears slightly less bright than Luna does from Terra.

Craftworld Tel-Rethan now orbits Almenor as well- keeping largely to the Almenor-Syane L3 point and appearing as a bright star from the surface. When it first approached, it entered low orbit and its general shape and shining webway gate were visible as half the size of Syane in the sky. The Rethani have made contact with the most prominent exodite nations, and are uplifting their technology and societies (many were depressingly feudal rather than egalitarian) while also activating old webway gates scattered across the surface. The Rethani plan to use Almenor as a base of expansion into nearby systems and their long-abandoned maiden worlds, offering not only their technological aid to the exodites but also new opportunities for them to spread forth.

The Subtle Art of Blasting

Among the historic powers of a witch that have been oft overlooked in the post information age are those that dealt primarily with agriculture and its function in earlier society. The tool bag of the witch held much that related to animals, fields, farm buildings and hedgerows. From these tools both positive and negative results could be had, of particular interest to my current work is the concept of blasting.

Just as the age old rites of fertility centered on the farmer’s fields and the times of the year for planting and harvesting, so too did the witch’s eye cast a glance in the direction of this all important (to pre industrial village people in particular) source of nutrient and income.

Blasting, in short, was seen as a way in which the witch would alter the productivity of a field, particularly making it barren. A witch was said to sow particular substances into the field under the light of the moon. Sometimes using their familiar animals to harness tiny plows in which to seed the fields.

Charles Walton, a commonly known cunning man and farm labourer in the village of Lower Quinton, was found murdered in the early hours of 14 February 1945. It was said among the people of his village that he kept natterjack toads “driving them across the land and blighting the crops and livestock” to which he harnessed his tiny plows. Some local, apparently fearful of Walton’s supposed powers or seeing him as the source of some recent failure, took his life. Though the truth of the matter is still a mystery.

“Charles Walton crime scene, 1948”

What reasons a witch would destroy a village’s source of income are many. The favorability of a cunning craft practitioner of the middle ages could change with the wind. Where a positive presence and known midwife had lived in peace some sudden crop failure or other negative change could alter the town’s feelings and recast her as the hand of the Devil. Particularly if her act of perceived slight was toward the parish priest. Thus before they left they may have taken it upon themselves to give the village a big fuck you (i.e. curse). More often the witch was simply the scapegoat for the change in the weather.

That said, these powers to affect livestock and the fertility of the field are known going back to the time of the Assyrians. The act of “salting the earth” was a ritual in which a curse of barrenness was laid over a city after it had been sacked in war. Both the Assyrian and Hittites wrote of this practice, though it is not know if it was merely ritual or if enough salt to render a field truly barren was ever used.

The ability for witches to interfere with or destroy fertility extended beyond the field to both the beasts and men who laboured on the land. By the skill of the subtle gardener the witch would sow seeds of plants to bring ill to livestock, plants that caused allergic reactions in man as well could be strew across hedge and field. Prior to the Enlightenment mankind had little understanding of the true causes of his natural environment and allergies were as yet unknown.

Such a plant as hemlock (Conium maculatum), honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum), larkspur (Consolida ajacis), ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) and a dozen or more others could be seeded unknown in the grazing fields, or their plant matter mixed into the winter feed of the livestock. So too could any plant known to cause irritation, or even superstitious fear, in the habitants of a given parcel of land.

Today the common witch has little use of these agricultural era maleficent gardening skills. While the poisoning of sheep and cattle may have been a dire revenge for ill treatment just a century ago it is no more. Between the ability for such actions to be detected, and thus the culprit accused in modern courts, and the lack of farms in general in this overly modern world there is little of this tool bag of tricks one finds useful today.

However, I have been considering the way in which these ideas can be translated into the modern world. How the witch, through guile and cunning, can control the landscape for ends both positive and negative. How a curse laid on a piece of property can inhabit this overly modern world and how the tools of the past can be applied to the present.

It seems that nature could still be used in ways to keep persons out of an area, to hinder the encroaching gentrification and its iron pressed architecture, to alter the public perception of a given area from open and welcoming to wasted and withering (and back again). That plants still have the power to dissuade, that properly seeded a given field can still act as a barrier to encroachment, that “salted” a neighborhood can become barren again. Though to what ends may not be of use to the general public.

Whether crossroads or open field, darkened wood or ritual grove, a space must be protected from those who would otherwise trample under foot that ground that connects us, that interface through which we move to the otherside of the landscape.

As Dante would have it over the gate to Inferno - “Abandon hope, all ye who enter here.”


100,000,000 Years From Now

For hundreds of years before the arrival of Spanish conquistadors, American cultures like the Aztecs, Mayans, and Incas flourished. Millions of people lived in sprawling cities full of sophisticated culture and technology. Yet today, just centuries after the last of these empires disappeared, we’re left with just a few traces of their time on Earth. Wait a few centuries more, and even less will remain. How can so much rich history just vanish? 

Mainly because, for many reasons, these cultures were built out of stone and cloth rather than metal and glass. Fast forward a hundred thousand years or even a few million, and it’s not unlikely that the nearly all of humanity’s pre-industrial history, from Egypt to China to Europe to the Americas, will be invisible to future geologists for the same reasons. Soft stuff, ground to dust, just another rock.

But it will be different for us. Thanks to modern technology, we are the richest, healthiest, most comfortable, most mobile, most well-fed, and perhaps one of the most deadly species to ever live on this planet. As a result, the past 150 years or so have also reshaped our planet in some extreme ways, leaving impacts so deep and so transformative that future geologists, were they to analyze the layers of Earth’s crust, would see the beginning of a new geological epoch right around the time that you and I are alive: The Anthropocene.

Over the past few years, scientists have been arguing whether the Anthropocene is a real thing, or how big of a mark it will leave on a future Earth. But new research, released last month, has taken stock of humanity’s 20th century impact and declared that the Anthropocene is definitely real, and it will be unmistakable to future geologists. 

This week, we look at these impacts, from plastic manufacturing and livestock breeding to chemical pollution and nuclear weapons, and attempt to draw a picture of what future explorers might see, what footprint we will leave for them, and what story they might tell of us.

Enjoy our latest video: 100,000,000 Years From Now

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New episode of Character Development!

Let’s take a detailed look at Fire Emblem Fates, to see how much inspiration the kingdom of Hoshido takes from pre-industrial Japan! Characters, classes, locations, and even the music! Nothing’s off limits today!

Anonymous said:

I’m trying to flesh out some aristocrats / extremely wealthy socialites in a high fantasy novel and I am not too sure how to portray their lifestyle as distinct from the lower socioeconomic classes, other than with simply the quality / rarity of things they can afford. Do you have any world building insight pertaining to subcultures that could arise in a class society? Thanks♡

I’m going to assume your world is pre-industrial since it’s high fantasy, so this post will be geared toward those types of worlds.

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Disney’s Beauty and the Beast is pro-royalty anti-populace rhetoric and NONE of this would be a problem if they had kept with the original intention of making Gaston a fop rather than a masculine hunter who is the darling of his pre-industrial town. In addition, the maltreatment of Maurice is meant to make us sympathetic to the impending industrialization that will destroy the agrarian lives of the villagers i have been putting off doing my homework for well over five hours

anonymous asked:

Who will be the monarch? For example of the us?

Obviously there is no rightful claimant to the American Throne because there is no such thing. Feudal Monarchy is just inefficient pre-industrial anarcho-capitalism. So we would all be sovereigns of our estates. A land of a hundred million kings.

Of course, if I had to pick a King of America, well…

Just kidding, of course.

I’d pick myself.

The Magical World - Medieval in More Ways Than One

We have seen that the demographics of the wizarding world resembles pre-industrial Britain between the late middle ages and the early modern period (Wizards - an endangered species). 

I have discussed the burden of infectious diseases on wizarding society but traditionally disease is not the only problem facing pre-industrial societies (Magical Maladies).

Where death stalks the land, it does so in the twin forms of war and plague. The wizarding world may look advanced and sophisticated but behind the veneer of order: this society is always on the brink of anarchy. 

I explore:

  • Why the Ministry of Magic is nothing like a modern muggle government
  • Why wizarding society is inherently unstable and resembles more a medieval society than a modern one. 
  • Why injustice is so widespread in wizarding society

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