pre colonialism

“there is no history of trans ppl existing more than 30 years ago” uh jsyk in ancient Philippine mythology, one of the rice gods named Lakapati chose to identify as neither man or woman..  in pre-colonial Philippines, there were priestesses called “babaylan” “catalonan”, “baetan” and “baliana” who were literally trans women.. they were not just religious leaders, they were also equal in status to political leaders.. stop erasing lgbt folk in history Perhaps

anonymous asked:

So in world history we're going over Spanish and American imperialism in the Philippines, and a bunch of kids keep saying how it 'helped' us. They say things like 'without Europeans, they'd still be living in the jungle' and other things of that nature.. As a filipinx, how can I address how wrong that is with them?

Good lord I’d like to recite my debate speech about how colonization fucked everything up. 

1) Colonization is the direct cause of colorism in the Philippines. 

It’s all rooted back to how the Spaniards differentiated us by putting us into categories according to skin tone. Lighter Filipinxs got better *house* jobs and darker Filipinxs got the hard outside labor. 

2) It was the genocide of our culture and writing system. 

Baybayin was the lost pre-colonial writing system before Spain. By the time Spain came, they were surprised at how we could read and write. Men and women. 

Know what that means? It was more of an egalitarian society. 

But oh no. We are just savages who lived in the jungle before the white saviors came. 

3) The Philippines has been constantly exploited for over 500 years. 

We’ve been colonized over and over and over again. Taken for our location and our resources. They made us hate our skin, hate our culture, and embrace everything that is white. 

I need to make a longer post about this cause arguments like this really piss me the fuck off cause the more I read up on this topic, the more I realize how much the root cause of racism and colorism stems from colonization. 

And the self-hate is passed down from generation to generation. You will get treated better if you’re light-skinned. Pale is beautiful. Brown is ugly.

This is something we’re told and grow up seeing and it’s all because some fucking white assholes imposed that on us. 

We barely know any of our history cause it was all wiped out and forgotten. They didn’t do shit to help us.

They exploited us. 

-Leah

i am 11 and i am sat next to a british
girl in maths class,
she tells me about her ancestors who were miners going on strike
and protesting against their working
conditions and wages,
my jaw falls,
i am in awe of their bravery.

i am 12 and i understand now what
britain’s colonialism did to the
subcontinent,
i realise that they starved us,
forced us to speak english and beat
anyone who dared speak any of
the tongues belonging to their
mothers.

i am 15 and i realise that europe’s world famous museums house
exhibits created by my people,
a symbol of our strength, courage
and culture they exotified and expolited.

i am 15 and it dawns on me that her ancestors shot mine in amritsar in 1919.

i am 15 and it dawns on me that her ancestors slaughtered mine in peshawar in 1930.

i am 15 and it dawns on me that my culture is running out of my veins and that my heart is beating today because of the resilience of my people and that i share the blood of life with this land and that my brown-skinned ancestors were braver and stronger than that girl’s could ever dream of being.

—  august 14th, august 15th // independence
We come upon a curious fact. The pre-colonial history of African societies – and I refer to both Euro-Christian and Arab-Islamic colonization – indicates very clearly that African societies never at any time of their existence went to war with another over the issue of their religion. That is, at no time did the black race attempt to subjugate or forcibly convert others with any holier-than-thou evangelizing zeal. Economic and political motives, yes. But not religion.
—  Wole Soyinka, Nigerian playwrite and poet, at his Nobel Prize acceptance speech (December 1986).

Ethiopian Orthodox priest celebrates mass

Christianity in Ethiopia dates to the 1st century AD, arguably the first nation in the world to accept Christianity (the other nation to debate this being Armenia) and this long tradition makes Ethiopia unique amongst sub-Saharan African countries. Christianity in this country is divided into several groups. The largest and oldest is the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (in Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ኦርቶዶክስ ተዋሕዶ ቤተክርስትያን Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Orthodox Church until 1959, when it was granted its own Patriarch by Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All Africa Cyril VI. 

The largest pre-colonial Christian church of Africa, the Ethiopian Church has a membership of between 40 and 46 million, the majority of whom live in Ethiopia, and is thus the largest of all Oriental Orthodox churches. Next in size are the various Protestant congregations, who include 13.7 million Ethiopians. The largest Protestant group is the Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus, with about 5 million members. Roman Catholicism has been present in Ethiopia since the century, and numbers 536,827 believers. In total, Christians make up about 60% of the total population of the country.

Location: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Twenty Centuries of Mexican Art (1940)

Curated by three of Mexico’s leading art historians along with the painter Miguel Covarrubias, “Twenty Centuries of Mexican Art” had originally been intended for a French museum, but was rerouted to New York due to the risk posed by shipping precious artworks by sea during World War II. This unparalleled exhibition featured some 5,000 examples of ancient, colonial, folk, and modern Mexican art. It filled the entire Museum and even extended into the courtyard, where MoMA staged an open-air Mexican market with stalls selling ceramics, leather goods, and other crafts, flanked by a series of giant pre-colonial statues. Perhaps the central attraction of this lush presentation was the presence of muralist José Clemente Orozco, who worked over a period of 10 days on the 9 x 18" fresco Dive Bomber and Tank as crowds watched. The exhibition has a lasting legacy at MoMA: among its holdings of Mexican modernism are works by 54 of the artists represented.

See out-of-print catalogues, music brochures, images of the installation, and more at mo.ma/2q2zDPp. 34 of #52exhibitions #MoMAhistory #tbt

[José Clemente Orozco with his fresco “Dive Bomber and Tank,” commissioned by MoMA during the exhibition “Twenty Centuries of Mexican Art,” May 15–September 30, 1940. Photographic Archive. The Museum of Modern Art Archives, New York.]

saetr3noora  asked:

hello! meron ka bang complete/accurate list of all the deities from the tagalog and bisayan pantheon? Also, i'm sorry if this question has been asked before ngayon ko lang nahanap blog mo and i'm only now really getting into ph mythology :)

Hi @saetr3noora​. I made one before though I don’t remember which blog I posted it in, this one, or my blog on reviving our old beliefs, practices, and on our general mythologies and folklore at @diwatahan​. Also its an old list that needed to be updated and corrected so I guess it gives me an opportunity to make another one. :)

But here is my complete list on them based on historical research, not modern takes on it. This list is from my notes for my book I am still currently writing and researching for. Any modern deities from recent stories such as Lidaga, Lihangin, Lisuga, etc. are not included on this list as there is not one mention of them in any of the oldest dictionaries or in any historical record accept in the 1900′s particularly during the U.S. colonial period and after and thus based on historical research, they weren’t traditionally worshiped. However this doesn’t mean they aren’t deities as some may just be but never mentioned in historical texts and only known orally, but for the purpose of listing all the deities that were believed and worshiped prior to the Spaniards I have excluded them from the list. I try to put info on each deity as much as possible based on what was written on them but there are a few who are only briefly mentioned in passing either with just the name of the deity alone or the name and the attribute they were known for.

Also note there are other Bisayan deities not listed here that are known to the Sulod of Panay island with the exception of Laon Sina/Alunsina as she was a prominent goddess known throughout the Bisayas. The deities known by the Sulod may possibly be deities that were known by the other ethnic groups in the West Bisayas and elsewhere in the region under different names locally but I have not looked into that intensively and done enough research on that subject so I have left those deities out of this list.

This is a pretty long list so I have cut it off here for those who don’t want to scroll so much on their dash. To read the entire list just press keep reading. 

Anyway I hope this helps all those who are interested in our mythologies and folklore, whether from mere curiosity, for the sake of creating art, or to actually join the movement of reviving our precolonial beliefs and practices to the modern day.

Keep reading

welcome to the currylangs project!

as speakers of south asian languages, we’ve noticed that a lot of south asian languages don’t tend to have proper, comprehensive, easy to understand or recent guides, with a lot of grammar books dating to pre-colonial india.

and so, in order to help those of south asian heritage, or those interested in our languages to learn them, we’ve started this project

so far languages we have lessons planned for:
bengali - by sushi, @language-of-color
tamil - by meera @asspiratedconsonant
hindi - by both mino and amber @speakswithbutterflies
malayalam - by mrin @notyetapolyglot
urdu - by mino @pakistanipolyglot
kannada - by lisa

If you would like to volunteer with a language that is not listed here, kinda PM us!

Difference between Congo, Bakongo and Kongo...

[This is obviously directed at those who write in English when talking about the two Congos and the Bakongo.]

Congo: 

  • The term Congo can refer to the Congo river and also Congo rain forest
  • The term also refers to two different countries:

1) The Republic of the Congo (aka ROC, Congo-Brazzaville) previously known as French Congo and The People’s Republic of the Congo  

2) The Democratic Republic of the Congo (aka Congo-Kinshasa DR Congo, DRC, RDC, Zaïre - yes some people still call it Zaïre even Congolese people) previously known as Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville), Republic of Zaire 

[These two countries are not the same, we were never one. Just because we share a pre colonial history, a few ethnic groups and cultures doesn’t mean we’re the same. We also share those things with Angola, South Sudan, Tanzania, Zambia etc as well, so saying we’re the same just because of those things doesn’t make sense. My ethnic groups has more in common with people from Tanzania and Zambia than ROC, because we share a lot of cultural similarities and history with ethnic groups from those two countries]

Congolese

  • People who are Congolese are those either from the Democratic Republic of Congo or Republic of Congo.  

[As I said, some people from the Democratic Republic of Congo still refer to the country as Zaïre and themselves as Zarian or Zaïroise/Zaïrois. I still get called Zaïroise by other Congolese people and other Africans because I was born before the country changed its name to DRC]

Kongo:

  • The term refers to the pre colonial kingdom (Kongo Kingdom) in what is now northern Angola, Cabinda (which is a province of Angola but located between DRC and ROC), southern  Republic of the Congo, western  Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Kongo also refers to the Kongo aka Bakongo and Kongolese. This is not a tribe (learn the difference between tribe and ethnic group) Bakongo are an ethnic group and there are tribes who are part of the Bakongo for example the Vili, Yombe or Lumbo etc 
  • Kongo can also refer to the language of the Bakongo aka Kikongo and also Kituba
  • It can also refer to the two modern day countries, depends in which language you write in 

Few facts:

  • Kongo/Bakongo means fighters (or warriors)
  • The Kongo Kingdom was the first pre colonial Christian (specifically Catholic) Kingdom in Central Africa. Not the whole of African, because the was other pre colonial Christian African Kingdoms
  • A new movement of Catholicism was created within the kingdom by prophetess Beatriz Kimpa Vita called Antonianism. Even after she was martyred and the new sect was suppressed, Antonianism is still practiced by people today particularly the Bakongo
  • Traditional Kongo (Bakongo) religion still existed in the Kingdom and its still practiced today.Kongo religion along with Kongo Catholicism has influenced Haitian Voudou, Quimbanda (an Afro-Brazilian religion) and other religions of the African diaspora
  • Many Bakongo were taken to Cuba, Haiti, the US, Brazil and others

resource: 1,2,3,4

(I might have missed a few points tell me if I did)

Amrita Sher-Gil (1913-1941) born to a Punjabi Sikh father and Hungarian Jewish mother is among the pioneering artists of the 20th century modern art. A highly eminent painter she is often regarded as ‘India’s Frida Kahlo’. Adopting the role of both muse and maker she depicted the plight of women and the troubling poverty in Indian society. She expresses her deep concern for this through the use of symbols of the human condition in her work. Although her life was short-lived, she left a prolific and riveting oeuvre/ body of art. Combining her distinctive post-impressionist style with her experiences and influences of her surroundings she quickly became one of the most gifted artists the pre colonial era produced. Through her defiance against social roles and norms Amrita inspired women to play a more prominent function in the art world.

6

There were many other Kingdoms in Africa, not just the Kingdom of Egypt, that are worthy of praise and honour. Indeed, Egypt played a great role in civilization, but it was only one of many on the continent.  Below are few of the many greats:

While Europe was experiencing its Dark Ages, a period of intellectual, cultural and economic regression from the sixth to the 13th centuries, Africans were experiencing an almost continent-wide renaissance after the decline of the Nile Valley civilizations of Egypt and Nubia.

The leading civilizations of this African rebirth were the Axum Empire, the Kingdom of Ghana, the Mali Empire, the Songhai Empire, the Ethiopian Empire, the Mossi Kingdoms and the Benin Empire.

Axum Empire

The Aksum or Axum Empire was an important military power and trading nation in the area that is now Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, existing from approximately 100 to 940 A.D.

At its height, it was one of only four major international superpowers of its day along with Persia, Rome and China. Axum controlled northern Ethiopia, Eritrea, northern Sudan, southern Egypt, Djibouti, Western Yemen, and southern Saudi Arabia, totaling 1.25 million square kilometers, almost half the size of India. Axum traded and projected its influence as far as China and India, where coins minted in Axum were discovered in 1990.

Axum was previously thought to have been founded by Semitic-speaking Sabaeans who crossed the Red Sea from South Arabia (modern Yemen) on the basis of Conti Rossini’s theories —but most scholars now agree that when it was founded it was an indigenous African development.

Kingdom of Ghana

Centered in what is today Senegal and Mauritania, the Kingdom of Ghana dominated West Africa between about 750 and 1078 A.D. Famous to North Africans as the “Land of Gold,” Ghana was said to possess sophisticated methods of administration and taxation, large armies, and a monopoly over notoriously well-concealed gold mines.

The king of the Soninke people who founded Ghana never fully embraced Islam, but good relations with Muslim traders were fostered. Ancient Ghana derived power and wealth from gold and the use of the camel increased the quantity of goods that were transported. One Arab writer, Al-Hamdani, describes Ghana as having the richest gold mines on Earth. Ghana was also a great military power. According to one narrative, the king had at his command 200,000 warriors and an additional 40,000 archers.

Mali Empire

After the fall of the Kingdom of Ghana, the Mali Empire rose to dominate West Africa. Located on the Niger River to the west of Ghana in what is today Niger and Mali, the empire reached its peak in the 1350s.

The Mali Empire was founded by Mansa (King) Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Mansa Musa. He was the grandson of Sundiata’s half-brother, and led Mali at a time of great prosperity, during which trade tripled. During his rule, Mansa Musa doubled the land area of Mali; it became a larger kingdom than any in Europe at the time.

The cities of Mali became important trading centers for all of West Africa, as well as famous centers of wealth, culture and learning. Timbuktu, an important city in Mali, became one of the major cultural centers not only of Africa but of the entire world. Vast libraries and Islamic universities were built. These became meeting places of the finest poets, scholars and artists of Africa and the Middle East.

The Kingdom of Mali had a semi-democratic government with one of the world’s oldest known constitutions – The Kurukan Fuga.

The Kurukan Fuga of the Mali Empire was created after 1235 by an assembly of nobles to create a government for the newly established empire.  The Kurukan Fouga divided the new empire into ruling clans that were represented at a great assembly called the Gbara. The Gbara was the deliberative body of the Mali Empire and was made up of 32 members from around 29 clans. They were given a voice in the government and were a check against the emperor’s (mansa’s) power. It was presided over by a belen-tigui (master of ceremonies) who recognized anyone who wanted to speak including the mansa. The Gbara and the Kurukan Fuga remained in place for over 40o years until 1645.

According to Wikipedia, Disney’s “Lion King” movie was based on the real life narrative of Mansa Sundiata Keita.

Songhai Empire

The Songhai Empire, also known as the Songhay Empire, was the largest state in African history and the most powerful of the medieval west African states. It expanded rapidly beginning with King Sonni Ali in the 1460s and by 1500s, it had risen to stretch from Cameroon to the Maghreb. In 1360, disputes over succession weakened the Mali Empire, and in the 1430s, Songhai, previously a Mali dependency, gained independence under the Sonni Dynasty. Around thirty years later, Sonni Sulayman Dama attacked Mema, the Mali province west of Timbuktu, paving the way for his successor, Sonni Ali, to turn his country into one of the greatest empires sub-Saharan Africa has ever seen.

Perhaps, it’s most popular leader was Muhammad Askia the Great. At its peak, the Songhai city of Timbuktu became a thriving cultural and commercial center. Arab, Italian and Jewish merchants all gathered for trade. By 1500, the Songhai Empire covered over 1.4 million square kilometers.

The Ethiopian Empire

The Ethiopian Empire also known as Abyssinia, covered a geographical area that the present-day northern half of Ethiopia covers. It existed from approximately 1137 (beginning of Zagwe Dynasty) until 1975 when the monarchy was overthrown in a coup d’état.  In 1270, the Zagwe dynasty was overthrown by a king claiming lineage from the Aksumite emperors and, hence, Solomon. The thus-named Solomonic Dynasty was founded and ruled by the Habesha, from whom Abyssinia gets its name.

The Habesha reigned with only a few interruptions from 1270 until the late 20th century. It was under this dynasty that most of Ethiopia’s modern history occurred. During this time, the empire conquered and incorporated virtually all the peoples within modern Ethiopia. They successfully fought off Italian, Arab and Turkish armies and made fruitful contacts with some European powers, especially the Portuguese, with whom they allied in battle against the latter two invaders.

Mossi Kingdoms

The Mossi Kingdoms were a number of different powerful kingdoms in modern-day Burkina Faso which dominated the region of the Upper Volta River for hundreds of years. Increasing power of the Mossi kingdoms resulted in larger conflicts with regional powers. The Kingdom of Yatenga became a key power attacking the Songhai Empire between 1328 and 1477, taking over Timbuktu and sacked the important trading post of Macina.

When Askia Mohammad I became the leader of the Songhai Empire with the desire to spread Islam, he waged a Holy war against the Mossi kingdoms in 1497. Although the Mossi forces were defeated in this effort, they resisted attempts to impose Islam. Although there were a number of jihad states in the region trying to forcibly spread Islam, namely the Massina Empire and the Sokoto Caliphate, the Mossi kingdoms largely retained their traditional religious and ritual practices. Being located near many of the main Islamic states of West Africa, the Mossi kingdoms developed a mixed religious system recognizing some authority for Islam while retaining earlier African spiritual belief systems.

Benin Empire

Once a powerful city-state, Benin exists today as a modern African city in what is now south-central Nigeria. The present-day oba (King) of Benin traces the founding of his dynasty to A.D. 1300. The Benin Empire was a pre-colonial Edo state. Until the late 19th century, it was one of the major powers in West Africa. According to one eye witness report written by Olfert Dapper, “The King of Benin can in a single day make 20,000 men ready for war, and, if need be, 180,000, and because of this he has great influence among all the surrounding peoples… . His authority stretches over many cities, towns and villages. There is no King thereabouts who, in the possession of so many beautiful cities and towns, is his equal.”

When European merchant ships began to visit West Africa from the 15th century onwards, Benin came to control the trade between the inland peoples and the Europeans on the coast. When the British tried to expand their own trade in the 19th century, the Benin warriors killed their envoys.

Source: http://atlantablackstar.com/2013/12/05/7-midieval-african-kingdoms/4/

Before Tattoos and piercings, the Amasunzu hairstyle was the epitome of individuality in Rwanda. Mother always scolded my brothers into cutting off their hair once their beautiful coils started to sprout from the scalp. I think as a child, I bought into the ill-education that ‘’real men’’ should not grow out their hair. Dreadlocks were for the ‘’no good-doers’’ and one millimetre hair peaking on bold were for the ‘’focused’’, goal achievers. Guys, hair is really political. Why do we call our own hairstyles/customs pagan while giving foreigners the holy badge? Even though this look was worn during the pre-colonial times in Africa, to me, this look also reverberates into afro-futuristic elements that I completely adore.

I don’t really post my thoughts on tumblr but I’ve been doing a good amount of research into modern South Asia and I just gotta talk about it, particularly Swami Vivekananda who I have rediscovered in a secular context during my studies.

Swami Vivekananda is a severely underutilized resource by leftists, outside the Vedantan and Hindutva traditions he is basically unheard of, which really is a shame. His perception of spiritual capacity as innate to all people and not determined by caste, faith or ethnicity was huge in its effect on the 19th century Hindu reform movements as well as the struggle against colonialism and caste discrimination, particularly the Dalit rights movement.

His rejection of colonialism using a syncretism of native Hindu thought and anti-capitalist thought influenced the majority of Indian nationalist and revolutionary thinkers and helped recover the intellectual confidence of an entire group of colonized peoples, while also remaining critical of the deep inequalities of pre-colonial Indian society and promoting a programme of the liquidation of privileges of the propertied classes and giving the toilers their due share in the national wealth.

He, in the 1890s, predicted and supported Sudra(workers/peasants) revolutions but said that Marx was wrong in where they would happen. Saying that instead of in industrialized Western European states, that sudras/workers would seize power in either Russia or China first.

In 1893 he was a delegate for Hinduism at the world parliament of religions, which in many respects was a convention influenced in equal parts by western Christian chauvinism and orientalism; the intent being to put a series of foreign religions on display and then debated into submission by westerners. But he spoke so convincingly and well that he essentially leveled the playing field and allowed for a degree of authentic interfaith dialogue at a conference designed to assert Christianity as dominant.

The intellectual and revolutionary history of India is so remarkably rich and so often ignored. Leftists tend to see India as only Gandhi, Nehru and the Naxals but thinkers like Vivekananda offer valuable historical, theological and ideological insights and contributions not only to our understanding of modern India but the effects of colonization on people’s identities, religious and social practices as well as society as a whole. Everyone from Hindutva nationalists to the Gandhians to the various Communist Parties of India hail him as a revolutionary thinker and the base of their respective ideologies.

Modern leftists should really utilize his socio-political works, as his philosophical contributions were central in the foundations of one of the largest and most impactful anti-colonial struggles in history. The CPI stated, “That there is enough food and ammunition in Vivekananda’s works to last all who are searching for India’s social, cultural and spiritual development.” Vivekananda was a revolutionary, a socialist and a proponent of state secularism, while also being a key figure in reforming Hinduism and Vedanta towards social action and inclusivity. His influences can be found in nearly every contemporary Indian political movement. I would go as far as saying that Vivekananda’s impact on South Asian intellectualism and philosophy is similar to that of Kant’s impact on the development of western philosophy, in that almost every thinker and intellectual movement after him is either based on or addresses Vivekananda’s works on spirituality, humanism, nation, and ethics.

siliquasquama があなたの投稿に返信しました “since the algonqian speakers of the connecticut river valley practiced…”

If that be true, then there’s more woods around here NOW than there was in 1619.

yeah theres actually a little bit more forest now than there was like 100 years ago because people have been farming less, which leads to unmaintained land being reclaimed by forest.

but i still think that the british and americans farmed more extensively and destructively than the algonqian speakers

so in other words there was still probably a lot more forest in pre-colonial times than there is now, but it still wasn’t ~untamed pristine wilderness~ either since people were still living there and maintaining it, just in a much less destructive way

and ~untamed pristine wilderness~ is such a bad way of thinking about land anyway imo

Kuelap, Peru - The Ancient Cloud Fortress of the Amazonas

The fortress of Kuelap is a walled city associated with the Chachapoyas culture built in 6th century AD. It consists of more than four hundred buildings surrounded by massive exterior stone walls. The complex is situated on a ridge overlooking the Utcubamba Valley in northern Peru at 3000 metres above sea level, judging from its sheer size, Kuelap’s construction required considerable effort, rivaling or surpassing in size other archaeological structures in the Americas. The structure is almost 600 metres in length and its walls rise up to 19 metres in height. There are multiple levels or platforms within the complex. Because of its extension, these flat elevations support about 400 constructions, most of them cylindrical. It could have been built to defend against the Huari or others, but evidence of hostile groups at the site is minimal.
Radiocarbon dating samples show that construction of the structures started in the 6th century AD and the complex was occupied until the Early Colonial period (1532-1570). Through the pre-Columbian, conquest and colonial periods, there are only four brief written references to Kuelap.
It was rediscovered in 1843, when Juan Crisóstomo Nieto, a judge in Chachapoyas, made a survey of the area and took note of Kuelap’s great size; he was guided by villagers who had known of the site for generations. Subsequently, Kuelap gained the attention of explorers, historians and archaeologists.
Regarding the function of Kuelap, there is not a scholarly consensus. Popularly it is thought of as a “fortress”, because of its location and the high walls which support its primary level. Adolf Bandelier and especially Louis Langlois tried to demonstrate that Kuelap might have been a fortified place destined to serve as a refuge for the population in emergency situations. They attributed to it, probably by analogy, the same function as medieval European boroughs.
The high walls that cover the outer surfaces of the platform, and the tightness of the access to the citadel in its final stretch, suggest that the monument of Kuelap could be constructed as having a defensive character, or at least that it provided a refuge that was protected against intruders. It likely also had religious or sacred function.
This way, taking into consideration the function served by the monumental architecture in the Peruvian archaeological past in general, the same one that was related to the socioeconomic needs, it can be concluded that Kuelap could be basically a pre-Inca sanctuary. A powerful aristocracy lived in it, whose primary mission was to administer food production and provide religious leadership. [x]